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  1. 1. Six Sigma -A Methodology and Process Presented by: Angela Fang April 25, 2005
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Six Sigma process improvement methodology: DMAIC </li></ul><ul><li>Six Sigma process design methodology: DFSS </li></ul><ul><li>Six Sigma & CMM  /CMMI  integration </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. Six Sigma Methodologies <ul><li>Six Sigma is divided into methodologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement methodology for existing processes and performance. [1,2] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DFSS (Design For Six Sigma) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A methodology of the design of new products or services, with a six sigma capability and performance. [3] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. DMAIC-1 <ul><li>Define [4] (What is important?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baselining and benchmarking processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposing processes into sub-processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifying customer satisfaction goals/sub-goals (requirements) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support tools (SW related) for Define step: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baseline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice of Customer (Win Win) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice of Business (Win Win) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Function Deployment & etc. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Quality Function Deployment (TCS)
  6. 6. DMAIC-2 <ul><li>Measure (How are we doing?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying relevant metrics based on engineering principles and models [4] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance measurement: throughput, quality (statistically, mean and variation) [6] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost (currency, time, and resource) [6] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other example of measurement: response times, cycle times, transaction rates, access frequencies, and user defined thresholds [5] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Support tools [4] for Measure step: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 Basic tools [1]: Flow chart, Check Sheets, Pareto diagrams, Cause/Effect diagrams, Histograms, and Statistical Process Control (SPC). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defect Metrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Collection Forms, Plan, Logistics </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. DMAIC-3 <ul><li>Analyze (What’s wrong?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the data/information for trends, patterns, causal relationships and “root cause” [4] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Defect analysis, and Analysis of variance [6] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine candidate improvements [6] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support tools [4] for Analyze step: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause/Effect diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure Modes & Effects Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision & Risk Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical Inference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capability Analysis and etc. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Failure mode & effects analysis (TCS)
  9. 9. Capability Analysis (TCS)
  10. 10. DMAIC-4 <ul><li>Improve (What needs to be done?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making prototype or initial improvement [6] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure and compare the results with the simulation results [6] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iterations taken between Measure-Analyze-Improve steps to achieve the target level of performance [4] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support tools for Improve step: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of Experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerancing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robust Design </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. DMAIC-5 <ul><li>Control (How do we guarantee performance?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring measurements are put into place to maintain improvements [1] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support tools [4] for Control step: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical Controls: Control Charts, Time Series methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Statistical Controls: Procedural adherence, Performance Mgmt., Preventive activities </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Control Chart (TCS)
  13. 13. DFSS <ul><li>Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) [3] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A rigorous approach to the design of a new product or service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goals: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce delivery time and development cost and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the effectiveness of the product or service and hence customer satisfaction. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key elements: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A customer focus and the ability to measure quality using the six sigma metric and philosophy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate design that delivers excitement without failure, and does so to budget and expectation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An overarching business strategy and management that brings out the very best for organic growth, through the repeated and regular launch and successful development of new products and services </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. DFSS-2
  15. 15. DMAIC vs. DFSS in timeline
  16. 16. Six Sigma vs. CMM  /CMMI  <ul><li>Common goals: Defect prevention, quality management, process improvement, process control </li></ul><ul><li>Unique characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six Sigma: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not domain specific </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not include any process mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data-driven / measurement-drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customer-centric </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SW-CMM/CMMI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Model based approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defined basic process infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organization level in level 4 and 5 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of standard metrics </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Integration of Six Sigma and CMM  /CMMI  -1 [4] <ul><li>Level 1 & 2: Not applicable, no way to achieve “defect free” at these levels </li></ul><ul><li>Level 3: might be able to start applying Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Process Definition, Organizational Process Focus, Requirements Development, Risk Management, Validation, Verification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 4 & 5: Organization maturity level, which implies an ability to leverage established measurement practices; accomplishment of true “Six Sigma” performance becomes a relevant goal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Process Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Innovation and Deployment </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Integration of Six Sigma and CMM  /CMMI  -2 [4] <ul><li>Successful examples [6,7,8] of using Six Sigma and CMM  /CMMI  : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motorola, IBM, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Honeywell, and PS&J Software Six Sigma </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. References <ul><li>[1] Ferrin, David M., Martin J. Miller, and David Muthler, “Six Sigma and Simulation, So What’s the Correlation?” Proceedings of the 2002 Winter Simulation Conference, December 2002, ACM </li></ul><ul><li>[2] PS&J Software Six Sigma, “Six Sigma, the CMM, and the CMMI.” http://www. softwaresixsigma .com/CMM_A_ SixSigma . htm </li></ul><ul><li>[3] Tennant, Geoff, “Design for Six Sigma: Launching New Products and Services without Failure,” Gower Publishing Limited, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>[4] Sivly, Jeannine, SEI, “Six Sigma, Software Technology Roadmap.” http://www. sei .cum. edu / str /descriptions/sigma6_body.html </li></ul><ul><li>[5] Biehl, Richard E., “Six Sigma for Software.” IEEE Software, March/April 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>[6] Shere, Kenneth D., The Aerospace Corporation, “Comapring Lean Six Sigma to the Capability Maturity Model.” CrossTalk, The Journal of Defense Software Engineering, Sep. 2003. http://www. stsc .hill. af .mil/crosstalk/2003/09/0309shere.html </li></ul><ul><li>[7] Anthes, Gary H., “Quality Model Mania.” Computerworld, March 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>[8] Keeni, Gargi, and Mala Murugappan, “Blending CMM and Six Sigma to Meet Business Goals.” IEEE Software, March/April 2003 </li></ul>