DFSS Knowledge Management Repetition Process
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DFSS Knowledge Management Repetition Process DFSS Knowledge Management Repetition Process Presentation Transcript

  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Product & Process Design For 6 Sigma The Application of Axiomatic Design in DFSS: A New Paradigm by Dr. Basem Haik WCBF’s 2nd Design for Six Sigma Conference September 13-14, 2006 Four Season Hotel, Las Vegas March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Product & Process Design For 6 Sigma For more information about Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. (SSPI) Please visit: www.SixSigmaPI.com Or email us @: info@SixSigmaPI.com Or call us @ (866) 642-8683 March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. The Application of Axiomatic Design Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma in DFSS: A New Paradigm DFSS is a philosophy and a methodology that provides businesses with perspectives and tools to achieve new levels of performance both in service and product industries. Axiomatic design technology is a process to improve the quality and performance of complex system and product development. This process provides a systematic and logical methodology for deriving, documenting and optimizing designs. Design architectures resulting from axiomatic analysis provide frameworks for implementation planning, risk assessment, risk mitigation and robust design analysis. This session will give you practical insight into Axiomatic Design employment in Design for Six Sigma on the technical and deployment fronts. The key areas of focus are: A high-level overview of Axiomatic Design Axiomatic Design innovation and its synergy with TRIZ A principle-based Design for Six Sigma using Axiomatic Design technology Design for Lean Six Sigma: An axiomatic design application to cellular manufacturing March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. The Application of Axiomatic Design Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma in DFSS: A New Paradigm The key areas of focus are: A high-level overview of Axiomatic Design A principle-based Design for Six Sigma using Axiomatic Design technology Axiomatic Design innovation and its synergy with TRIZ Design for Lean Six Sigma: An axiomatic design application to cellular manufacturing March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. The Application of Axiomatic Design Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma in DFSS: A New Paradigm The key areas of focus are: A high-level overview of Axiomatic Design A principle-based Design for Six Sigma using Axiomatic Design technology Axiomatic Design innovation and its synergy with TRIZ Design for Lean Six Sigma: An axiomatic design application to cellular manufacturing March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Maximize Independence Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma 3 Axiom 1: The Independence Axiom A good design comprises of Design Parameters (DPs) that maintain the independence of functional requirements (FRs) Design is a continuous mapping activity between 4 domains: CAs FRs DPs PVs Several corollaries and theorems were derived from this axiom. Violation of Axiom 1 March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Example of Independence Axiom: Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma 3 Water Faucet Functional Requirements Design Parameters • FR1:Control the flow of water • Which Design is Independent? • DP1:Angle of valve 1, φ1 FR2: Control the temperature of • DP2: Angle of valve 2, φ2 water Hot water Cold water Hot water Cold water φ1 φ2 φ2 φ1 March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. 3 The Principle of Independence Axiom Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma ⎧Functional Requirement 1⎫ ⎡ A ⎤ ⎧ Design Parameter 1⎫ ⎨Functional Requirement 2⎬= ⎢ A A12 ⎥ ⎨ Design Parameter 2⎬ Mathematically* 11 A22 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 21 ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Control the Flow ⎫ ⎡ Inter- ⎤ ⎧ ⎫ =⎢ Valve #1 Application ⎨Control the temperature ⎬ Off-Diagonal⎥ ⎨ dependencies ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ Elements ⎦ ⎩ Valve #2 ⎭ * FRs and DPs are design vectors… Don’t Live With Coupling…Resolve IT. March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. 3 Problems With Coupled Design Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Low quality and reliability in particular with bigger design matrices and several hierarchal levels Customer usage and manufacturing variations (noise factors) usually win with coupled designs…Usually due to the ignorance of design mappings and coupling vulnerability. Optimization and variability reduction (even with aggressive Six Sigma) is at best a trade-off among functional requirements to achieve reasonable overall design…Remember the EXCEL Example. Inherently a “weak” design because of conflicting objective due to design parameters. By definition, functions are independent to each others and only a poor selection of DPs creates dependencies. Design improvement should be directed to “Uncouple” or “Decouple” the design where optimization of a function will not affect other functions. March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. 3 Design Categories According to Axiomatic Design Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma ⎧ FR 1 ⎫ ⎡ A11 0 ⎤ ⎧ DP 1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎨ ⎬ Uncoupled Design ⎩ FR 2 ⎭ ⎢ 0 ⎣ A 22 ⎥ ⎩ DP 2 ⎭ ⎦ ⎧ Control the Flow ⎫ ⎡ ⎤⎧ Valve #1 ⎫ ⎨ Control the ⎬=⎢ ⎥⎨ Valve #2 ⎬ ⎩ Temperature ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ Off-Diagonal Interdependencies are Zeros —means there is no FR1 = A11DP1 + 0 relationship between the FR FR2 = 0 +A22DP2 and the corresponding DP Independent Design is the BEST! March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. 3 Product & Process Design For 6 Sigma What Is The Other Design Category? March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. 3 Design Categories According to Axiomatic Design Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma ⎧ FR 1 ⎫ ⎡ A11 0 ⎤ ⎧ DP 1 ⎫ Decoupled Design ⎨ ⎩ ⎬= FR 2 ⎭ ⎢ A 21 ⎣ ⎨ ⎬ A 22 ⎥ ⎩ DP 2 ⎭ ⎦ ⎧ Control the Flow ⎫ ⎡ ⎤⎧ Valve #1 ⎫ ⎨ Control the ⎬=⎢ ⎥⎨ Valve #2 ⎬ ⎩ Temperature ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ FR1 = A11DP1 FR2 = A21DP1 + A22 DP2 Satisfying Axiom 1 but needs proper sequencing for design optimization! Sequence: Design DP1 for FR1 then Use DP2 for FR2 Design According to the Sequence !!! March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Coupling Vector Representation 3 FR2 Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma DP2 FR2 FR2 DP2 DP2 (2) (2) (2) (1) (1) (1) DP1 DP1 DP1 FR1 FR1 FR1 Coupled Design Decoupled Design Uncoupled Design Sequence Dependent Sequence Dependent Sequence Independent FR1 DP1 FR1 FR1 DP1 = DP1 = = FR2 DP2 FR2 DP2 FR2 DP2 Full Matrix [] Triangular Matrix [] Diagonal Matrix [] Don’t Live With Coupling…Resolve IT. March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Process design Systems Design the DFSS Way Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Product design Customer Functional Design Process Attributes Requirements Parameters Variables mapping 1 (CAs) (FRs) (DPs) (PVs) 2 . . . . . . {CAs} mapping {FRs} mapping {DPs} mapping {PVs} . . . . . . . . What How Design . . . . Hierarchy mapping . . Customer Functiona Physical Process . . Domain l Domain Domain Domain . . What How 3 Applying Design Principles Customer Functional Design Process Attributes (CAs) Requirements (FRs) Parameters (DPs) Variables (PVs) 4 The Independence Axiom FR1 FR1 FR1 A good design comprises of Design Parameters (DPs) {CAs} mapping FR11 FR12 mapping FR11 FR12 mapping FR11 FR12 . that maintain the . . independence of functional requirements (FRs) Also between DPs and PVs. Customer Functiona Physical Process Domain l Domain Domain Domain March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. The Application of Axiomatic Design Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma in DFSS: A New Paradigm The key areas of focus are: A high-level overview of Axiomatic Design A principle-based Design for Six Sigma using Axiomatic Design technology Axiomatic Design innovation and its synergy with TRIZ Design for Lean Six Sigma: An axiomatic design application to cellular manufacturing March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Principle-based DFSS Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Identification of key design principles as the foundation of the DFSS process. 1 Customer (user) driven design requirements 2 Establish knowledge of performance variation 3 Maximize independence 4 Minimize complexity 5 Conceptual superiority 6 Optimize function in the presence of noise 7 Verify that optimization translates to meeting user requirements March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Principle-based DFSS Techniques Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Axiomatic Design Robust Design Lean Manufacturing Methods Principles Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TIPS/TRIZ) Principle-based DFSS (ICOV) Identify Conceptualize Optimize Validate Tollgate 1 Tollgate 6 Tollgate 3 Tollgate 4 Tollgate 7 Tollgate 2 Tollgate 5 Production Readiness Development Idea Creation Optimization VOC & VOB Stage 7: Launch Verification Preliminary Concept Stage 3: Stage 1: Stage 5: Stage 2: Stage 4: Design Stage 6: March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. The Application of Axiomatic Design Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma in DFSS: A New Paradigm The key areas of focus are: A high-level overview of Axiomatic Design A principle-based Design for Six Sigma using Axiomatic Design technology Axiomatic Design innovation and its synergy with TRIZ Design for Lean Six Sigma: An axiomatic design application to cellular manufacturing March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Relationship to TRIZ & Creativity Tools Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Zigzagging Physical Mapping: Map FRs to Design Parameters Zigzagging Method (DPs) Axiomatic Design Functional Domain FR FR1 FR 2 ⎧ FR11 ⎫ ⎡ X X ⎤ ⎧ DP11 ⎫ Physical Domain 0 X ... ⎪ FR12 ⎪ ⎢ : ⎥ ⎪ DP12 ⎪ FR1.1 FR1.2 DP ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ X ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ DP1 DP2 DP 1.1 DP1.2 ⎨ FR13 ⎬ = ⎢ X X ⎥ ⎨ DP13 ⎬ ⎪: ⎪ ⎢ X ⎥ X ⎥⎪ : ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ FR1m ⎪ ⎢ X ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ X X X ⎥ ⎪ DP1m ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ TRIZ Opportunity, Benchmarking, Best Practices, Brainstorming, Pain storming, Assumption Busting, etc. March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. The Application of Axiomatic Design Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma in DFSS: A New Paradigm The key areas of focus are: A high-level overview of Axiomatic Design A principle-based Design for Six Sigma using Axiomatic Design technology Axiomatic Design innovation and its synergy with TRIZ Design for Lean Six Sigma: An axiomatic design application to cellular manufacturing March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. •Case Study: Principle-based Cellular Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Lean Design Preliminary Design Preliminary Design Stage Stage Objective: transform traditional production system from process orientation to Design of cellular Design of cellular cellular orientation using manufacturing system manufacturing system based on AD principles based onDFSS principles DFSS principle (3): Maximize AD principles Independence. A feedback mechanism for Implementation of continuous improvement is Implementation of cellular design cellular design also suggested for evaluating Improvement of the Improvement of the cellular system and improving the cellular Performance evaluation Performance evaluation cellular system design against pre-selected of key metrics of key metrics performance criteria The needs of plant are to get No flexibility ∆: DFSSbased AD based AD based continuous continuous Targets met? improvement More product variety improvement process process Smaller batch sizes Highest quality and Yes more frequent deliveries Lower production cost Set improved targets Set improved targets Speed and ability to respond to changing needs March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Applying Principle-based System Design: Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Hierarchical Level 1 Analysis FR = Provide a flexible DP = Cellular production in line with Manufacturing System Design customer needs This case study was conducted at a company manufacturing aluminum walkways, bridges, stairs and ramps in Florida. March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Hierarchical Level 2 Analysis Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Applying Principle-based System Design: Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Hierarchical Level 1 Analysis FR = Provide a flexible DP = Cellular production in line with Manufacturing System Design customer needs FR1=Classify and March 20, 2006 Σ © © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. group products/ components for simple material flow DP1=Procedure for defining FR2=Define product families production strategy based on product DP2=Procedure for selecting specifications production strategy FR3=Rearrange DP3=Product oriented layout resources to minimize waste DP4=Pull production control system FR4=Provide means to control production based on customer demand March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Applying Principle- Applying Principle-based System Design: Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Product & Process Design For 6 Sigma Hierarchical Level 2 Analysis DP = Cellular Manufacturing System based System Design: Design FR1=Classify and group products/components for simple material flow DP1=Procedure for defining Hierarchical Level 2 product families FR2=Define production strategy based on DP2=Procedure for selecting product specifications production strategy Design Matrix FR3=Rearrange DP3=Product oriented layout resources to minimize waste DP4=Pull production control system FR4=Provide means to control production based on customer demand March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. © Legend ⎧ FR 1 ⎫ ⎡ X 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ DP 1 ⎫ ⎪ FR 2 ⎪ ⎢ X 0 ⎥ ⎪ DP 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ X 0 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ‘X’ : a strong relationship ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬ ‘0’ : absence of such relationship. ⎪ FR 3 ⎪ ⎢ X X X 0 ⎥ ⎪ DP 3 ⎪ ⎪ FR 4 ⎪ ⎢ X ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ X X ⎥⎪ X ⎦ ⎩ DP 4 ⎪ ⎭ Conclusion: The design is decoupled, and thus, satisfies Axiom 1. March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Hierarchical Level 3 Analysis: For FR1(=Classify and Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma group products/ components for simple material flow) with DP1 (=Procedure for defining product families) in mind: Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Applying Principle-based System Design: Product & Process Design For 6 Sigma Hierarchical Level 3 Analysis (FR1) DP1=Procedure for defining product families DP2=Procedure for selecting production strategy DP3=Product oriented layout FR11 = Determine high DP4=Pull production control system volume products/ components to group FR12 = Determine operations and machine DP11 = Product-Quantity Pareto types for producing each Analysis product family DP12 = Machine-Component Incidence Matrix FR13 = Form product families DP13 = Products grouping techniques FR14 = Determine final FR11 = Determine number of machine DP14 = Cost Analysis and economic justification techniques groups March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. © high volume products/ components to group FR12 = Determine operations and machine DP11 = Product-Quantity types for producing each Pareto Analysis product family DP12 = Machine-Component Incidence Matrix FR13 = Form product families DP13 = Products grouping techniques FR14 = Determine final number of machine DP14 = Cost Analysis and economic justification techniques groups March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Applying Principle- Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Hierarchical Level 2 Analysis Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Applying Principle-based System Design: Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Hierarchical Level 1 Analysis FR = Provide a flexible based System Design: DP = Cellular production in line with Manufacturing System Design customer needs FR1=Classify and March 20, 2006 Σ © © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. group products/ components for simple material flow Hierarchical Level 3 DP1=Procedure for defining FR2=Define product families production strategy based on product DP2=Procedure for selecting specifications production strategy Design Matrix (FR1) FR3=Rearrange DP3=Product oriented layout resources to minimize waste DP4=Pull production control system FR4=Provide means to control production based on customer demand March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. © ⎧ FR 11 ⎫ ⎡X 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ DP 11 ⎫ ⎪ FR 12 ⎪ ⎢X 0 ⎥ ⎪ DP 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ X 0 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ FR 13 ⎪ ⎢ 0 X X 0 ⎥ ⎪ DP 13 ⎪ ⎪ FR ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎩ 14 ⎭ ⎣ 0 X X X ⎦ ⎩ DP 14 ⎪ ⎭ Conclusion: The design is decoupled, and thus, satisfies Axiom 1. March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. In Plain English… Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma The sequence of activities revealed by the design matrix is as follows: 1. Establish the high volume products through Product-Quantity (Pareto) analysis (DP11), then… 2. Group similar products (in terms of their process requirements) into product families (DP12), then… There are several algorithmic procedures to accomplish this task. Most of them use the Machine-Component Incidence Matrix. These algorithms swap rows and the columns of this matrix until suitable block-diagonal sub-matrices or near block- diagonal sub-matrices are obtained. The products that fall into the same sub-matrix are candidates to be allocated to a potential cell. 3. Decide on how many of these cells to implement based on economic justification principles (DP13), then… 4. Perform cost benefit analyses on each potential cell formation. In this process, each candidate cell’s contribution to the company’s bottom line in terms of productivity, lead time and profitability together with return on investment are calculated. Those cells that satisfy the company internal rate of return are recommended for formation (DP14) . March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Hierarchical Level 3 Analysis: For FR2(=Define Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma production strategy based on product specifications with DP2 (=Procedure for selecting production strategy) in mind: Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Hierarchical Level 2 Analysis Six Sigma Professio nals, Inc. Applying Principle-based System Design: Produ ct, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Hierarchical Level 1 Analysis FR = Provide a flexible DP = Cellular production in line with Manufacturing System Design customer needs FR1=Classify and March 20, 2006 Σ © © Six Sigma Pr ofessi onals, Inc. group products/ components for simple material flow DP1=Procedure for defining FR2=Define product families production strategy based on product DP2=Procedure for selecting specifications production strategy FR3=Rearrange DP3=Product oriented layout resources to minimize waste DP4=Pull production control system FR4=Provide means to control production based on customer demand March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. © FR21=Determine the master process FR22=Select most appropriate process DP21=Master Process elements selection DP22=Production resources FR23=Determine selection procedure required training/ education needs DP23=Multi-purpose labor training programs FR24=Motivate labor participations DP24=Gain sharing program March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Applying Principle- Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Hierarchical Level 2 Analysis Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Applying Principle-based System Design: Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Hierarchical Level 1 Analysis FR = Provide a flexible based System Design: DP = Cellular production in line with Manufacturing System Design customer needs FR1=Classify and March 20, 2006 Σ © © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. group products/ components for simple material flow Hierarchical Level 3 DP1=Procedure for defining FR2=Define product families production strategy based on product DP2=Procedure for selecting specifications production strategy Design Matrix (FR2) FR3=Rearrange DP3=Product oriented layout resources to minimize waste DP4=Pull production control system FR4=Provide means to control production based on customer demand March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. © ⎧ FR 21 ⎫ ⎡X 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ DP 21 ⎫ ⎪ FR 22 ⎪ ⎢X 0 ⎥ ⎪ DP 22 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ X 0 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ FR 23 ⎪ ⎢0 X X 0 ⎥ ⎪ DP 23 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ FR ⎩ ⎪ 24 ⎭ ⎣0 X X X ⎦ ⎩ DP 24 ⎪ ⎭ Conclusion: The design is decoupled, and thus, satisfies Axiom 1. March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. In plain English… Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma The sequence revealed by the design matrix is as follows: 1. Establish the master process based on product specifications (DP21), then… 2. Determine the production resources (DP22), then… 3. Complete the resource selection (DP23), then… 4. The education and training requirements of the workers can be established (DP24). For ensuring the full participation of workers in the education and training activities followed by transition to cellular manufacturing, appropriate gain sharing programs must be established and announced to the workers for strong buy in. March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Hierarchical Level 3 Analysis: For FR3 (= Rearrange Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma resources to minimize waste) with DP3 (=Product oriented layout) in mind: Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Hierarchical Level 2 Analysis Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Applying Principle-based System Design: Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Hierarchical Level 1 Analysis FR = Provide a flexible DP = Cellular production in line with Manufacturing System Design customer needs FR1=Classify and March 20, 2006 Σ © © Six Sigma Professio nals, Inc. group products/ components for simple material flow DP1=Procedure for defining FR2=Define product families production strategy based on product DP2=Procedure for selecting specifications production strategy FR3=Rearrange DP3=Product oriented layout resources to minimize waste DP4=Pull production control system FR4=Provide means to control production based on customer demand March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. © FR31=Minimize material handling FR32=Eliminate DP31= Material flow oriented wasted motion of layout operators DP32 =Arrangement of stations to facilitate operator tasks FR33=Minimize waste due to imbalance DP33 =Balanced resources in in the system response to Takt time (Takt time=Available Time /Demand) DP24=Gain sharing program March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Partial Zigzagging Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma ⎡ FR 1 ⎤ ⎡ X ⎤ ⎡ DP 1 ⎤ Tree… ⎢ FR 2 ⎥ ⎢ X ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ FR 3 ⎥ ⎢ X ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ X X X ⎥ ⎢ DP 2 ⎥ ⎥*⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ DP 3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ FR 4 ⎦ ⎣ X X X X ⎦ ⎣ DP 4 ⎦ ⎡ FR 41 ⎤ ⎡ X ⎤ ⎡ DP 41 ⎤ ⎢ FR 42 ⎥ = ⎢ X X ⎥* ⎢ DP 42 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ FR 43 ⎥ ⎢ X ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ X X⎥ ⎦ ⎢ DP 43 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ FR 21 ⎤ ⎡X ⎤ ⎡ DP 21 ⎤ ⎡ FR 11 ⎤ ⎡X ⎤ ⎡ DP 11 ⎤ ⎢ FR ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ DP ⎥ ⎡ FR 31 ⎤ ⎡ X ⎤ ⎡ DP 31 ⎤ ⎢ FR 12 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ DP 12 ⎥ 22 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢X X ⎥ * ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢X X ⎥*⎢ 22 ⎥ ⎢ FR 32 ⎥ = ⎢ X X ⎥* ⎢ DP 32 ⎥ ⎢ FR 13 ⎥ ⎢ 0 X X ⎥ ⎢ DP 13 ⎥ ⎢ FR 23 ⎥ ⎢0 X X ⎥ ⎢ DP 23 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ FR 33 ⎥ ⎢ X ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ X X⎥ ⎦ ⎢ DP 33 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ FR 14 ⎦ ⎣ 0 X X X ⎦ ⎣ DP 14 ⎦ ⎣ FR 24 ⎦ ⎣0 X X X ⎦ ⎣ DP 24 ⎦ ⎡ FR 221 ⎤ ⎡X ⎤ ⎡ DP 221 ⎤ ⎢ FR 222 ⎥ ⎢X ⎥ ⎢ DP 222 ⎥ ⎡ FR 231 ⎤ ⎡X ⎤ ⎡ DP 231 ⎤ ⎡ FR 241 ⎤ ⎡ X ⎤ ⎡ DP 241 ⎤ ⎢ FR 242 ⎥ = ⎢ X X X ⎥ ⎢ DP 242 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ * ⎢ FR 223 ⎥ = ⎢ X ⎥ * ⎢ DP 223 ⎥ ⎢ FR 232 ⎥ = ⎢ X X ⎥ ⎢ DP 232 ⎥ * ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ X X ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ FR 224 ⎥ ⎢X X 0 X ⎥ ⎢ DP 224 ⎥ ⎢ FR ⎣ 225 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 X X X ⎥ ⎢ DP 225 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ FR 321 ⎤ ⎡X ⎤ ⎡ DP 321 ⎤ ⎢ FR 322 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 X ⎥ * ⎢ DP 322 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ FR 323 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 X ⎥ ⎢ DP 323 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ FR 411 ⎤ ⎡ X ⎤ ⎡ DP 411 ⎤ ⎡ FR 421 ⎤ ⎡ X ⎤ ⎡ DP 421 ⎤ ⎢ FR 412 ⎥ = ⎢ X X ⎥* ⎢ DP 412 ⎥ ⎢ FR 422 ⎥ = ⎢ X ⎥ * ⎢ DP 422 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ X ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ FR 413 ⎥ ⎢ X X⎥ ⎢ DP 413 ⎥ ⎡ FR 331 ⎤ ⎡X ⎤ ⎡ DP 331 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ X ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ FR 423 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ X X ⎥ ⎢ DP 423 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ FR 332 ⎥ = ⎢0 ⎥* ⎢ DP 332 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ X ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ FR 333 ⎣ ⎥ ⎢0 ⎦ ⎣ 0 X⎥ ⎦ ⎢ DP 333 ⎣ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ FR 431 ⎤ ⎡ X ⎤ ⎡ DP 431 ⎤ ⎡ FR 4211 ⎤ ⎡X ⎤ ⎡ DP 4211 ⎤ ⎡ FR 4221 ⎤ ⎡X ⎤ ⎡ DP 4221 ⎤ ⎢ FR 432 ⎥ = ⎢ X ⎢ FR 4212 ⎥ = ⎢ X X ⎥ ⎢ DP 4212 ⎥ * ⎢ FR 4222 ⎥ = ⎢ X X ⎥ ⎢ DP 4222 ⎥ * X ⎥ ⎢ DP 432 ⎥ * ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. 32 ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Results Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma Metric Before After the the study study Raw matl. stock 11 3.5 (days of inv.) Lead Time (days) 18 7 Scrap Rate 3 1.6 (percentage) Throughput 50 70 (units pairs) Overtime 300 60 (hours/week) WIP (days 6 2.5 inventory) March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©
  • Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. Questions? Product, Service & Process Design For 6 Sigma March 20, 2006 Σ © Six Sigma Professionals, Inc. ©