Managing for Quality in the Hospitality Industry © 2006 ...


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Managing for Quality in the Hospitality Industry © 2006 ...

  1. 1. Chapter Five Team Effectiveness
  2. 2. “ It takes a team to produce a quality guest experience at the Hitching Post. Quality is not just good. Quality stands out because it is visible in the services and products that our guests experience. When the team has provided quality, the guests feel special, important, different than the ordinary, and on top of the world because of the extraordinary Hitching Post team effort. And our team members catch this same extraordinary feeling by providing these experiences.” Paul A. Smith Owner Hitching Post Inn Resort & Conference Center Cheyenne, WY
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand the definition and operation of a team </li></ul><ul><li>Define what it means to “do right” regarding teams </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the role of collaborative thinking in the process of building team effectiveness </li></ul>
  4. 4. Learning Objectives (cont.) <ul><li>Detail the characteristics of self-directed work teams and total customer satisfaction teams </li></ul><ul><li>Know how to use the high performance teams process model to define team formation, framework, management, participation, monitoring, and evaluation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Definition of a Team <ul><li>“ T ogether E veryone A chieves M ore” </li></ul><ul><li>Teams help focus a diverse set of skills and views when addressing complex challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Members given ownership of challenges and the responsibility to solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances ability to overcome problems </li></ul>
  6. 6. What Is a Team? <ul><li>Work Group also called Idea Teams (IT) </li></ul><ul><li>Action Group Team (AGT) </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Improvement Team (QIT) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Team Characteristics and Responsibilities <ul><li>Action Group Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cross-functional from every affected area affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>work on specific quality improvement targets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Idea Team or Work Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>group of associates according to function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>permanent part of departmental organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>associate involvement in decision making and goal setting </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Team Characteristics and Responsibilities (cont.) <ul><li>Quality Improvement Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>includes area managers, lead associates, idea team leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reviews idea team recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>approves idea team ideas and projects within empowerment guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monitors quality improvements </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Team Characteristics and Responsibilities (cont.) <ul><li>Quality Improvement Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reports quality improvements to senior management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recognizes and rewards achievements and successes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may appoint action teams to address a quality improvement challenge </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Team Characteristics and Responsibilities (cont.) <ul><li>Senior Quality Improvement Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defines policies and procedures for the management of quality in daily operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>directs, coordinates, refines, and approves recommendations in the process of continuous quality improvement </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Operation of a Team <ul><li>Members must be stimulated and encouraged to participate and cooperate </li></ul><ul><li>Members must understand direction and desired result for the team through clearly stated goals and objectives </li></ul>
  12. 12. Operation of a Team (cont.) <ul><li>Members must be willing to compromise for the good of the team and/or organization </li></ul><ul><li>Members must be recognized for their commitment and acknowledged for their achievements </li></ul>
  13. 13. “ Do Right” in Teams <ul><li>Be ethical, fair, and make appropriate decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Treat others as you want to be treated </li></ul><ul><li>Do the best you can </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork is “everyone being committed to the success of each other” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Collaborative Thinking and Team Effectiveness <ul><li>Cooperation – working together toward a common improvement goal </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiosis – helping each other </li></ul><ul><li>Synergism – increased effectiveness as a result of working together </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration results from partnering and strategic alliances </li></ul>
  15. 15. Self-Directed Work Teams <ul><li>Practice Trifecta Management </li></ul><ul><li>Changing cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Members must understand the new role of management that has changed from giving directions to coordinating self-directed teams </li></ul>
  16. 16. Self-Directed Work Teams (cont.) <ul><li>Each team responsible for using interventions in continuous improvement process </li></ul><ul><li>Each team has at least one member connected to the organization’s executives </li></ul>
  17. 17. Self-Directed Work Teams (cont.) <ul><li>85/15 Rule of Quality </li></ul><ul><li>All affected individuals or departments are involved when making teams </li></ul><ul><li>The PDCA Cycle is used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan – Get things started </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do – Initiate solutions on a test basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check – Evaluate results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act – Monitor and present results to team </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. PDCA Cycle
  19. 19. PDCA Cycle (cont.) <ul><li>P = Planning - Get things started </li></ul><ul><ul><li>present the issue(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>describe the symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify the root causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>express all feelings on the issue and debate pros/cons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seek compromise and summarize </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. PDCA Cycle (cont.) <ul><li>D = Doing – Initiate solutions or interventions on a test basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assign tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C = Checking – Evaluate the results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>do not measure against compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use the CQI process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>review team performance </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. PDCA Cycle (cont.) <ul><li>A = Acting – Monitor the results and present to the team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adopt the solution that works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reward team members for achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>document </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Ritz-Carlton Product Development Process Using a Self-Directed Team
  23. 23. Total Customer Satisfaction Teams <ul><li>Adapted from the Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage associates to shape their work environment through problem-solving and goal accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of 3-12 members from various departments, areas, and backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Each team addresses key issues and initiatives in the organization </li></ul>
  24. 24. High Performance Teams <ul><li>Formation of team after the goal, needs, and plan for achievement presented to the SQIT </li></ul><ul><li>Framework – four steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Address individual team member goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Clarify individual roles for team members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Set realistic objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Work with other teams </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. High Performance Teams (cont.) <ul><li>Management to balance people and tasks </li></ul><ul><li>A task-focused team emphasizes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-documented data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deadlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A systematic structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality results </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. How Action Group Teams Work
  27. 27. High Performance Teams (cont.) <ul><li>A people-focused team is sensitive to member needs such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workload in and out of the team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfort levels (with assignments and with other team members) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social relationships </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. High Performance Teams (cont.) <ul><li>Balance tasks and people </li></ul><ul><li>Enroll members rather than just asking for a “buy-in” </li></ul><ul><li>Enrolling forms a link between team and personal goals </li></ul>
  29. 29. High Performance Teams (cont.) <ul><li>Guide the interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Listen actively </li></ul><ul><li>Participation stimulated when the team leader and members prepare for meetings </li></ul>
  30. 30. High Performance Teams (cont.) <ul><li>Contact the team leader or another member of the team to familiarize oneself with the purpose, objective, and structure of the team meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what you know and can contribute </li></ul><ul><li>Network with other members and teams </li></ul>
  31. 31. High Performance Teams (cont.) <ul><li>Research subject matter you need to know more about </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring to make sure progress is being made in the Action Group Team </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation helps identify accomplishments and whether the leadership is shared and effective </li></ul>
  32. 32. High Performance Teams (cont.) <ul><li>Analysis helps pinpoint the team’s strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>All those involved on the team determine the evaluation criteria and understand these criteria in advance </li></ul>
  33. 33. High Performance Teams (cont.) <ul><li>ACTION + EXPECTATION = OBJECTIVE </li></ul>
  34. 34. Summary <ul><li>Effective teams are the heart of managing and improving quality because they add value and power to the efforts of their members </li></ul><ul><li>The effectiveness of teams is affected by a number of variables that can be enhanced and made more productive in the development of quality improvements </li></ul><ul><li>These increase the satisfaction levels of associates as well as external customers </li></ul>
  35. 35. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>High performance teams have various goals depending on the issue being addressed; they go through a process </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative thinking enhances team effectiveness through symbiosis and synergy </li></ul><ul><li>Self-directed work teams and total customer satisfaction teams are further ways to enhance the effectiveness and contributions of teams </li></ul>
  36. 36. Key Terms <ul><li>24/72 Rule </li></ul><ul><li>85/15 Rule of Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Action Group Team (AGT) </li></ul><ul><li>Associate Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative-Thinking Teams </li></ul>
  37. 37. Key Terms (cont.) <ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Enrollment </li></ul><ul><li>High Performance Team Process Model </li></ul><ul><li>Idea Teams (IT) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Key Terms (cont.) <ul><li>Participative Management </li></ul><ul><li>PDCA Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Process Analysis Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Product Development Process </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Improvement Team (QIT) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Key Terms (cont.) <ul><li>Self-Directed Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Qualiy Improvement Team (SQIT) </li></ul><ul><li>Steering Team </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiosis </li></ul><ul><li>Team </li></ul>
  40. 40. Key Terms (cont.) <ul><li>Total Customer Satisfaction Team (TCS) </li></ul><ul><li>Trifecta </li></ul><ul><li>Work Group </li></ul>
  41. 41. Relevant Web Sites <ul><li>Achieving Total Customer Satisfaction Through Six Sigma (by Jane Erwin): </li></ul><ul><li>Creating Total Customer Satisfaction: </li></ul><ul><li>Empowered Employees - A New Team Concept for Total Customer Satisfaction (by Mary Hellinghausen and Jim Myers): </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  42. 42. Relevant Web Sites (cont.) <ul><li>Hitching Post Inn Resort & Conference Center Website: </li></ul><ul><li>How to Build a Successful Team: </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Building a Team: http://www. teamtechnology .co. uk / tt /h- articl / tb -basic. htm </li></ul>
  43. 43. Relevant Web Sites (cont.) <ul><li>PDCA Cycle: </li></ul><ul><li>Team Effectiveness and High Performance Organizations: </li></ul><ul><li> mikehick /teams.html </li></ul>