QUALITY MANAGEMENT/SYSTEMS and SIX SIGMA

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QUALITY MANAGEMENT/SYSTEMS and SIX SIGMA

  1. 1. <ul><li>EVOLUTION OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT/SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>MIL-Q-9858 (9 April 1959) </li></ul><ul><li>1960’s and 1970’s </li></ul><ul><li>“ IF JAPAN CAN, WHY CAN’T WE ?” </li></ul><ul><li>1987 </li></ul><ul><li>ADVANCED PRACTICES AND SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>SIX SIGMA AND ITS DIRECTIVES </li></ul>QUALITY MANAGEMENT/SYSTEMS AND SIX SIGMA
  2. 2. <ul><li>Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Craftsmanship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taylor System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspection Departments </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical Quality Control (SQC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability and Sample Inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shewhart Control Charts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World War II and the Quality Movement </li></ul>EVOLUTION OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT/SYSTEMS
  3. 3. <ul><li>1.2 Contractual Intent </li></ul><ul><li>This specification requires the establishment of a </li></ul><ul><li>quality program by the contractor to assure compliance </li></ul><ul><li>with the requirements of this contract. The program </li></ul><ul><li>and procedures used to implement this specification </li></ul><ul><li>shall be developed by the contractor. </li></ul><ul><li>QUALITY PROGRAM MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>FACILITIES AND STANDARDS </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROL OF PURCHASES </li></ul><ul><li>MANUFACTURING CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>COORDINATED GOVERNMENT/CONTRACTOR </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIONS </li></ul>MIL-Q-9858 (9 April 1959)
  4. 4. <ul><li>Ship --- ship --- ship </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metrology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The good practices are dying </li></ul>1960’s and 1970’s
  5. 5. <ul><li>Chain Reaction: Quality, Productivity, </li></ul><ul><li>Lower costs, Capture the Market </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. losing: TV’s, camera’s, IC’s, steel, </li></ul><ul><li>textiles, shoes, automobiles, etc. </li></ul>“If Japan Can, Why Can’t We?”
  6. 6. A B C D Suppliers of materials and equipment Receipt and test of materials Production, assembly, inspection Distribution Design and redesign Consumer research Consumers “ Out of The Crisis”, W. Edwards Deming, 1982 Quality Management System
  7. 7. Deming Juran Crosby Feigenbaum Ishikawa The Early Guru’s
  8. 8. <ul><li>THE DOD AND TOTAL QUALITY </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT (TQM) </li></ul><ul><li>MALCOLM BALDRIGE NATIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>QUALITY AWARD </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 9000 INTERNATIONAL QUALITY </li></ul><ul><li>STANDARDS </li></ul>1987 - The Pivotal Year
  9. 9. Quality Productivity Lower Costs Stay in Business <ul><li>Deming’s 14 Points </li></ul><ul><li>Crosby - “Quality is Free” </li></ul><ul><li>Juran - Breakthrough Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Xerox - Benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Taguchi - Loss Function </li></ul><ul><li>Motorola - Six sigma </li></ul>U. S. Chain Reaction
  10. 10. THE EARLY DAYS OF MOTOROLA’S SIX SIGMA Q Q Q 1/1/87 1/1/89 1/1/91 10X 100X <ul><li>Key Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Global Market Share </li></ul><ul><li>Best-in-Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>product/service </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Total Cycle Time Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Product and Manufacturing Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Profit Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Participative Management within, and </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation between Organizations </li></ul>KEY INITIATIVES
  12. 12. <ul><li>Sigma is a measure of “goodness: the capability </li></ul><ul><li>of a process to produce perfect work. </li></ul><ul><li>A “defect” is any mistake that results in customer </li></ul><ul><li>dissatisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Sigma indicates how often defects are likely to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the sigma level, the lower the defect rate. </li></ul><ul><li>The lower the defect rate, the higher the quality. </li></ul>WHAT IS SIX SIGMA
  13. 13. <ul><li>Sigma allows comparison of products and services </li></ul><ul><li>of varying complexity on an apples to apples basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, it provides a common basis for benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>(competitors and non-competitors). </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the sigma level, the better your operation </li></ul><ul><li>is performing. </li></ul><ul><li>Sigma measures how well you’re doing in getting </li></ul><ul><li>to zero defects. </li></ul>WHY HAVE “SIGMA” AS A QUALITY MEASURE?
  14. 14. Number of defects per million opportunities for error Associated sigma level 66,810 3.0 22,750 3.5 6,210 4.0 1,350 4.5 233 5.0 32 5.5 3.4 6.0 OPPORTUNITIES FOR ERROR AT VARIOUS SIGMA LEVELS
  15. 15. 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Average Company Best-in-Class
  16. 16. Step1: Identify the product you create or the service you provide. Step2: Identify the Customer(s) for your product or service and determine what they consider important. Step3: Identify your needs (to provide product/service so that it satisfies the Customer). Step4: Define the process for doing the work. Step5: Mistake-proof the process and eliminate wasted effort. Step6: Ensure continuous improvement by measuring, analyzing, and controlling the improved process. SIX STEPS TO SIX SIGMA
  17. 17. Human Resources: reduce the number of requisitions unfilled after 30 days. Customer Service: measure the number of calls answered on the first ring. Engineering Support: reduce the number of schematics returned because of drafting errors Order Fulfillment: eliminate Customer returns because of incorrect parts or product being shipped. Finance: reduce the instances of accounts being paid after a specified time limit has elapsed. POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS
  18. 18. &quot;NORMAL&quot; DISTRIBUTION CURVE        68.26 percent 95.46 percent 99.73 percent MM74
  19. 20. u-6  u-5  u-4  u-3  u-2  u-1  s u u+1  u+2  s u+3  u+4  u+5  u+6  68.26% 95.44% 99.73% 99.993% 99.999943% 99.999998%
  20. 21. <ul><li>Craftsmen </li></ul><ul><li>self-inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Departments </li></ul><ul><li>Mil Q 9858 A </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Program </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 9000 International </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Automotive Ind. </li></ul><ul><li>QS 9000 </li></ul><ul><li>Aerospace Ind. </li></ul><ul><li>AS 9000 </li></ul><ul><li>Boeing AQS </li></ul><ul><li>D1 9000 </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Deming Award </li></ul><ul><li>Malcolm Baldrige </li></ul><ul><li>National Quality Award </li></ul><ul><li>UK Quality System </li></ul><ul><li>BS 5750 </li></ul>Product and Service Excellence <ul><li>Motorola’s </li></ul><ul><li>Six Sigma </li></ul>Quality Systems and Practices ADVANCED PRACTICES AND SYSTEMS
  21. 22. <ul><li>IPPD/IPT </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Function Deployment (QFD) </li></ul><ul><li>Robust Design </li></ul><ul><li>Design of Experiments (DOE) </li></ul><ul><li>Failure Mode and Effects Analysis(FMEA) </li></ul><ul><li>Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) </li></ul><ul><li>Loss Function </li></ul><ul><li>Key Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement System Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Variability Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical Process Control </li></ul><ul><li>Process Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Lean Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing </li></ul>Advanced Practices in Design and Development, and Manufacturing
  22. 23. <ul><li>LEADERSHIP COMMITMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MANAGING WITH DATA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design-measure-analyze-improve-control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TRAINING AND CULTURAL CHANGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated business strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on career paths </li></ul></ul>SIX SIGMA AND BREAKTHROUGH STRATEGY Tenets
  23. 24. <ul><li>Core and enabling processes </li></ul><ul><li>Process 0wners </li></ul><ul><li>Metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerated improvement cycle time </li></ul>SIX SIGMA TRAINING AND APPLICATION
  24. 25. <ul><li>Reengineering </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Team leader/facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical tools </li></ul>PROCESS TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

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