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  • The Fundamentals of Six Sigma Rick Hefner, Ph.D. and Mike Sturgeon  Six Sigma provides a set of integrated tools and methods for using statistical techniques to meet business goals. By itself, it provides a powerful approach for focusing improvements on the highest-value areas, and of ensuring strong return-on-investment. Combined with other improvement initiatives, such as CMM, CMMI, or ISO, the benefits grow exponentially. Many engineering organizations (including Boeing, Lockheed-Martin, and Northrop-Grumman) have already implemented Six Sigma programs. This presentation will discuss the basics of how to implement Six Sigma. Topics include terms, roles, strategies, and lessons learned. Examples will be drawn from successful implementations across industry.
  • We’ve set up a common set of organization procedures/policies and metrics for our businesses to follow Metrics are collected in a central data base for all our projects (productivity and defect). Policy/procedures derived from Industry and Government standards, as well as internal best practices These are online allowing our projects to draw from them and use the cumulative expertise

Transcript

  • 1. The Fundamentals of Six Sigma Rick Hefner Northrop Grumman Mission Systems [email_address] 23 April 2003
  • 2. Agenda
    • Six Sigma Fundamentals
    • Applying Six Sigma to Engineering
    • Organizational Implementation
  • 3. What is Sigma?
    • Sigma (  ) is the Greek symbol used to represent standard deviation, a measure of the variation from the mean in a normal distribution
      • Six Sigma implies a process where any value outside the spec is a extremely rare occurrence
    Target upper spec lower spec 0.001 parts per million (ppm) 0.001 ppm ± 6 sigmas ( 99.9999998% “good”)
  • 4. What is Six Sigma?
    • Six Sigma is a management philosophy based on meeting business objectives by reducing variation
      • A disciplined, data-driven methodology for decision making and process improvement
    • To increase process performance, you have to decrease variation
    • Greater predictability in the process
    • Less waste and rework, which lowers costs
    • Products and services that perform better and last longer
    • Happier customers
    Defects Defects Too early Too late Delivery Time Reduce variation Delivery Time Too early Too late Spread of variation too wide compared to specifications Spread of variation narrow compared to specifications
  • 5. A Typical Six Sigma Project in Software
    • Customers express concern that software defects are causing frequent failures in the field
    • A Six Sigma team is formed to scope the problem, collect data, and determine the root cause
    • The team’s analysis of the data determines that poorly understood interface requirements account for 90% of the problems in the field
    • The project collects data to verify the problem has been corrected, and continues collecting data to ensure the problem does not return
    • The organization’s requirements solicitation process is modified to ensure future projects do not encounter similar problems
  • 6. Roles & Responsibilities
    • Champions – Facilitate the leadership, implementation, and deployment
    • Sponsors – Provide resources
    • Process Owners – Responsible for the processes being improved
    • Master Black Belts – Serve as mentors for Black Belts
    • Black Belts – Lead Six Sigma projects
      • Requires 4 weeks of training
    • Green Belts – Serve on improvement teams under a Black Belt
      • Requires 2 weeks of training
  • 7. Six Sigma History 1985-1992 Motorola Texas Instruments Period of Design 1993-1994 Asea Brown Boveri Period of Refinement 1994-1996 Allied Signal General Electric Period of Results 1996-1997 Nokia Mobile Phones Bombardier Siebe … Period of Competitive Assessment 1985-1992 Lockheed Martin Sony Crane Polaroid Avery Dennison Shimano Period of New Technology
  • 8. Process Improvement — DMAIC IMPROVE
    • Customer CTQs derived and documented
    • CTQs Measured
    • Process Capability
    • Process Stability
    • Baseline Sigma Calculated
    • Identify, Quantify and Verify Root Causes
    • Benefits Estimated
    • Ongoing Measurement & Monitoring Plan Implemented
    • Process Standardized
    • Benefits Validated
    • Cost/Benefit Analysis
    Charter team, map process & specify CTQs Measure process performance Identify & quantify root causes Select, design & implement solution Institutionalize improvement, ongoing control DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE IMPROVE CONTROL
  • 9. Define Phase
    • Define the project’s purpose and scope and get background on the process and customer
    Charter team, map process & specify CTQs Measure process performance Identify & quantify root causes Select, design & implement solution Institutionalize improvement, ongoing control DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE IMPROVE CONTROL
    • Outputs
    • A clear statement of the intended improvement and how it is to be measured
    • A high level map of the process
    • A list of what is important to the customer
    • Activities
    • Develop business case and team charter
    • Map the current process
    • Listen to the voice of the customer
  • 10. Team Charter
    • A team charter is an agreement between management and the team about what is expected.
    • The charter:
      • Clarifies what is expected of the team
      • Keeps the team focused
      • Keeps the team aligned with organizational priorities
      • Transfers the project from the champion(s) to the project team
    • Key elements
    • Problem statement
    • Business case (financial impact)
    • Measurable goals
    • Project scope (process boundaries)
    • Roles and responsibilities
      • Project team & sponsorship
      • Support required
    • Project description
    • Milestones/deliverables
  • 11. Identify Key Stakeholders Early On
    • Develop communication plan based on level of commitment required
    X = Current Level of Commitment O = Level of Commitment Necessary for Success Hostile Opposed X Uncooperative X Indifferent X Hesitant Compliant O Help it work O O Enthusiastic Support Requirements Leads Developers Testers Level of Commitment Stakeholders (Examples) Tie to CMMI
  • 12. Suppliers-Inputs-Process-Outputs-Customers (SIPOC)
    • High level “as-is” process map
      • 5 to 7 key steps of main action
      • Used to focus on the fundamental elements of the process
    Sideways INPUTS INPUTS (X’s) Operator Copy Machine Paper Power Instructions Document to Copy Set Size Required Place Doc into Position in or on Copier . Set Light/Dark Settings . Select Paper Tray/Source Set Number of Copies Needed OUTPUTS (Y’s) Copies with: Ÿ right number Ÿ right contrast Ÿ correct orientation Ÿ right size Ÿ on right paper OUTPUT (x’s ) Hinges on Lid Auto Feeder Glass Clean (x’s) # Copies Button # Copies Required (x’s) Size display Size buttons (x’s) “ Darker” Button “ Lighter” Button “ Auto” Button (x’s) 8.5 X 11: Landscape 8.5 X 11 Portrait 8.5 X 14 Landscape 8.5 X 14 Portrait 11 X 14 Tray’s with adequate supply of paper Ÿ Product ( y’s ) Ÿ Ÿ Doc set incorrectly Upside Down Ÿ Product ( y’s ) Ÿ Correct # of Copies Ÿ Incorrect # of Copies Ÿ Product ( y’s ) Ÿ Right size selected Ÿ Size too Small Ÿ Size too Large Ÿ Product ( y’s ) Ÿ Right contrast Ÿ Too Light Ÿ Too Dark Ÿ Product ( y’s ) Ÿ Correct Tray Selected Ÿ Incorrect Tray Selected Press “Copy” Button (x’s) Copy Button Led’s Ÿ Product ( y’s ) Ÿ Machine producing copies Ÿ Machine not producing copies Retrieve Copies (x’s) Output Tray Ÿ Product ( y’s ) Ÿ Copies available SUPPLIERS CUSTOMERS Doc set correctly
  • 13. Voice of the Customer (VOC)
    • CT "critical to" matrix links process or CT tree (columns of the matrix) and product or CTY tree (rows)
      • Critical To Satisfaction (CTS)
      • Critical To Quality (CTQ)
      • Critical To Delivery (CTD)
      • Critical To Cost (CTC)
      • Critical To Process (CTP) - Process parameters which significantly influence a CTQ, CTD, and/or CTC
    5 CT Tree Define CTQ Process Input The CT Matrix Structure ... ... CTY Tree (Product Tree) CTX Tree (Process Tree) Tie to CMMI
  • 14. Measure Phase
    • Focus the improvement effort by gathering information on the current situation
    Identify & quantify root causes Select, design & implement solution Institutionalize improvement, ongoing control DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE IMPROVE CONTROL
    • Outputs
    • Baseline data on current process performance
    • Data that pinpoints problem location or occurrence
    • A more focused problem statement
    • Activities
    • Collect baseline data on defects and possible causes
    • Develop a sampling strategy
    • Validate your measurement system
    • Analyze patterns in data
    • Determine process capability
    Measure process performance Charter team, map process & specify CTQs
  • 15. Data Collection Plan
    • Meaning of measurement in relation to project, process, or product
    • What is counted into or excluded
    • Measurement validation method
      • Regular validation during collection
      • Periodic validation of samples or aggregates independent of collection tools and methods
    • Frequency of measurement collection
    • Calculations used to derive an indirect, aggregated, or accumulated value
    • How and where measurements are stored and accessed
    • Tools, methods, resources, and assignments required
    Operational Definition and Procedures Data Collection Plan What questions do you want to answer? Data What Measure type/ Data type How measured Related conditions Sampling notes How/ where How will you ensure consistency and stability? What is your plan for starting data collection? How will the data be displayed? Measurement Consistency and Accuracy Is Vital Operational definitions are critical Tie to CMMI
  • 16. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
    • Used to identify the way in which errors happen; an error mode, the antithesis of function
    • Employed as a diagnostic tool in improvement
    • Used as a prevention tool in design
    • Deals with the three dimensions of an error mode:
      • Severity
      • Detectability
      • Frequency
    Effective tool for focusing the data collection effort on those input and process variables that are critical for the current process. Process or Product Name: Prepared by: Page ____ of ____ Responsible: FMEA Date ( Orig ) ______________ (Rev) _____________ Process Step/Part Number Potential Failure Mode Potential Failure Effects S E V Potential Causes O C C Current Controls D E T R P N Actions Recommended Resp . Actions Taken S E V O C C D E T R P N Process/Product Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Process/Product Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Tie to CMMI
  • 17. Analyze Phase
    • Identify the vital few process and input variables (Xs) that affect CTQ process performance or output measures (Ys)
    Measure process performance Select, design & implement solution Institutionalize improvement, ongoing control DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE IMPROVE CONTROL
    • Outputs
    • A theory that has been tested and confirmed
    • Verified causes that form the basis for solutions in Improve
    • Refined estimate of benefit
    • Activities
    • Develop theories of root causes (organize potential causes)
    • Confirm the theories with data
    • Identify the root cause(s)
    • Use design of experiments (DOE) to optimize
    Identify & quantify root causes Charter team, map process & specify CTQs
  • 18. Organizing Causes
    • Useful tools
      • Brainstorming
      • Affinity Diagram
      • Tree Diagram
      • Cause-and-Effect Diagram
      • “ The Five Whys”
    Tie to CMMI
  • 19. Improve Phase
    • Develop, pilot, and implement solutions that address root causes
    Measure process performance Identify & quantify root causes Institutionalize improvement, ongoing control DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE IMPROVE CONTROL
    • Outputs
    • Planned, tested actions that should eliminate or reduce the impact of the identified root cause(s)
    • Activities
    • Generate, evaluate, and select solutions to identified causes
    • Assess risks and pilot solutions
    • Develop and execute implementation plans
    Select, design & implement solution Charter team, map process & specify CTQs
  • 20. Trade Studies Formal decision making methods to make choices among alternatives & resolve conflicts – involve entire improvement team Select and set up methodology • Choose trade-off methodology • Develop and quantify criteria, including weights where appropriate Identify and select alternatives • Identify alternatives • Select viable candidates for study Analyze results • Calculate relative value based on chosen methodology • Evaluate alternatives • Perform sensitivity analysis • Select preferred alternative • Re-evaluate results Measure performance • Develop models and measurements of merit • Develop values for viable candidates Document process and results Tie to CMMI
  • 21. Control Phase
    • Ensure the problem stays fixed and the new methods can be further improved
    Measure process performance Identify & quantify root causes Select, design & implement solution DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE IMPROVE CONTROL
    • Outputs
    • Before and after analysis
    • Monitoring system
    • Completed documentation of results, learnings and recommendations
    • Validated benefit
    • Activities
    • Establish quality control
    • Standardize effective methods
    • Establish on-going process monitoring
    • Evaluate results/draft future plans
    • Summarize key learnings
    Institutionalize improvement, ongoing control Charter team, map process & specify CTQs
  • 22. Improvement Strategies
    • Fix an existing process
    • Narrow Focus
    • Use current process model
    • Low Risk
    • Shorter Time Span
    • Addressing few CTQs
    • Goal: Improvement
    Is the gap small? Customer Requirements Process Capability Fundamental Redesign Iterative Improvement YES NO
    • Design a new product / process
    • Broad approach
    • Blank sheet of paper approach
    • High Risk
    • Longer time span
    • Addressing many CTQs
    • Goal: Quantum Leap
    DMAIC Design for Six Sigma
  • 23. Define – Measure – Analyze – Design – Verify (DMADV)
    • While DMAIC is used for incremental improvements to a process, DMADV is used for innovative improvements
      • Also called DFSS (Design for Six Sigma)
    • Uses many of the same tools and methods, although the focus is on designing a Six Sigma process from scratch
    Translate VOC needs into requirements Generate, evaluate, & select design concepts Complete high-level and detailed designs DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE DESIGN VERIFY Conduct pilots, implement solutions Charter team & identify CTQs
  • 24. DMADV – Define Develop the Charter/ Business Case Connection to Business Strategy: Market Impact: Business Assumptions: Risk: Identify Internal/External Risks Low Medium High Yellow Light: Proceed with caution Red Light: Address before proceeding Red Light: Do not proceed Yellow Light: Proceed with caution Yellow Light: Proceed with caution Red Light: Reassess project Green Light: Yellow Light: Proceed with caution Red Light: Address before proceeding Low Medium High Probability of Occurrence Impact on Project Proceed! Review Tollgate Requirements Charter Project Plan Organizational Change Plan Risk Management Plan     Develop Organizational Change Plan Current State Desired State Transition State 1 Transition State 2 Transition State 3 Change Path Translate VOC needs into requirements Generate, evaluate, & select design concepts Complete high-level and detailed designs DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE DESIGN VERIFY Conduct pilots, implement solutions Charter team & identify CTQs DEFNE Develop Project Plans
  • 25. DMADV – Measure Understand Voice of the Customer Translate VOC Needs into Requirements (CTQs) CTQ Measures (Hows) Customer Needs (Whats) House of Quality #1 Functions (Hows) CTQ Measures (Whats) House of Quality #2 High Level Design Element Critical Process Functions (Whats) House of Quality #3 Detailed Design Element Process Control Variables High Level Design Element House of Quality #4 Quality Function Deployment (QFD-HOC) Prioritize CTQs Reassess Risks Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 All End Users Intl. Suppliers Domestic Suppliers Design Description Market Segment Platform Management Matrix Translate VOC needs into requirements Generate, evaluate, & select design concepts Complete high-level and detailed designs DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE DESIGN VERIFY Conduct pilots, implement solutions Charter team & identify CTQs DEFNE Needs Importance of CTQ Lunch Preparation—QFD Example Fills Us Up Is Nutritious Tastes Good Easy to Make Easy to Clean Up Sticks with Us Does Not Cost Much Does Not Make a Mess 9 1 1 5.00 1 9 1 3.40 0 0 9 1 3.30 1 9 9 3.70 9 3 2.00 9 1 4.00 3 9 1.00 3 9 2.30 87 36 35 23 33 40 39 6 CTQ Measures Weight of Portion % Nutrition Requirements Met Blindfolded Jury Taste Test Rating Ingredient Cost Time to Prepare Number of Ingredient Measurements Number of Dishes Used Solubility of Ingredients in Soap and Water Importance of Needs
  • 26. DMADV – Analyze Identify Key Functions Prioritize Functions CTQ Measures (Hows) Customer Needs (Whats) House of Quality #1 Functions (Hows) CTQ Measures (Whats) House of Quality #2 High Level Design Element Critical Process Functions (Whats) House of Quality #3 Detailed Design Element Process Control Variables High Level Design Element House of Quality #4 Evaluate and Select Concepts Less Detail /Many Alternatives More Detail/Few Alternatives Most Detail/Single Alternative CONCEPT DESIGN HIGH LEVEL DESIGN DETAILED DESIGN Redesign Concept Review Evaluation Criteria Participants Documentation Data Collection Data Analysis Action Plans Causes of Failure        Translate VOC needs into requirements Generate, evaluate, & select design concepts Complete high-level and detailed designs DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE DESIGN VERIFY Conduct pilots, implement solutions Charter team & identify CTQs DEFNE Check for Errors Enter Order Confirm Order Receipt Transmit Order Info Request Transmitted Order System Boundary
  • 27. DMADV – Design High Level Design Detailed Design Identify Design Elements Prioritize Design Elements Predict Design Performance Design Requirements Develop High Level Design High Level Design Review Identify Detailed Design Requirements Develop Detailed Design Test Detailed Design Detailed Design Review Develop Process Management Plan Prioritize Design Elements Predict Design Performance Translate VOC needs into requirements Generate, evaluate, & select design concepts Complete high-level and detailed designs DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE DESIGN VERIFY Conduct pilots, implement solutions Charter team & identify CTQs DEFNE CAPABILITY FEEDBACK • Combine scores for all • Locate performance gaps • DPMO on scorecard REQUIREMENTS FLOW • Identify customer needs • Outline specifications • Predict performance Performance Parts Score Software Score Process Score DFSS Product Scorecard
  • 28. DMADV – Verify Conduct and Evaluate the Pilot Implement Close Project Translate VOC needs into requirements Generate, evaluate, & select design concepts Complete high-level and detailed designs DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE DESIGN VERIFY Conduct pilots, implement solutions Charter team & identify CTQs DEFNE Plan the Pilot Process Management Chart Pilot Act Plan Check Do PDCA Cycle Act Plan Check Do PDCA Cycle
  • 29. Agenda
    • Six Sigma Fundamentals
    • Applying Six Sigma to Engineering
    • Organizational Implementation
  • 30. Applicability to Engineering
    • Software and system processes are fuzzy
      • Software and systems engineering "parts" are produced using processes lacking predictable mechanizations assumed for manufacturing of physical parts
      • Simple variation in human cognitive processes can prevent rigorous application of the Six Sigma methodology
      • Process variation can never be eliminated or may not even reduced below a moderate level
    • Results often cannot be measured in clear $ savings returned to organization
      • Value is seen in reduced risk, increased customer satisfaction, more competitive bids, …
  • 31. Additional Challenges
    • Difficulty in collecting subjective data
    • Reliability of subjective data
    • Quantifying dynamics of on-going project
    • Capturing process data requires existence of detailed system/software development methodology
    • Defined methodology must be what is executed
      • Difficult for human-intensive activities
  • 32. Elements of Six Sigma throughout CMMI Organizational Process Technology Innovation Causal Analysis and Resolution* 5 Optimizing 4 Quantitatively Managed 3 Defined 2 Managed Continuous process improvement Quantitative management Process standardization Basic project management Organizational Process Performance Quantitative Project Management Organizational Process Focus Organizational Process Definition Organizational Training Integrated Project Management* Risk Management Decision Analysis and Resolution Requirements Development Technical Solution Product Integration Verification Validation Requirements Management * Project Planning* Project Monitoring and Control* Supplier Agreement Management Measurement and Analysis Process and Product Quality Assurance* Configuration Management 1 Performed Process Areas Level Focus Six Sigma Define Six Sigma Analyze Six Sigma Improve Six Sigma Control Six Sigma Measure
  • 33. Gap Between Levels 3 and 4
      • Process fidelity is poor
      • Tailoring is too loose
      • Measurement culture not mature
      • Few measures tracked at event/task level
      • Missing and “dirty” data
      • Data inconsistent across projects
      • Process performance not quantified
      • Cause of performance differences unknown
      • Unfocused org analysis and support
    In Out Level 3 In Out Level 4 The Gap
  • 34. How Six Sigma Helps Process Improvement
    • PI efforts often generate have little direct impact on the business goals
      • Confuses ends with means; results measured in activities implemented, not results
    • Six Sigma delivers results that matter to managers (fewer defects, higher efficiency, cost savings, …)
    • Six Sigma concentrates on problem solving in small groups, focused on a narrow issue
      • Allows for frequent successes (3-9 months)
    • Six Sigma focuses on the customer’s perception of quality
  • 35. Agenda
    • Six Sigma Fundamentals
    • Applying Six Sigma to Engineering
    • Organizational Implementation
  • 36. Organized Enterprise-Wide for Accomplishments
    • Six Sigma efforts leveraged off the successful CMMI infrastructure
      • Common program office and reporting structure
      • Shared staff with skills in both areas
      • Information sharing from Enterprise to Division to Project
    • Mission Systems
      • Process Management staff
      • Mission Systems Process Group
      • Office of Cost Estimation
      • Six Sigma Training Office
      • Dashboards
    • Divisions
      • Division Champions
      • Division Process Groups
      • Training Offices (engineering, management)
    • Projects
      • Self-Assessment Tool
      • Corrective Action System
    • Six Sigma Projects
      • StartIt! Database
      • Best Practice Sharing
    Management Commitment: “ Every engineer and manager will receive 2 weeks of training and serve as a Green Belt on at least one Six Sigma project.”
  • 37. Selecting Six Sigma Projects
    • Select based on:
      • Pain being experienced within the project
      • Organizational issues and objectives
    • Level 4 Six Sigma Projects
      • Identify subprocesses critical to project performance
      • Bring subprocess into statistical control – eliminate special causes
    • Level 5 Six Sigma projects
      • Stabilizing a subprocess typically involves causal analysis
      • Improve subprocess performance – eliminate common causes
      • May require DFSS to meet specific performance targets
  • 38. Six Sigma Lifecycle Six Sigma Business Goals & Metric Category Linkage VOC High Level Priorities (Quantified Gap Analysis) Map Projects Prioritize & Select Projects Dashboard Define Measure Analyze Improve Control
  • 39. Institutionalizing the Improvements Project Plans CMMI Project Results Organizational Training & Tools Industry/Government Standards ISO Customer Specific Organizational Policies & Processes Process Improvement
    • Communications
    • Sharing best-practices
    • Measurement & dashboards
    Metrics Database Organizational Performance Project Performance Project Schedules & Budgets
  • 40. Summary
    • Six Sigma can provide powerful methods and tools for process improvement
      • Many companies have already seen great success
    • Six Sigma supports meeting CMM/CMMI goals
      • Important to coordinate the efforts and share infrastructure
    • Success depends on applying fundamental concepts of business management, quality management, change management, and process management
  • 41. References – Six Sigma
    • Binder, Robert V., “Six Sigma: Hardware Si, Software No!”, http://www.isixsigma.com
    • Card, David, “Sorting Out Six Sigma and the CMM”, IEEE Software, May 2000.
    • Harry, Mikel J., “The Vision of Six Sigma: A Roadmap for Breakthrough.” Phoenix, Arizona: Tri Star Publishing, 1997.
    • Harry, Mikel, J. and Schroeder, Richard, “Six Sigma, The Breakthrough Management Strategy Revolutionizing The World's Top Corporations”, Doubleday, December 1999.
    • Rath & Strong, “Six Sigma Pocket Guide,” Rath & Strong Management Consultants, Lexington, MA, 2001.
    • Siviy, Jeannine, et al, “Software Technology Review (Six Sigma Section)“, http://www.sei.cmu.edu/str/
    • Smith, Larry R., “Six Sigma and the Evolution of Quality in Product Development,” Six Sigma Forum Magazine, Vol. 1, Issue 1, Nov 2001 - www.asq.org/pub/sixsigma/evolution.html#fig2back
    • Websites
    • International Society of Six Sigma Professionals, http://www.issp.com
    • iSixSigma, http://www.isixsigma.com
    • Six Sigma Exchange, http://www.sixsigmaexchange.com
  • 42. References - Other
    • CMMI Product Development Team, “CMMISM for Systems Engineering/Software Engineering, Version 1.02, Staged Representation”, CMU/SEI-2000-TR-030 (and other versions), November 2000, http://www.sei.cmu.edu/pub/documents/00.reports/pdf/00tr030.pdf
    • Hefner, Rick, “Using a Process Database to Facilitate Transition to Level 4”, International Conference on Applications of Software Measurement, 2002.
    • Kimbrought, Tom and Levine, Linda, “The IDEAL Model Transition Framework, Speeding Managed Change”, http://www.sei.cmu.edu/ideal/ideal.present/
    • Kotter, John P., “Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail,” HBR, Mar-Apr 1993, pp. 59-67.
    • Paulk, M.C., B. Curtis, M.B. Chrissis, and C.V. Weber, “Capability Maturity Model for Software, Version 1.1”, CM/SEI-93-TR-24 and CMU/SEI-93-TR-25. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 1993.
    • Purcell, Leitha, “Experiences Using Six Sigma in a SW-CMM® Based Process Improvement Program”, American Society for Quality Six Sigma Conference, January 2001.
    • Schaffar, Robert H. and Thomson, Harvey A., “Successful Change Programs Begin with Results,” HBR, Jan-Feb 1992, pp. 80-89.