Other Process Improvement Standards CS4320

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  • 1. Other Process Improvement Standards CS4320 Fall 2005
  • 2. Software Process Improvement and Capability dEtermination (SPICE) (ISO 15504)
  • 3. Table 1 – Description of process categories Process category Brief description Customer-Supplier Processes that directly impact the customer Engineering Processes that specify, implement, or maintain a system and software product Project Processes that establish the project, and co-ordinate and manage its resources Support Processes that enable and support the performance of the other processes on the project Organization Processes that establish the business goals of the organization and develop process, product, and resource assets which will help the organization achieve its business goals
  • 4. Process Areas
    • Customer-Supplier
      • CUS.1 Acquire software product and/or service
      • CUS.2 Establish contract
      • CUS.3 Identify customer needs
      • CUS.4 Perform joint audits and reviews
      • CUS.5 Package, deliver, and install the software
      • CUS.6 Support operation of software
      • CUS.7 Provide customer service
      • CUS.8 Assess customer satisfaction
  • 5. Engineering Processes
    • ENG.1 Develop system requirements and design
    • ENG.2 Develop software requirements
    • ENG.3 Develop software design
    • ENG.4 Implement software design
    • ENG.5 Integrate and test software
    • ENG.6 Integrate and test system
    • ENG.7 Maintain system and software
  • 6. Project Process
    • PRO.1 Plan project life cycle
    • PRO.2 Establish project plan
    • PRO.3 Build project teams
    • PRO.4 Manage requirements
    • PRO.5 Manage quality
    • PRO.6 Manage risks
    • PRO.7 Manage resources and schedule
    • PRO.8 Manage subcontractors
  • 7. Supporting Process
    • SUP.1 Develop documentation
    • SUP.2 Perform configuration management
    • SUP.3 Perform quality assurance
    • SUP.4 Perform problem resolution
    • SUP.5 Perform peer reviews
  • 8. Organizational Process
    • ORG.1 Engineer the business
    • ORG.2 Define the process
    • ORG.3 Improve the process
    • ORG.4 Perform training
    • ORG.5 Enable reuse
    • ORG.6 Provide software engineering environment
    • ORG.7 Provide work facilities
  • 9. SPICE Assessment Types
    • Self-Assessment
    • Assisted Self-Assessment
    • Self-Assessment with External Verification
    • Independent Assessment
  • 10.   Context of process assessment
  • 11. Ratings
    • Each Process instance is rated
    • Base Practice adequacy scale
      • N, Not Adequate The base practice is either not implemented or does not to any degree contribute to satisfying the process purpose
      • P, Partially Adequate The implemented base practice does little to contribute to satisfying the process purpose
      • L, Largely Adequate The implemented base practice largely contributes to satisfying the process purpose
      • F, Fully Adequate The implemented base practice fully contributes to satisfying the process purpose
    • Base Practice existence scale (N, Y)
    • Generic Practice adequacy scale (N, P, L, F)
  • 12. Assessment Ratings
    • Aggregate by %
    • Ratings:
      • Performed Informally
      • Planned and Tracked
      • Well-Defined
      • Quantitatively Controlled
      • Continuously Improving
  • 13. Process Improvement Roadmap
    • Capability Levels taken from ISO SPICE model v1.0
    • Capability levels provide logical and structured methodology for improving how work is performed
    Legend: Level Title • Characterized by • Achieved when • Primary Concept • N/A • Organizational starting point Not Performed • SE process area not being done • Essential elements performed • Doing systems engineering Performed Informally • Individual heroics • Projects using defined process • Controlling local chaos Planned & Tracked • Work is planned & managed • Projects use org. std. process • Sharing organizational learning Well Defined • Development of org. std. process • Process metrics captured • Managing processes by data Quantitatively Controlled • Definition of quantitative goals • Processes improved • Improvement based on data Continuously Improving • Quantitative strategic goals 0 I II III IV V 11 SA-
  • 14.   Practice: 2.1.4 Provide tools Provide appropriate tools to support performance of the process. Associated Processes/Practices: ORG.6 Provide Software Engineering Environment. ORG.7 Provide Work Facilities Potential Sources for Existence Evidence – Development environment (104) (see the associated process indicators) Process Management Indicators – Tools are used support the process activities defined in the organizational unit. – Practitioners verify that the tools in use meet their needs. – Tools defined are available to those who perform the task(s). – Adequate number of tools are available to support the activities defined – Tools used add value to the required tasks – Personnel who use the tools receive adequate training in the operation of the tool – Documentation and/or instructions is available for the tool – Support for the tool is available
  • 15. Sample Work Practices 1) Software Development Methodology – Identification of the approach / method used to develop software – Identification of the life cycle model (waterfall, spiral, serial build, etc.) used to develop software – Provides a high level description of the process, activities, and controls 2) Software Development Life Cycle Model – High level description of activities performed at each life cycle phase – Sequencing of the life cycle phases – Identification of critical life cycle phase dependencies – Identification of required inputs, outputs to each life cycle phase – Identification of the key decision points (milestones) model – Identification of the quality control points in the model 3) Process Description – A detailed description of the process which includes: – purpose of the process – task and activities to be performed and ordering of tasks – critical dependencies between task activities – expected time required to execute task – input/ outputs work products – Identifies process entry and exit criteria – Identifies internal and external interfaces to the process – Identifies process measures – Identifies quality expectations – Identifies functional roles and responsibilities
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19. Measurement
  • 20. A methodology and a service to improve quality of software processes.
  • 21. Goals of BOOTSTRAP
    • Valuation of the capability level on SPU Software P roducing U nit) and project level for
      • process categories
      • each process
    • Comparison of capability levels between the projects and the SPU
    • Benchmarking the capability level against European mean value
      • overall
      • in the defined business segment
    • Identifying the main strength and weaknesses of the company
    • Support to define adequate business goals
    • Define and implement an improvement plan
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25. ISO 9000 Series
    • Actually a series of specifications that allow companies to be “certified”
    • Doesn’t focus on improvement—just current state
    • Addresses minimum criteria for a quality system
    • Strongly paper-trail oriented
    • Checklist assessment
    • Generic—not software specific
    • Principle: Every important process should be documented
  • 26. ISO 9000 Definitions
    • The standardized definition of quality refers to all those features of a product (or service) which are required by the customer .
    • "Quality management" means what the organization does to ensure that its products or services satisfy the customer's quality requirements and comply with any regulations applicable to those products or services.
  • 27. The 9000 Series
    • ISO 9001 sets out the requirements for an organization whose business processes range all the way from design and development, to production, installation and servicing;
    • ISO 9002 is the appropriate standard for organizations that do not design and develop products, since it does not include the design control requirements of ISO 9001. Its requirements are identical aside from that distinction.
    • ISO 9003 is the appropriate standard for an organization whose business processes do not include design control, process control, purchasing or servicing. It focuses on inspection and testing to ensure that final products and services meet specified requirements.
  • 28. Example from ISO 9001:2000
    • 4 Systemic Requirements
      • 4.1 Establish your quality system
        • Develop your quality management system
          • Identify the processes that make up your quality system.
          • Describe your quality management processes.  
        • Implement your quality management system
          • Use quality system processes.
          • Manage process performance.
        • Improve your quality management system
          • Monitor process performance.
          • Improve process performance
  • 29.                                                                                   
  • 30. An ISO 9001 compliant organization should be at or near CMM 2 with significant progress towards level 3. CMM has no delivery and product handling process.
  • 31. Six Sigma
    • The goal of Six Sigma is to increase profits by eliminating variability, defects and waste that undermine customer loyalty.
      • Metrics: 3.4 defects/million units
      • Methodology: DMAIC / DFSS
        • Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control (existing)
        • Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, Verify (new)
      • Philosophy: reduce variation, customer-focused decisions
    • Heavy use of Metrics and Statistical Data Analysis (Control charts, pareto, ishikawa, etc.)
  • 32. Six Sigma Quality
    • Two Types of Quality
      • Type 1: Customer Quality - The features that customers want.
      • Type 2: Engineered Quality - The problems customers do not want.
    • No Intuition – Only cold hard facts
    • VOC – Voice of the customer
      • Needs analysis, eSurvey, Focus Groups, Surveys
  • 33. Conclusions
    • CMM-I seems to have pretty much won the wars, although the other methods are more productized.
    • Spice has become ISO Standard, and method of relating other assessments to each other.
    • ISO 9000 is a separate issue in certification rather than assessment.
    • Six Sigma is an SPC methodology that is used in conjunction with assessment models.