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  • Audience is expected to be knowledgeable in SW Eng’g
  • To appreciate CMM, one of the first aspect is to understand the differences between Immaturity and Maturity in terms of process improvement. An immature organisational unit is typified by: Reactionary + improvisation by local heros + no objective way to judge product quality or process problems. A mature oganisational unit possess an organisation-wide ability to manage development and maintenance typified: Adherence to defined processes + monitoring / tracking of product / process quality + objective / quantitative base for judging product and analysing process problems.
  • L 1 IN OUT L2 Ad Hoc Project Management L3 Project Mgmt Integrated Engineering Process L4 Integrated Eng’g Pro Pdt & Process Quality L5 Pdt & Process Q CPI IN OUT IN OUT IN OUT IN OUT
  • One of the greatest claim by the maturity model is the significant impact of cost per unit of work decrease as maturity increases. The measures used are $pFP; $pKLOC and there are claims of 2x productivity increase for one jump in Maturity Level. Before we swallow these figures hook and sink - let us re-examine the claims: SEI report 94: Productivity gain of 35%(median); mainly as a result of re-work reduces MIEL experiences: L1 n/a L2 1.0 L3 0.8 Note: degrade then gain from L4 and L5 L4 2.3 L5 2.8 True costs are difficult - there are billable and un-billable time and most engineers work longer than expected, without recording so. Figure ties in with Indian experiences - 2x per even jump from L2 to L4 and single quantum jump from L4 - L5. Up to L3, experience the pain without the benefit is a more likely scenario. Indian experiences - 7 - 10 FP/mmonth. FP conversion using Programming Language Table from SPR, for Level 6 eg C++ or Java x 53LOC/FP.
  • A strong correlation and one perhaps over-sold by proponents of CMM - the ‘god’ is defect density typically represented by defects/KLOC; per MLOC and per FP. As process definition improved, controls adequately defined and executed, defects capture and removal improved. L5 companies typically can now confidently achieved: Defects per KLOC of between 0-0.4 d/KLOC 1.8d/7-8 FP Some are now using 6 Sigma to bring defects down further!
  • High correlation between CTR to build SW product and maturity level. MIEL experience suggest L1 - L2 gain of 3.2x; L2-L3 2.7x; L3-L4 5x and L4-L5 7.8x. My experience of Indian - most projects able to achieve +10% predictability in schedule variances but less successful on effort variances. The MIEL experiences also suggest similar outcomes - CTR gain but productivity loss form L2-L3. This is because as maturity level increases the following activities are emphasised: Improved phase-wise transition of deliverables or work products from task to task, phase to phase More early review and particularly inspections to detect defects. Phase wise defects detection efficiency defined, typically leading to > 90% cumulative targets Use of advanced tools to capture and track defects data and to report at project and across project levels. (In one very advanced tool, (Vision Compass), allows tracking of Corporate -> CMM KPA goals -> project team and project individual level on performances. The focus and expectations to search for root causes, and the means to analysis, learn and distribute learning to future projects has enabled this high correlation in high maturity organisations.
  • Customers are human and gets annoyed for various reasons - reaonably or otherwise. Most SW customers are dissatisfied by Inconsistency, Un-predictabability. Mature organisations are better at giving a greater degree of confidence in consistency and predictability - 2 key ingredients towards satisfying customer. Reasons: L1-L3 -> value from improved consistency (less variable as process gets defined and implemented) L4-L5 -> better value from reduced cycle time, costs and also maintained improved consistency and predictability. However - also I have seen level 5 companies varies greatly in the ability to retain or win customers. 1 Indian L5 has success of 80% repeat business Another L5 has only marginally success in winning at just over 20% of total bids!; but able to retain some 50% repeat business. Indian L4 and L5 companies has recorded impressive revenue streams - CAGR 60% NOT uncommon over the last few years. Companies like Infosys and Satyam now has 10000 and 8000 SW employees today and still recorded respectable EPS, CAGR, EBITs etc Customers are human and gets annoyed for various reasons - reaonably or otherwise. Most SW customers are dissatisfied by Inconsistency, Un-predictabability. Mature organisations are better at giving a greater degree of confidence in consistency and predictability - 2 key ingredients towards satisfying customer. Reasons: L1-L3 -> value from improved consistency (less variable as process gets defined and implemented) L4-L5 -> better value from reduced cycle time, costs and also maintained improved consistency and predictability. However - also I have seen level 5 companies varies greatly in the ability to retain or win customers. 1 Indian L5 has success of 80% repeat business Another L5 has only marginally success in winning at just over 20% of total bids!; but able to retain some 50% repeat business. Indian L4 and L5 companies has recorded impressive revenue streams - CAGR 60% NOT uncommon over the last few years. Companies like Infosys and Satyam now has 10000 and 8000 SW employees today and still recorded respectable EPS, CAGR, EBITs etc

ProcessFramework.ppt ProcessFramework.ppt Presentation Transcript

  • SOFTWARE PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION & IMPROVEMENT by Mitta Rout Capgemini - India
    • Understand the definition and need of process & quality
    • Understand the concepts of process frameworks/models like ISO, CMM, Six Sigma
    • Apply the rationale of process models to the business scenario
    SETTING EXPECTATION
    • PARTICIPANTS
      • Name
      • Experience
      • Knowledge of Quality / Process / Models
      • Your expectations
    • FACULTY
    FINDING THE STARTING..
    • FACULTY
      • Mita Rout (Head – QA, Capgemini – India)
      • 17 yrs. of s/w industry experience
        • SCQA, SEI trained Lead Assessor
        • Project execution, management, process implementation
        • Experience of over 10 CMM/CMMI assessments
        • Conducted tutorials and presented papers in international seminars in India, Asia Pacific & Europe
      • Help you to appreciate the benefits of process framework like CMM & learn from your sharing
    FINDING THE STARTING..
    • Movie clip on processes
  • What is Quality - A few definitions
    • Fitness for use or purpose (Juran)
    • Conformance to customer’s requirements (Philip Crosby)
    • A product possesses quality if it helps somebody and enjoys a good and sustainable market (Deming)
    • Quality is what your customer perceives it to be! (Anonymous)
  • Needs - A Moving Target!
    • Needs are not constant; they depend on
      • product’s ability to meet the expectations
      • Availability of alternative products
      • changes in technology, life-style, etc...
  • What suits one customer might not suit the next
    • Role play of SDLC process
  • TOOLS PEOPLE PROCEDURES & TASK RELATIONSHIPS INTEGRATE TO PRODUCE DESIRED END RESULTS Definition of Process INPUT OUTPUT PROCESS
  • High Level Process Architecture
    • Product oriented - inspect after production
    • Process oriented - inspect during production
    • System oriented - cross-functional process design and inspection
    • Human oriented - training in depth
    • Development oriented - new product development capability
    • Customer oriented - new customer understanding capability development
    Evolution of Quality Approaches
    • Software process development & maintenance methodologies are guided by
    • ISO (International Standard Organization)
    • CMM / CMMI (Capability Maturity Model – Integrated)
    • Six Sigma
    • ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library)
    • BS7799 (British Standard for Information security)
    • SAS70 (Statement of Audit standard)
    • Etc. etc….
    Process Models
  • CUSTOMER NEEDS Management Responsibility Product realization ISO: Quality Mgmt. System / Continual Improvement CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Measurement, analysis, improvement. Resource Mgmt.
  • BUSINESS RESULTS Customer Tracking Capability Development Listening to customers Preserving through operations what was heard Surveying capability building activities around the world and by competitors Building capabilities through process change, training Business Drivers
  • Capability Maturity Model -Integrated (CMMI) V1.1
    • Developed by :
    • Software Engineering Institute : Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    • Provides :
    • How to gain control of their processes for developing and maintaining software and how to evolve towards a culture of software engineering and management excellence
    • Based on CPI:
      • Based on many small, evolutionary steps rather than revolutionary innovations.
    • Foundation:
      • Each maturity level provides a layer in the foundation for continuous process improvement.
    • Priority Order:
      • The levels also help an organization prioritize its improvement efforts.
    • Guidelines:
      • A guide for evolving toward a culture of engineering excellence
    • Basis for Measurement:
      • The underlying structure for reliable and consistent software process assessments, software capability evaluations, and interim profiles
    Maturity Framework
  • CMMI – 5 Maturity Levels LEVEL 1 Initial LEVEL 2 Managed LEVEL 3 Defined LEVEL 4 Qnt.Managed LEVEL 5 Optimizing Can repeat previous task Focus on process improvement Process measured & controlled Process characterized & understood Disciplined process Consistent process Predictable process Continuously improving process
    • Requirements flow in - little control over inputs
    • A software product is (usually) produced. Visibility into the process is missing
    • The product flows out and (hopefully) works - little control over outputs
    Management View at Level 1 IN OUT
    • Performance driven by competence & heroics of the people doing the work
    • Consistency & compliance to standards driven by management priorities - usually schedule is top priority
    • High quality and exceptional performance possible so long as the best people can be hired
    • Unpredictability - for good or ill - characterizes the initial level organisation
    • Jobs may get done - but the costs in financial and human terms for both producers and users is too high
    Level 1 Environment
    • @ L1 (Little Control Over Inputs & Outputs) - hence fix:
      • Requirements Management
      • Software Quality Assurance
      • Software Configuration Management
    • Institute Project Management
      • sets expectation via policies
      • enable discipline project processes such that successful projects in terms of costs, schedule and meeting requirements are norm
    Transitioning L1 – L2
    • Management ‘walk the talk’
      • To initiate movement to L2
      • Management processes establish role models for SPI
      • Management & Processes discipline - empowers the engineering processes and the development staffs
      • Problems are NOT always technical - many projects failed for management reasons.
    Transitioning L1 – L2
  • Level 2 – 6 KPAs Software configuration management Software quality assurance Software subcontract management Software project tracking and oversight Software project planning Requirements management PROJECT MANAGEMENT AD HOC
    • Requirements and resources flow in
    • The production of the software product is visible at defined points
    • Artifacts of the process are controlled
    Management View of L2 IN OUT
    • At Level 2 , focus is on systematic management of projects
    • At Level 3 , focus shifts to the organization
    • common processes and measurements are established
    • best practices are recorded and used across the organization
    • processes are tailored, as appropriate from organizational procedures
    Moving From Level 2 To Level 3     
  • Level 3 - 7 KPAs Peer reviews Intergroup coordination Software product engineering Integrated software management Training program Organization process definition Organization process focus INTEGRATED SOFTWARE MANAGEMENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT
  • Management View of L3
    • Roles and responsibilities in the software processes are understood
    • Production of software product is visible throughout the software process
    IN OUT
  • Quantitatively Managed
    • At Level 3 , all the measurement parameters are defined and data are collected
    • At Level 4,
    • data are analyzed
    • decisions taken based
    • on data analysis
    Defined Moving From Level 3 To Level 4
  • Level 4 – 2 KPAs Software Quality Management Quantitative Process Management CONTROLLED PROCESS CONSISTENT PROCESS
    • PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM MODEL WITH FEEDBACK
    Quantitative Process Management The Way We Work Inputs Process/System Outputs Customers Voice of Customers SPC Changed needs People Technology Resources Environment Products or Services Voice Of The Process
    • QUALITY – ITS IMPORTANCE AND MEASUREMENT
    “ You may fool all the people some of the time; you can even fool some of the people all the time, but you can’t fool all of the people all the time ” - Abraham Lincoln What you can not measure, you can not control Software Quality Management
  • Quantitatively Managed
    • At Level 4 , processes are quantitatively controlled
    • At Level 5 ,
    • process capability is improved in a controlled
    • way
    • everyone is involved in process improvement
    • continuous improvement is way of life
    Optimizing Moving from Level 4 to Level 5
    • Control chart of process improvement
    Original zone of efficiency New zone of efficiency Dealing with Common causes of variation
  • Level 5 – 3 KPAs Process Change Management Technology Change Management Defect Prevention CONTINUOUSLY IMPROVING PROCESS CONTROLLED PROCESS
  • Technology Change – an Investment Time … Productivity.. Transition state Desired state Present state
    • Steps for Disciplined changes
    • Planning
    • Evaluating suggestion and taking action
    • Establishing process improvement teams
    • Conducting pilot run
    • Updating process and training
    Process Change management (PCM) PLAN ACT CHECK DO
    • FOR BUILDING EVER-IMPROVING CAPABILITY…
    • Join Hands in Process Improvement
    • Understand Purpose of Quality Procedure before following it
    • Procedures are owned by you
    • Procedures will improve quality of your work if they are defined for you,
    • Suggest improvements !!
    Level 5 – Not an End, But is a Foundation
  • Preparation Activity Evaluation Standards Results To produce To Forecast Input to To improve Input to Input to To improve Demonstrating 5 Levels
    • What is Sigma?
    Continuous Improvement - Six Sigma
    • Sigma is a statistical measure used to help measure, analyze, control and improve our project execution, processes and products.
    • A measure of “goodness” that shows the degree to which a product or project deliverable is free from defects.
    • Six Sigma quality represents very few defects given the complexity of the service or product.
    Continuous Improvement - Six Sigma
  • What is Six Sigma?
    • Philosophy and a Goal
    • Methodology
    • Symbol of quality
    • Usage of statistics to reduce variation
    • Excellence
    • “ For problem solving for improving organization’s bottom line and business goals”
  • Implementing Six Sigma (DMAIC)
    • D: Define projects, goals
    • M: Measure process (current performance)
    • A: Analyze process (to determine root causes)
    • I: Improve the process to eliminate defects
    • C: Control the performance
    • “ Integrates Juran, Deming and TQM principles”
  • Implementing Six Sigma: DFSS, DMADV
    • D: Define VOC / CTQ
    • M: Measure (Quantify CTQ, establish measurement systems)
    • A: Analyze (CTQ to Sub systems, derive targets, tolerances, Risk assessment)
    • D: Design process / product
    • V: Verify process / product
    • “ Integrates Juran, Deming and TQM principles”
    • Analogous to Engineering Life cycles
  • Mean and Standard Deviation
    • Mean (µ)
      • Average of Values (frequencies)
    • Standard Deviation (  )
      • Standard Deviation (how far values lie from the mean or average)
  • Formulas for Mean and Sigma
    • Mean (µ)
    • Sigma (  )
     (X i -  ) 2  = N  =  (X i ) N
    • Value of Process Improvement
  • Expectations IMMATURE SITUATION PERFORMANCE EVA IVA CAPABILTY MATURITY EXPECTATIONS MATURITY
    • SPI occurs within the context of:
      • the organization's strategic plans
      • its business objectives
      • its social and work culture
      • its organizational structure
      • the technologies in use
      • its management & value system
    • SPI is a systematic, collaborative method to evolve the way software work is organised and performed
    Software Process Improvement
  • Out In 1 2 3 4 5 Probability Time/$/... Target N N+a N-x N-y N-z Levels Management---------------Project
  • EVA 1 – Cost to do Work 5 4 3 2 1 TIME MATURITY COST TO DO WORK
  • EVA 2 – Defects Level 5 4 3 2 1 TIME MATURITY DEFECTS RATES / LEVEL
  • EVA 3 – Cycle Time 5 4 3 2 1 TIME MATURITY CYCLE TIME
  • EVA 4 – Customer Satisfaction 5 4 3 2 1 TIME CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
  • IVA 1 – CMM & Job Satisfaction 5 4 3 2 1 TIME JOB SATISFACTION
  • IVA 2 – CMM & Change Adoption 5 4 3 2 1 TIME WILLINGNESS TO EMBRACE CHANGE
  • IVA 3 – CMM & Collective Learning 5 4 3 2 1 TIME COLLECTIVE LEARNING & SHARING
  • Benefits : to different stakeholders Client Organization Investors Helps in driving Vision   Meet or Exceed expectations    Client Satisfaction or Delight    Competitiveness   Cycle time    Productivity    Profitability   Post release defects    Quality Culture   Continuous improvement   
  • ORIENTATION PROGRAM
    • Why Quality Management
    • is important to our organization
  • Emphasis on Early Detection Development and Implementation Operations Code User Acceptance When Defect is discovered Roll-Out Build Functional Testing User Acceptance x10 x100 Relative Cost To Correct Defects (exponential growth) Review Focus Areas: Strategy, Process, Estimation , Plans, Environment, Standards, Requirements, Architectures, Designs, Test Plans, Test Scripts, Code Components, Migration Plans etc. Exponential cost of not conducting upfront ‘Peer Review’ (prior to Testing) Metrics Collection Activities: Process Tailoring, Project Tracking, Management Reviews, Peer Review, Testing, and Client Satisfaction Survey Stress Testing x1 Requirements Analysis Design Design
  • Some ripple effect facts of low-sigma performance
    • A dissatisfied customer will tell nine to ten people about an unhappy experience, even more people if the problem is not serious
    • The same customer will only tell five people if a problem is handled satisfactorily
    • Thirty-one percent of customers who experience service problems never register complaints, because it is “too much trouble”, there is no easy channel of communication, or because they believe that no one cares
    • Of that 31 percentage, as few as 9 percent will do additional business with company
    • As customers get more and more demanding and impatient, these high levels of defects put a company in serious risk
    • Value for money
      • Consistency & predictability of service
        • On time delivery
          • Improved metrics driven Project planning & tracking
          • Estimation process stabilized
          • Productivity increased
        • Lower defects
        • Lower reworks
        • Ability to adapt to newer technology
        • Ability to adapt to shorter duration projects
        • Ability to manage the impact of attrition ……
    Higher Maturity….Benefits to Customer
    • Improved customer satisfaction
      • Through consistent & predictable delivery
    • Ability to help customers in planning
    • Ability to motivate people to perform better
      • Able to confront/support views with data
      • Defect prevention
      • productivity improvement
      • Sleepless nights have reduced for technical persons
    • Quality has moved from preaching to practicing in major part of the organization
    The Benefits – to the organization Basics are not questioned anymore
  • … Benefits to individual
    • Enhances team working conditions as each member becomes more reliable
    • Shorter learning curves as experiences are recorded and lessons learnt taught to newcomers
    • Personal satisfaction in improved performance and relationships with other team members
    G
    • Thank You