Restrictions on use of copyrighted materials. Authorized Use: You may save
one copy onto your hard drive, and utilize the ...
IMPROVING   THE   WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUN




   Tips for Use:
   - This Flash Drive is fully searchable and
     indexed. C...
IMPROVING   THE   WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUN
IMPROVING   THE   WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUN
IMPROVING   THE   WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUN
The


BLACK
    BELT
  Memory
                Jogger      TM



       A Pocket Guide for
      Six Sigma Success




Six ...
The Black Belt Memory Jogger™
 © 2002 by GOAL/QPC and Six Sigma Academy.
 All rights reserved.
 Reproduction of any part o...
Acknowledgments
Our sincerest thanks to the people and organizations
who contributed suggestions and encouragement or
who ...
Foreword
Six Sigma programs have made tremendous contribu-
tions to many organizations worldwide, and we at
GOAL/QPC antic...
Table of Contents
Introduction .................................................................. 1
Roles and Responsibili...
The Black Belt Memory Jogger
Introduction

What is Six Sigma?
The Six Sigma methodologies are a business
philosophy and initiative that enables world-c...
output variables is established, and the process
performance is optimized. The Control phase applies
traditional and stati...
SIPOC
            Understanding the process
            at a high level

Why use it?
To develop a high-level understanding...
How do I do it?
Many teams have trouble working on a SIPOC
(Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs, and Customers)
diagram in...
• What product does this process make?
     • At what point does this process end?
     • What information does this proce...
A Sample SIPOC Diagram

                       Making a Photocopy
 Suppliers        Inputs        Process       Outputs   ...
IMPROVING   THE   WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUN
THE

           TEAM

MEMORY JOGGER™




A pocket guide for team members




           First Edition


 GOAL/QPC and Orie...
The Team Memory Jogger™

    © 1995 GOAL/QPC and Oriel Incorporated
             All Rights Reserved.
 Any reproduction of...
Dear Team Member,
Since the early 1980s, Oriel Incorporated
and GOAL/QPC have both been leaders in
helping organizations c...
Acknowledgments
     We thank the following people for their
           contributions to this book.

Mike Adams, Opryland ...
Table of Contents


Introduction..............................................1



Chapter 1: Preparing to Be an Effective...
Chapter 2: Getting a Good Start
Start-Up Checklist....................................30
Keys to Getting a Good Start........
Implementing Changes..........................100
Checking Results and Progress ............103
Keeping Records and Docume...
Chapter 5: Problems Within the Team
Checklist of Common Problems ............136
Team Problems in a Context .................
INTRODUCTION

Being part of a team
By becoming part of a team, you have a chance
to help your organization tap into a trem...
• While some people work on teams full time,
      most have to juggle team work with their
      ongoing job responsibili...
consciously deciding how they want to work.
   This chapter pulls together key issues that
   teams should work on right u...
from outside experts, there are steps that team
     members can take to help their teams. This
     chapter provides trou...
CHAPTER 1




        PREPARING TO BE AN
      EFFECTIVE TEAM MEMBER


                      Quick Finder
Personal Skills ...
Personal Skills Checklist
Working as part of a team is different than doing a
job by yourself. It requires specific skills...
You and
                 Your Team
Much of this book talks about things that you
and your teammates have to work on togeth...
Taking
               Responsibility
Why it’s important
One of the key things to share on a team is the
responsibility for...
What you can do
 • Commit yourself to being part of the
   team’s success
     – Focus on the team’s purpose.
     – Help ...
Following Through
           on Commitments
Why it’s important
Other team members depend on you to get your
work done so t...
What you can do
 • Make your best effort to keep your
   commitments
     – Find some way to remind yourself of
       dea...
Checking Results
                 and Progress
Why it’s important to your team
Many teams fall into a trap of making chang...
Examples of ways to check progress
The next few pages describe some helpful
techniques for checking progress.
 • First, id...
IMPROVING   THE   WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUN
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  1. 1. Restrictions on use of copyrighted materials. Authorized Use: You may save one copy onto your hard drive, and utilize the copy on this flash drive. Un- authorized Use: Licensee shall not knowingly permit anyone other than the single Authorized User (purchaser) to use this Licensed Material. Modification of Licensed Materials: Licensee shall not modify or create a derivative work of the Licensed Materials without the prior written permission of Licensor, please contact us at goalqpc.com. Removal of Copyright Notice: Licensee may not remove, obscure or modify any copyright or other notices included in the Licensed Materials. Commercial Purposes: Other than as specifically permitted in this Agreement, Licensee may not use the Licensed Materials for commercial purposes, including but not limited to the sale of the Licensed Materials or bulk reproduction or distribution of the Licensed Materials in any form.
  2. 2. IMPROVING THE WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUN Tips for Use: - This Flash Drive is fully searchable and indexed. Click on the left vertical tab called Bookmarks, (if it’s not currently visible, go to the top menu and choose: View - Navigation Tabs - Bookmarks) and use the live links to navigate through the index of each different title. - If you’re looking for specific key terms or tools, choose Edit - Search from the menu, type in a keyword, and it will provide you a list of links where that term is located.
  3. 3. IMPROVING THE WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUN
  4. 4. IMPROVING THE WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUN
  5. 5. IMPROVING THE WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUN
  6. 6. The BLACK BELT Memory Jogger TM A Pocket Guide for Six Sigma Success Six Sigma Academy First Edition GOAL/QPC
  7. 7. The Black Belt Memory Jogger™ © 2002 by GOAL/QPC and Six Sigma Academy. All rights reserved. Reproduction of any part of this publication without the written permission of GOAL/QPC is prohibited. Six Sigma is a federally registered trademark of Motorola, Inc. MINITAB is a trademark of Minitab, Inc. Six Sigma Academy Therese Costich-Sicker, Project Manager Paul Sheehy, Writer Philip Samuel, Ph.D., Copy Editor Daniel Navarro, Writer Terry Ziemer, Ph.D., Copy Editor Robert Silvers, Writer Victoria Keyes, Writer Shannon Godden, Copy Editor John Dziark, Copy Editor Tylar Burton, Copy Editor Marcia Lemmons, Copy Editor Deb Dixon, Writer GOAL/QPC Daniel Picard, Editor Danielle Page, Production Michele Kierstead, Cover Design, Graphics, and Layout Bob Page, Project Manager GOAL/QPC 12B Manor Parkway, Suite 300, Salem, NH 03079-2862 Toll free: 800-643-4316 or 603-893-1944 Fax: 603-870-9122 E-mail: service@goalqpc.com Web site: www.goalqpc.com Printed in the United States of America First Edition 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 ISBN 1-57681-043-7 The Black Belt Memory Jogger
  8. 8. Acknowledgments Our sincerest thanks to the people and organizations who contributed suggestions and encouragement or who gave us permission to adapt their charts, tables, and other information. We are especially grateful to a long-time friend and supporter of GOAL/QPC, Larry Smith of Ford Motor Company, who provided the inspiration for this book. We are indebted to the following reviewers who ensured that the finished book aligned with expectations: Lyn Dolson Pugh, Katherine Calvert, Michael G. Thibeau, Dow Chemical Company; Larry R. Smith, Ford Motor Company; Marc Richardson, JAE Oregon, Inc.; Kristi Brown, Wal-Mart; David M. Oberholtzer, Raytheon Company; Richard K. Bergeron, Seagate Inc. We are also grateful for those who shared with us their vision for this book: Raj Gohil, AT&T Corporate Quality; Rip Stauffer, BlueFire Partners; Jeff Karl, Bombadier Regional Aircraft; C. Gregory Brown, Citigroup; Randy Fach, Dove Consulting; Kui-Sun Yim, Ford Motor Company; Cheryl Rienzo, Honeywell, Inc.; David Fogelson, Honeywell, Inc.; Eric Jakubowski, Motorola, Inc.; John Thomasson, NCR Corporation; Russell Soukup, Pemstar, Inc.; Bill Fechter, Ph.D., Productivity Inc.; Jay P. Patel, Quality & Productivity Solutions, Inc.; Allen C. Rothman, Quad Tech, Inc.; Lynda Owens, Neal Mackertich, Raytheon Company; Swaminathan Balachandran, University of Wisconsin–Platteville. The Black Belt Memory Jogger
  9. 9. Foreword Six Sigma programs have made tremendous contribu- tions to many organizations worldwide, and we at GOAL/QPC anticipate that the long-term benefits will accrue as more organizations learn and apply Six Sigma. However, as Six Sigma becomes more commonplace, it will be accompanied by increased pressure to quickly train Black Belts and to produce results. For some prospective Black Belts, the learning challenge will be daunting and the post-training performance expecta- tions even more so. To help support new and current Black Belts, we de- cided to create a Memory Jogger specifically for their needs. We partnered with Six Sigma Academy and melded their extensive knowledge and experience in Six Sigma tools and methods with GOAL/QPC’s skill in producing Memory JoggerTM pocket guides. In pre- paring this guide, we are assuming that users are familiar with DMAIC processes, the basics of quality management, and the basic quality tools found in The Memory JoggerTM II. The Black Belt Memory JoggerTM serves double duty as a training document for new Black Belts and a ready reference to support their real-world performance. With the help of many reviewers, the experts and practitioners who worked on this project have as- sembled the necessary information to support success- ful Black Belt performance. We trust you will agree. Bob Page GOAL/QPC The Black Belt Memory Jogger
  10. 10. Table of Contents Introduction .................................................................. 1 Roles and Responsibilities .......................................... 7 Project Management .................................................. 11 Critical To Flowdown ............................................... 19 Basic Statistics ............................................................. 33 Process Maps .............................................................. 49 Rolled Throughput Yield .......................................... 55 Sigma Values .............................................................. 61 Cause & Effect/Fishbone Diagram ......................... 65 Measurement Systems Analysis .............................. 73 Capability Indices ...................................................... 95 Graphical Analysis .................................................. 101 Multi-Vari Charts ..................................................... 127 Central Limit Theorem ............................................ 139 Confidence Intervals ............................................... 143 Hypothesis Testing .................................................. 149 Transforming Data ................................................... 157 Correlation and Regression .................................... 167 Binary Logistic Regression ..................................... 179 Design of Experiments ............................................ 185 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis ....................... 211 Control Charts .......................................................... 221 Total Productive Maintenance and Preventative Maintenance ............................................................. 237 Control Plan .............................................................. 241 The Black Belt Memory Jogger
  11. 11. The Black Belt Memory Jogger
  12. 12. Introduction What is Six Sigma? The Six Sigma methodologies are a business philosophy and initiative that enables world-class quality and continuous improvement to achieve the highest level of customer satisfaction. Metrics are established that align an organization’s strategic goals and values to that of their customer’s needs and expectations. Sigma (σ) represents a unit of measurement that designates the distribution or spread about the mean (average) of a process. In business, a sigma value is a metric that represents how well a process is performing and how often a defect is likely to occur. The higher the sigma value, the less variation and fewer defects the process will have. Six Sigma is the new standard of excellence at only 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO). How does it work? The Six Sigma philosophy uses data and statistical tools to systematically improve processes and sustain process improvements. Process metrics are evaluated based on a comparison of average and variation to performance specifications or targets. The methodology is a project-focused approach consisting of five phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. Projects are selected and Defined from business, operational, and customer needs, based on their linkage to executive strategies. In the Measure phase, tools are applied to validate the measurement system and to characterize the process. In the Analyze and Improve phases, sources of variation are identified, a statistical relationship between the process input and ©2002 GOAL/QPC, Six Sigma Academy Introduction 1 The Black Belt Memory Jogger
  13. 13. output variables is established, and the process performance is optimized. The Control phase applies traditional and statistical tools to sustain process improvements. Emphasis is placed on controlling the key process inputs to consistently achieve key process outputs. The DMAIC Model What is it? The DMAIC model is a set of tools outlined in five phases that are used to characterize and optimize both business and industrial processes. Each project must complete the five phases in chronological order. Define Phase In the Define phase, the customer needs are stated and the processes and products to be improved are identified. Steps Activities/Tools Output(s) Create • Define process to • Problem statement problem improve • Project scope statement • Define project • Project goals objectives • Identify project stakeholders • Identify customers Identify • CT Trees • Identified customer CTQs needs Define • Identify performance • Gap analysis performance measures • Business impact standards • Financial analysis (project savings) • High-level process • Project definition mapping • Project charter • Project plan/ timeline • High-level process map • Definition of performance measures 2 Introduction ©2002 GOAL/QPC, Six Sigma Academy The Black Belt Memory Jogger
  14. 14. SIPOC Understanding the process at a high level Why use it? To develop a high-level understanding of the process that is under study, including the upstream and down- stream links. What does it do? • Defines project boundaries (i.e., starting and ending points) • Describes where to collect data • Identifies suppliers and customers (i.e., stake- holders who need to be considered as part of your project) • Identifies inputs and outputs (i.e., what is flowing in and flowing out of the process) • Helps to support process thinking within your organization The SIPOC Process S C u u p s p t l Inputs Process Outputs o i m e e r r s s ©2002 GOAL/QPC SIPOC 235 The Six Sigma Memory Jogger II
  15. 15. How do I do it? Many teams have trouble working on a SIPOC (Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs, and Customers) diagram in order (i.e., starting with Suppliers and then moving onto Inputs, and so on). The following steps are often a more useful sequence for identifying SIPOC elements. 1. Start by identifying the starting and ending points of the process you are studying 2. State the purpose of the process. Ask: • Why does this process exist? • What is the purpose of this process? • What is the outcome? 3. Fill in the main process steps between the starting and ending points so you have a total of five to seven steps. Think of your diagram as a top-level flowchart, where the focus is on main steps, not details. Here you are not concerned with loops or errors. To identify the main steps in the process, ask the following questions: • What happens to each input? • What conversion activities take place? Tip When doing a SIPOC analysis, be sure to keep the process to between five and seven steps. You want to portray an overall picture of the major actions that occur in the process, not delve into details. 4. Identify outputs from the process. Outputs can include physical products, documents, informa- tion, services, and decisions. To identify outputs, ask the following questions: 236 SIPOC ©2002 GOAL/QPC The Six Sigma Memory Jogger II
  16. 16. • What product does this process make? • At what point does this process end? • What information does this process produce? 5. Identify the customers for each output by asking: • Who uses the products/information supplied from this process? • Who are the customers of this process? 6. Identify the key process inputs. Here it helps to try to think of what actually flows through your pro- cess and what is being transformed. Is it a physical part or raw materials? A form? Documentation? A sample? Most process inputs are primarily in the form of materials and information, but they can also include ideas, labor, and environment. To identify inputs, ask: • What flows into the process? • What triggers the process to start? 7. Identify the key suppliers for each input by asking: • Where does the information or material we work on come from? Who are our suppliers? • What do they supply? • Where do they affect the process flow? • What effect do they have on the process and on the outcome? Tip Some suppliers might provide more than one input, and a process often has more than one output. ©2002 GOAL/QPC SIPOC 237 The Six Sigma Memory Jogger II
  17. 17. A Sample SIPOC Diagram Making a Photocopy Suppliers Inputs Process Outputs Customers Put original on glass You Close lid Office supply Paper; company copier setup Copies File Adjust settings Yourself Original Others Press START Remove originals and copies Tip After you complete the SIPOC diagram for your project, take a few minutes to review the charter and make any modifications that you think are appropriate. 238 SIPOC ©2002 GOAL/QPC The Six Sigma Memory Jogger II
  18. 18. IMPROVING THE WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUN
  19. 19. THE TEAM MEMORY JOGGER™ A pocket guide for team members First Edition GOAL/QPC and Oriel Incorporated
  20. 20. The Team Memory Jogger™ © 1995 GOAL/QPC and Oriel Incorporated All Rights Reserved. Any reproduction of any part of this publication without the written permission of GOAL/QPC (603) 890-8800 or Oriel Incorporated (608) 238-8134 is prohibited. Development Team GOAL/QPC Joiner Associates Inc. Michael Brassard, Sue Reynard, Writer and Developer Project Leader Bob Page, Project Leader Barbara Streibel, Subject Matter Expert Dorie Overhoff, Marketing & Customer Research Pat Zander, Marketing Michele Kierstead, Layout Laurie Joiner, Executive Advisor Vice President Richard Morrison, Chief Brian Sullivan, Desktop Operating Officer Publishing Jan Angell, Desktop Publishing Printed in the United States of America First Edition 10 9 8 7 6 5 The Team Memory Jogger
  21. 21. Dear Team Member, Since the early 1980s, Oriel Incorporated and GOAL/QPC have both been leaders in helping organizations continuously improve their business performance. We both have publications that organizations have found helpful in creating a more productive workplace through techniques such as process improvement, problem solving, and effective teamwork. The Memory Jogger™ has helped over 5 million customers around the world make fuller use of graphical and statistical methods. The Team Handbook, with more than 700,000 copies in circulation, has helped thousands of teams achieve significant progress. We have now joined together to create a convenient, practical guide for team members—The Team Memory Jogger™. Here you’ll find additional inspiration, information, and tips you need for even more productive teamwork. Please let us know what you think. Sincerely, The Team Memory Jogger
  22. 22. Acknowledgments We thank the following people for their contributions to this book. Mike Adams, Opryland Kevin Kelleher, Oriel USA Incoporated Carol Anderson, Park Donna Koenig, Land Nicollet Medical Center O’Lakes Davis Balestracci, Park Robyn Kuttler, Inova Nicollet Medical Center Health Systems Daniel Brown, Busch John Lowe, Sea World Entertainment Corp. of Ohio Elaine Engelke, Public Kimberly Maginnis, Service Commission Urgent Medical Care Bob Faneuff, Air Force Ralph Miller, S&B Quality Institute Engineering Bill Farrell, Army & Air Keith Nowack, Atlantic Force Exchange Steel Corporation Paul Grunzke, Air Antonio Rodriguez, Force Quality Institute Department of the Navy Kathleen Holm, Land Dan Sage, Public O’Lakes Service Commission Brian Joiner, Joiner Don Walker, Toshiba Associates Inc. USA The Team Memory Jogger
  23. 23. Table of Contents Introduction..............................................1 Chapter 1: Preparing to Be an Effective Team Member Personal Skills Checklist ...........................6 You and Your Team....................................7 Taking Responsibility .................................8 Following Through on Commitments .....................................10 Contributing to Discussions .....................12 Listening to Understand...........................15 Getting Your Message Across Clearly .....................................................19 Giving Useful Feedback ..........................21 Accepting Feedback ................................26 Action Tips ...............................................28 The Team Memory Jogger
  24. 24. Chapter 2: Getting a Good Start Start-Up Checklist....................................30 Keys to Getting a Good Start...................31 Agreeing on a Team Purpose ..................32 Identifying Stakeholders ..........................37 Identifying Limits and Expectations .........44 Defining Team Roles ...............................48 Agreeing on Ground Rules ......................53 Arranging Logistics ..................................58 Action Tips ...............................................60 Chapter 3: Getting Work Done in Teams Team Work Methods Checklist ................62 Working in Teams ....................................63 Creating Work Plans ...............................64 Having Productive Meetings....................71 Using Data...............................................87 Making Good Decisions...........................92 Evaluating Potential Solutions .................96 The Team Memory Jogger
  25. 25. Implementing Changes..........................100 Checking Results and Progress ............103 Keeping Records and Documentation...108 Action Tips .............................................110 Chapter 4: Knowing When and How to End Closure Checklist ...................................112 When It’s Time to End............................113 Knowing You Have Achieved Your Purpose .........................................114 Maintaining the Gains ............................116 Completing Your Documentation ...........120 Evaluating Your Team’s Work ................124 Sharing Results .....................................126 Recognition and Celebration .................132 Action Tips .............................................134 The Team Memory Jogger
  26. 26. Chapter 5: Problems Within the Team Checklist of Common Problems ............136 Team Problems in a Context .................137 Handling Conflict and Disagreement .....138 Dealing With Power and Authority .........144 Dealing With Overbearing Experts ........146 Lack of Focus ........................................149 Too Much Agreement.............................154 Uneven Participation .............................156 Lack of Follow-Through .........................158 Action Tips .............................................160 Index .....................................................161 The Team Memory Jogger
  27. 27. INTRODUCTION Being part of a team By becoming part of a team, you have a chance to help your organization tap into a tremendous reservoir of talent, knowledge, and creativity… YOU! You also have a chance to take advantage of a great learning opportunity. • You can learn more about your job and the people you work with, as well as your organization and its customers. • You also have a chance to learn and practice useful work skills. But working on a team also has challenges. • For one thing, teams are often brought together to deal with complex or long- standing business problems. So the work itself may not be easy. Periods of rapid progress will likely alternate with periods of frustrating setbacks. • In addition, coordinating the efforts, schedules, and interests of many people is not simple. The Team Memory Jogger
  28. 28. • While some people work on teams full time, most have to juggle team work with their ongoing job responsibilities. • Though it is exciting to be with people who have different ideas and perspectives, it can also lead to conflict and frustration. The Team Memory Jogger™ can help you take advantage of the rewards offered by team membership and work through the challenges. How this book can help This book contains guidelines that can increase your chances of having a good team experience. It is intended to serve as a quick reminder of things you have already learned through training or experience on the job. The topics are: • Preparing to be an effective team member (Chapter 1, pp. 5-28) A team can only be as effective as its individual members. This chapter covers basic skills that can help you contribute to your team. • Getting a good start (Chapter 2, pp. 29-60) Many teams get well into an effort without fully understanding why they exist or 2 Introduction The Team Memory Jogger
  29. 29. consciously deciding how they want to work. This chapter pulls together key issues that teams should work on right up front. • Doing work as a team (Chapter 3, pp. 61-110) Many of the basic work skills you already have are useful for working on a team as well. This chapter provides reminders on how to use those skills when working with other people. • Knowing when and how to end (Chapter 4, pp. 111-134) It is easy for team members to get so wrapped up in a particular effort that they ignore the signals that indicate it is time to stop and move on to something else. This chapter reviews steps the team can take to end successfully. • Problems within the team (Chapter 5, pp. 135-160) All teams run into problems now and then. There are times when people get along and work flows smoothly, and times when people argue and progress stops. Learning how to work through the problem times is critical for having an effective team. While some team problems are quite serious and require help Introduction 3 The Team Memory Jogger
  30. 30. from outside experts, there are steps that team members can take to help their teams. This chapter provides troubleshooting tips on how to work through team problems Who is this book for? This book is targeted at team members—the people who carry out the work of the team. Each topic is examined from the viewpoint of what a team member can do, not what the team leader or a manager should do. The basic information here is relevant to all kinds of teams—project teams, process improvement teams, self-directed or intact work teams, task forces, and so on. How to use this book • If you have a specific topic you’re interested in, check the Index or Table of Contents. • To get an overview of what’s in each chapter, go to the chapter title pages (they all have a blue edge). Turn the page and you’ll see a checklist to help you determine which topic might be useful to you. 4 Introduction The Team Memory Jogger
  31. 31. CHAPTER 1 PREPARING TO BE AN EFFECTIVE TEAM MEMBER Quick Finder Personal Skills Checklist ...........................6 You and Your Team....................................7 Responsibility ............................................8 Commitments ..........................................10 Discussions .............................................12 Listening ..................................................15 Communicating Messages ......................19 Giving Feedback......................................21 Accepting Feedback ................................26 Action Tips ...............................................28 The Team Memory Jogger
  32. 32. Personal Skills Checklist Working as part of a team is different than doing a job by yourself. It requires specific skills, many of which you may already have. Take a minute to ask yourself how ready you are to be part of a team. es tim For example, y rel ten me how often do you… Ra So Of Take responsibility for the ❍ ❍ ❍ success of the team (p. 8) Follow through on ❍ ❍ ❍ commitments (p.10) Contribute to discussions ❍ ❍ ❍ (p. 12) Actively listen to others ❍ ❍ ❍ (p. 15) Get your message across ❍ ❍ ❍ clearly (p. 19) Give useful feedback ❍ ❍ ❍ (p. 21) Accept feedback easily ❍ ❍ ❍ (p. 26) 6 Preparing to Be an Effective Team Member © 1995 GOAL/QPC, Oriel Incorporated The Team Memory Jogger
  33. 33. You and Your Team Much of this book talks about things that you and your teammates have to work on together— like creating plans, making changes, solving problems. But the real foundation of a strong team is strong members: People committed to making the team a success. People who know how to get their ideas across. People who can listen to others and who are open to new ideas. People who are willing to expose and deal with problems rather than hide them under the rug. Nobody reaches this stage overnight. And no one ever does all these things all the time. But with practice, we can all become more effective team members. Tips on using this chapter • Review the checklist on the previous page and evaluate how well you practice these skills. • Read about the areas you’d like to improve. • Later on, skim through this chapter periodically to remind yourself of key points. Preparing to Be an Effective Team Member 7 © 1995 GOAL/QPC, Oriel Incorporated The Team Memory Jogger
  34. 34. Taking Responsibility Why it’s important One of the key things to share on a team is the responsibility for making it a success. Having all team members be responsible is important because… • Teams often get involved in work that is important to the organization’s business success. • Doing this work well requires the commitment and dedication of all team members. • Each team member has a unique perspective to offer. – Often the best ideas are left unsaid. Your ideas may be critical to helping the team find a workable solution. 8 Preparing to Be an Effective Team Member © 1995 GOAL/QPC, Oriel Incorporated The Team Memory Jogger
  35. 35. What you can do • Commit yourself to being part of the team’s success – Focus on the team’s purpose. – Help the team get its work done. – Speak out when you think the team is going in a wrong direction. – Remember that you are working with other people, not against them. • Help your team build a common understanding of the issues it faces – Speak up when you have ideas to share. – Listen to others and let them influence you; build on ideas already offered. – Express your support of others’ ideas. • Be responsible for what you say and do – Keep your commitments to the team. (See p. 10) – Be aware of how your words and actions affect your team. (See pp. 12 and 21) Preparing to Be an Effective Team Member 9 © 1995 GOAL/QPC, Oriel Incorporated The Team Memory Jogger
  36. 36. Following Through on Commitments Why it’s important Other team members depend on you to get your work done so they can get their work done. Completing assignments on time helps your team make progress and maintain momentum. ➤ TIP Ask your teammates, team leader, or manager for help if you have trouble following through on commitments. See if your workload can be temporarily adjusted or if others could help you complete specific tasks. 10 Preparing to Be an Effective Team Member © 1995 GOAL/QPC, Oriel Incorporated The Team Memory Jogger
  37. 37. What you can do • Make your best effort to keep your commitments – Find some way to remind yourself of deadlines and commitments. For example, make notes in a calendar or carry a small pocket-sized notebook. – If you cannot follow through on a particular task, let people know as soon as possible so other arrangements can be made. • Consider your current commitments and priorities before agreeing to take on more work – Discuss your priorities with your supervisor, manager, or team leader. – Though it can be hard to do, saying “no” is more helpful to the team than promising to do something you cannot do. Preparing to Be an Effective Team Member 11 © 1995 GOAL/QPC, Oriel Incorporated The Team Memory Jogger
  38. 38. Checking Results and Progress Why it’s important to your team Many teams fall into a trap of making changes and assuming they will get the results they wanted. Effective teams, however, know that it’s critical to monitor results, check progress, and modify the changes as needed. What you can do • Before the change, help your team understand the current situation – What happens now in the workplace? Volunteer to help collect data or other information. • Help to identify “measures of progress” – What will be different if the change has the desired effect? (See p. 105) • After the changes, help your team collect new data – Prepare “before” and “after” charts displaying the results. (See p. 106) Getting Work Done in Teams 103 © 1995 GOAL/QPC, Oriel Incorporated The Team Memory Jogger
  39. 39. Examples of ways to check progress The next few pages describe some helpful techniques for checking progress. • First, identify measures of progress. (See p. 105) • Create simple displays of “before” and “after” data. (See p. 106) • Track results by adding an extra column to your planning grid (discussed earlier in the chapter, p. 68), or create a new check form. (See p. 107) 104 Getting Work Done in Teams © 1995 GOAL/QPC, Oriel Incorporated The Team Memory Jogger
  40. 40. IMPROVING THE WAY ORGANIZATIONS RUN

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