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  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005 When we start thinking of IT as a Service, then we start thinking about how do we manage it better. Say “what are we trying to achieve overall?” Rather than “what does this team do?”
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005 ITIL is a framework for defining processes for running IT Production. Use the Concepts of Maturity to assess how well you are doing. COBIT is a valuable auditing approach. Improve the Processes with Six Sigma. Use LEAN techniques to eliminate Waste. And consider the MOPS approach to address some of the technical sides of IT management.
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005 ITIL was conceived by the British Government who approached various organisations and experts to write the books which were originally published in the 1980s. Goes back to 1989 and CCTA These were revised in 2001 and 2002, and the library has expanded in scope since then. The latest version was published in 2007 and represents a significant re-write. The focus was on IT as a SERVICE in version 2, on IT VALUE ADD in version 3.
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005 As mentioned, the key volumes are SERVICE DELIVERY and SERVICE SUPPORT. They are often what is called “Core ITIL”. Most people, when they talk about ITIL, are thinking of these two books only, and the chapters in them. So, when we talk about ITIL, we need to understand what is meant by these 11 topics.
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005 CMMI was created by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University in 1991, and is the successor of the CMM. The CMM was developed from 1987 until 1997. In 2002, CMMI Version 1.1 was released. Version 1.2 followed in August 2006. The goal of the CMMI project is to improve the usability of maturity models by integrating many different models into one framework. It was created by members of industry, government and the SEI. The main sponsors included the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and the National Defense Industrial Association. An organization is appraised (e.g., using an appraisal method like SCAMPI) and is awarded a 1-5 level rating. The rating results of such an appraisal can be published if released by the appraised organization.
  • Distinction between level 2 and level 3 is the scope of standards, process descriptions, and procedures. At level 2, the standards, process descriptions, and procedures may be quite different in each specific instance of the process. At level 3, processes are tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes to suit a particular project or organizational unit. Distinctionbetween maturity level 3 and maturity level 4 is the predictability of process performance . At maturity level 3, processes are only qualitatively predictable. At maturity level 4, the performance of processes is controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques. Distinction between maturity level 4 and maturity level 5 is the type of process variation addressed . At maturity level 5, processes are concerned with addressing common causes of process variation and changing the process to improve process. Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Examples: TS: The purpose of Technical Solution (TS) is to design, develop, and implement solutions to requirements. DAR: The purpose of Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. CAR: The purpose of Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) is to identify causes of defects and other problems and take action to prevent them from occurring in the future. Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Examples: IPM: The purpose of Integrated Project Management +IPPD (IPM) is to establish and manage the project and the involvement of the relevant stakeholders according to an integrated and defined process that is tailored from the organization's set of standard processes. IPPD: IPPD Addition: SG 3 Apply IPPD Principles, SP 3.1 Establish the Project’s Shared Vision, SP 3.2 Establish the Integrated Team Structure , SP 3.3 Allocate Requirements to Integrated Teams, SP 3.4 Establish Integrated Teams, SP 3.5 Ensure Collaboration among Interfacing Teams. OPP: The purpose of Organizational Process Performance (OPP) is to establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organization's set of standard processes in support of quality and process-performance objectives, and to provide the process-performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organization's projects. Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • ITIL 3 covers “maturity” in a similar way, Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • COBIT is a set of best practices (framework) for information technology (IT) management created by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA), and the IT Governance Institute (ITGI) in 1992. COBIT provides managers, auditors, and IT users with a set of generally accepted measures, indicators, processes and best practices to assist them in maximizing the benefits derived through the use of information technology and developing appropriate IT governance and control in a company. The first edition of COBIT was published in 1996. The second edition, in 1998, added Management Guidelines. The third edition was released in 2000, and the fourth edition was released in December 2005, being revised and receiving the 4.1 edition in May 2007. COBIT Version 4 has significant advantages over COBIT 3 by consolidating most of the separate books into a single volume for ease of use. Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • COBIT was first released in 1996. Its mission is “to research, develop, publicize and promote an authoritative, up-to-date, international set of generally accepted information technology control objectives for day-to-day use by business managers and auditors.” Managers, auditors, and users benefit from the development of COBIT because it helps them understand their IT systems and decide the level of security and control that is necessary to protect their companies’ assets through the development of an IT governance model. Public companies that are subject to the U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 are encouraged to adopt COBIT Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Planning and Organization covers the use of information & technology and how best it can be used in a company to help achieve the company’s goals and objectives. It also highlights the organizational and infrastructural form IT is to take in order to achieve the optimal results and to generate the most benefits from the use of IT. Acquire and Implement covers identifying IT requirements, acquiring the technology, and implementing it within the company’s current business processes. This also addresses the development of a maintenance plan that a company should adopt in order to prolong the life of an IT system and its components. Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Delivery and Support focuses on the delivery aspects of the information technology. It covers areas such as the execution of the applications within the IT system and its results, as well as, the support processes that enable the effective and efficient execution of these IT systems. These support processes include security issues and training. Monitoring and Evaluation deals with a company’s strategy in assessing ... whether or not the current IT system still meets the objectives for which it was designed and the controls necessary to comply with regulatory requirements. Monitoring also covers the issue of an independent assessment of the effectiveness of IT system in its ability to meet business objectives and the company’s control processes by internal and external auditors. Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005 Six Sigma is both a mathematical concept and a process improvement methodology. Six Sigma is a set of practices originally developed by Motorola to systematically improve processes by eliminating defects. Bill Smith did not really "invent" Six Sigma in the 1980s; rather, he applied methodologies that had been available since the 1920s developed by luminaries like Shewhart, Deming, Juran, Ishikawa, Ohno, Shingo, Taguchi and Shainin. All tools used in Six Sigma programs are actually a subset of the Quality Engineering discipline and can be considered a part of the ASQ Certified Quality Engineer body of knowledge. The goal of Six Sigma, then, is to use the old tools in concert, for a greater effect than a sum-of-parts approach. The use of "Black Belts" as itinerant change agents is controversial as it has created a cottage industry of training and certification. This relieves management of accountability for change; pre-Six Sigma implementations, exemplified by the Toyota Production System and Japan's industrial ascension, simply used the technical talent at hand—Design, Manufacturing and Quality Engineers, Toolmakers, Maintenance and Production workers—to optimize the processes. The expansion of the various "Belts" to include "Green Belt", "Master Black Belt" and "Gold Belt" is commonly seen as a parallel to the various "Belt Factories" that exist in martial arts.
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Assumes a normally distributed process output, a stable process. Also assumes that 3.4 defects per million is meaningful ! Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Emphasise the STUDY – i.e. PILOT the approach. Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • LEAD TIME or CYCLE TIME = Sum of Cycle time in each task plus the sum of the wasted handover times. Sometimes it is not the process itself that is the problem, but the processes that feed into it (“upstream”). Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • The categorization of the seven major wastes typically found in mass production. Overproduction is Producing ahead of what's actually needed by the next process or customer. The worst form of waste because it contributes to the other six. Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • One large bank has 152 steps to recruit a person into the company, involving 55 senior people, and resulting in a lead time of 9 months. Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005 2004 creation. (TM) pending.
  • IT Production Management is not just processes, other things have to be considered as well. Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005 ITIL is a framework for defining processes for running IT Production. Use the Concepts of Maturity to assess how well you are doing. COBIT is a valuable auditing approach. Improve the Processes with Six Sigma. Use LEAN techniques to eliminate Waste. And consider the MOPS approach to address some of the technical sides of IT management.
  • Managing Production Systems (c) Dennis Adams Associates Ltd, 2005

Transcript

  • 1. ITIL, CMMI, MOPS, six-Sigma, LEAN.... (where to start?) A Voyage Thru the Acronyms. Methodologies for managing IT Dennis Adams 17th June 2008 Dennis Adams a s s o c i a t e s Management and Infrastructure SIG Meeting
  • 2. Introduction - How to Manage IT ?
    • Too many acronyms - too little time !
    • These days, IT managers are faced with a whole raft of different methodologies and approaches.
    • Are they all relevant?
    • What are the strengths and weaknesses of
      • ITIL
      • CMMi
      • MOPS
      • six-Sigma
      • LEAN
      • … .. ?
    • Are they mutually exclusive?
  • 3. Focus on PROCESSES rather than SKILLS Functional Organization Process Approach Using a Process Approach, we no longer think in terms of individual technical teams “doing their own thing”. Rather we think in terms of the overall goal which should be directed to the main goals of the organization .
  • 4. The voyage ahead
  • 5. ITIL OGC Home Page for ITIL: http://www. itil .co. uk TSO (The Stationery Office): http://www. tso .co. uk IT Service Management Forum (itSMF): http://www. itsmf .com Interactive Forum: http://www. itilcommunity .com ITIL Toolkit: http://www. itil-toolkit .com Key Skills Training: http://www. ksl .org ITIL Training: http://www. itiltraining .com
  • 6. What is ITIL?
    • ITIL = “Information Technology Infrastructure Library”
    • A Library of Processes books outlining “good practice” for managing IT Infrastructure.
    • A set of ready-made “how to” references.
    • ITIL IS A NON-PRESCRIPTIVE REFERENCE
    • ITIL® is a Registered Trade Mark, and a Registered Community Trade Mark of the Office of Government Commerce, and is Registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
    • ITIL revision 3 released in June 2007, although many people still prefer version 2 at this time.
    • A British Standard (BS 15000) certification (BS 25000 to come).
    • Linked to ISO 9000 Quality Certification, ISO 20000
  • 7. The ITIL V2 Core Books: IT Service Management
    • Capacity Management
    • Availability Management
    • IT Service Continuity Management.
    • Service Level Management
    • IT Financial Management
    • Service Desk
    • Incident Management
    • Problem Management
    • Change Management
    • Release Management
    • Configuration Management
    Service Support Service Delivery User Support Control Processes
  • 8. EXAMPLE: Process to manage CHANGE Impact Analysis Assess Priority Log RFC Categorize Approval Change Scheduling Testing Plans Inform Users Change Review Request for Change
  • 9. Some Best Practices in the ITIL Library
    • How to get the best benefit from a SERVICE DESK
      • Single point of contact, Monitoring and escalation on behalf of customers.
    • A systematic way of managing INCIDENTS :
      • Log / Classify / Investigate / Diagnose / Resolution
    • Being Pro-Active: PROBLEM MANAGEMENT
      • Root Cause Analysis, Kepner & Tregoe Analysis, Ishikawa diagrams.
    • Stopping dangerous changes: CHANGE & RELEASE MANAGEMENT
      • Impact Analysis and Authorisation before Changes
    • Keeping track of IT Assets: CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT
    • Being Customer-Focused: SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT
    • FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT: Charge-back to reflect the cost to the Business.
    • CAPACITY : Prediction instead of Panic
    • AVAILABILITY Design for continual up-time
    • IT SERVICE CONTINUITY: DR / BCP Risk Assessment and Planning
  • 10. The new V3 “SERVICE LIFECYCLE” Books
    • Service Strategies
      • The vision and value of service management practice, Planning to implement service management, Establishing a new Service
    • Service Design
      • How to put in place IT processes, policies, architectures and documents, Roles and Responsibilities, Insource/Outsource issues
    • Service Transition
      • Implementing Service Management, Managing Organizational and Cultural change
    • Service Operations
      • Delivery and Control processes to manage Services, Application Management, Infrastructure, Operations Management,
    • Continual Service Improvement
      • How to improve service quality, Introducing new service management improvements, Service Retirement
  • 11. Using ITIL version 3
    • ITIL remains non-prescriptive.
    • Executive-level Summary document now available.
    • More guidance on optimal Organizational structures.
    • How to deal with Cultural Issues when implementing ITIL.
    • Addresses IT Governance.
    • Practices for In-sourcing, Outsourcing and Multi-Sourcing.
    • Contains ROI justification for introducing ITIL practices.
    • Reflects the “Life Cycle” of Services.
    • No radical changes to Service Support and Service Delivery.
    • Business Case examples, Case Studies, Templates.
    • Linked to other Best Practices (COBIT, CMMI, Six-SIGMA)
    • Some Guidance on how to evaluate suitable software tools.
    See: http://www. itsmacademy .com
  • 12. CMMi Source: What Stage is your Intranet Portal In? http: //blogs .sun.com/portal/date/20071010
  • 13. IT’s all a question of MATURITY
    • Level 1 – Initial
      • Processes are usually ad hoc. Success depends on the competence and heroics of the people in the organization.
    • Level 2 - Repeatable [Managed]
      • Successes are repeatable. Existing practices are retained during times of stress.
    • Level 3 - Defined
      • The organization’s set of standard processes, which are the basis for level 3, are established and improved over time.
    • Level 4 - Quantitatively Managed
      • Using precise measurements, management can effectively control the effort, and can identify ways to adjust and adapt
    • Level 5 - Optimizing
      • Continually improving process performance through both incremental and innovative technological improvements.
  • 14. Some Process Areas which need to be Mature...
    • “ Engineering”
      • REQM - Requirements Management (2)
      • RD - Requirements Development (3)
      • TS - Technical Solution (3)
      • PI - Product Integration (3)
      • VER - Verification (3)
      • VAL - Validation (3)
    • “ Support”
      • CM - Configuration Management (2)
      • PPQA - Process and Product Quality Assurance (2)
      • MA - Measurement and Analysis (2)
      • DAR - Decision Analysis and Resolution (3)
      • CAR - Causal Analysis and Resolution (4)
    Engineering + Support + Project Management + Process Management
  • 15. And More Process Areas...
    • Project Management
      • PP - Project Planning (2)
      • PMC - Project Monitoring and Control (2)
      • SAM - Supplier Agreement Management (2)
      • IPM - Integrated Project Management +IPPD (3)
      • RSKM - Risk Management (3)
      • QPM - Quantitative Project Management (4)
    • Process Management
      • OPD - Organizational Process Definition +IPPD (3)
      • OPF - Organizational Process Focus (3)
      • OT - Organizational Training (3)
      • OID - Organizational Innovation and Deployment (4)
      • OPP - Organizational Process Performance (4)
    Engineering + Support + Project Management + Process Management
  • 16. How CMMi Concepts can help
    • The Concept of “Maturity” is a valuable way of assessing your own organisation.
      • (Even if you do not want to use the whole CMMi Model).
    • CMMi emphasis comes originally from the Development Project Life-Cycle, although it references the Production side.
    • “ roll your own” Maturity.
  • 17. COBIT Source: http://www. itsmf .org. sg
  • 18. C ontrol OB jectives for I nformation and Related T echnology
    • Audit Based way of assessing IT Projects specifically.
    • Emphasis on Governance, and defining IT Controls.
    • Often used in SOX assessments.
    • Also has it’s own maturity model...
    • Basic Framework for managing IT:
      • Plan and Organise
      • Acquire and Implement
      • Delivery and Support
      • Monitor and Evaluate
  • 19. COBIT Structure
    • Plan and Organization
      • PO1 Define a Strategic IT Plan and direction
      • PO2 Define the Information Architecture
      • PO3 Determine Technological Direction
      • PO4 Define the IT Processes, Organization and Relationships
      • PO5 Manage the IT Investment
      • PO6 Communicate Management Aims and Direction
      • PO7 Manage IT Human Resources, PO8 Manage Quality
      • PO9 Assess and Manage IT Risks , PO10 Manage Projects
    • Acquire and Implement
      • AI1 Identify Application Software
      • AI3 Acquire and Automated Solutions
      • AI2 Acquire and Maintain , A13 Maintain Technology Infrastructure
      • AI4 Enable Operation and Use , AI5 Procure IT Resources
      • AI6 Manage Changes , AI7 Install and Accredit Solutions & Changes
  • 20. COBIT Structure (cont)
    • Delivery and Support
      • DS1 Define and Manage Service Levels , DS2 Manage Third-party Services
      • DS3 Manage Performance and Capacity, DS4 Ensure Continuous Service , DS5 Ensure Systems Security
      • DS6 Identify and Allocate Costs
      • DS7 Educate and Train Users, DS8 Manage Service Desk and Incidents , DS9 Manage the Configuration , DS10 Manage Problems , DS11 Manage Data , DS12 Manage the Physical Environment , DS13 Manage Operations
    • Monitor and Evaluate
      • ME1 Monitor and Evaluate IT Processes
      • ME2 Monitor and Evaluate Internal Control
      • ME3 Ensure Regulatory Compliance
      • ME4 Provide IT Governance
  • 21. COBIT and ITIL.... ?
    • ITIL V3 references COBIT, and it can be argued that these are closely aligned.
    • The emphasis in ITIL is on Continuous Improvement of Service Operations, whereas COBIT is primarily concerned with Governance (mainly of Projects).
  • 22. 6-SIGMA 6- σ “ Variation there will always be, between people, in output, in service, in product. What is the variation trying to tell us?” W. Edwards Deming www. isixsigma .com
  • 23. Process Variation leads to poor performance
    • Process Outputs Vary:
      • Common Cause Variation
      • Attributed
    • How to tell the difference?
    Process Management International www. pmi .co. uk 99% of Values within 3 Standard Deviations
  • 24. graphs
  • 25. The mythical 3.4 defects per Million
  • 26. The Six-Sigma Process Improvement Cycle
    • Select Priorities
    • Learn about the Process
    • Investigate Sources of Variation
    • Test Theories
    • Study Results
    • Implement
    • Standardise
    • Review
    D EFINE – M EASURE – A NALYSE – I MPROVE - C ONTROL
  • 27. Using Six-Sigma
    • Although Six-Sigma originated in the field of Engineering, it is a practical Project Approach which can be used for improving IT Processes.
    • Some aspects of Six-Sigma are also referenced in ITIL, including:
      • PDSA cycle (“PDCA”)
      • Root Cause Analysis
  • 28. LEAN Value: “Something a process contributes that makes a product or service valuable in the eyes of the customer and which they are prepared to pay for”
  • 29. Identifying “Waste” in Processes Is this Task Contributing to what the Customer will pay for? Value Adding? Value Enabling?
  • 30. Seven Wastes
    • Overproduction:
      • Producing ahead of what's actually needed by the next process
    • Waiting:
      • Operators standing idle, equipment fails, needed parts fail to arrive.
    • Conveyance:
      • Moving parts and products unnecessarily.
    • Processing:
      • Performing unnecessary or incorrect processing.
    • Inventory:
      • Having more than the minimum stocks necessary for a pull system.
    • Motion:
      • Movements, such as looking for parts, tools, documents, etc.
    • Correction:
      • Inspection, rework, and scrap.
  • 31. LEAN Thinking
    • LEAN is often used alongside Six Sigma.
    • Focuses on the causes of processes being inefficient.
    • Although it originate in the engineering disciplines, it can be used effectively to reduce the “cycle time” of IT processes.
  • 32. MOPS After the Project goes Live…. … the real problems begin… MOPS™ : Managing IT Production
  • 33. IT Management = Management AND IT
    • MOPS is an attempt to integrate a number of different methodologies and approaches and apply them to the technical challenges of managing IT Production.
    • METRICS
      • Publish what IT Production does to get business buy-in
      • Measure what you do in order to manage the teams
    • OPERATIONAL TOOLS
      • Chose software to improve your ability to manage the infrastructure
      • “ Referential” approach to standardise reporting across teams
    • PROCESSES AND PROCEDURES
      • Use ITIL pragmatically as a start, Six-Sigma / LEAN to improve, and interface with Development Project processes.
    • STANDARDS
      • Chose Technologies based on “Production-ready” criteria to optimise the costs of Production Support.
    www.mops.uk.com www.dennisadams.co.uk/mops.htm
  • 34. Conclusions
  • 35. ITIL, CMMI, MOPS, six-Sigma, LEAN.... (where to start?) A Voyage Thru the Acronyms. Dennis Adams 17th June 2008 Dennis Adams a s s o c i a t e s Management and Infrastructure SIG Meeting Questions ?