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  • 1. ก กก ก : ก ก ! "# ก ! $"#- & (& ) & , ) species ก 0# ) 12 3 ( ) ก ก & (& & 4- & (& & (ก , species (ก ก ) ก ก 3 ก( & (& &
  • 2. - ก ) ก 5 ก ก " 3 0# 6 & 0- ก 5 ก ก " 3 ก 0 4 &#788- 5 ก # ก9: ก 0- 5 ก " # ก9: 0ก
  • 3. 2( )# 6 ก ( Genetic variation )1.2( )# 6 4 ( Continuous variation ) ก H -" ) ก2( ) ก " 3 - 2( ) ก I ก # ก9 #J K 5 4 ก - 0ก2(52 1 gene 20 - & )( 3 & & ก ) ก - 2( ก (I3 3 #& - ก M) 2( I ก ) ก #J 0#123 #ก & - ( 2( 0 HK ก &#788 2( : ก : 36 6 &
  • 4. 2. 2( )# 6 " 4 ( Discontinuous variation ) ก H - 2( ) ก - 0ก2(52 1 gene 3 20 - & )( 3 6 ก ) ก 3 ก - 2( ก (I3 3 2 P - ก M2( I ก ) ก " 3ก M 0#) - ( 0 4 ก &H & 0 ก &H
  • 5. 2K 2( 031. Gamete2. Gene3. Allele P P homozygous for the dominant allele a a homozygous for the recessive allele B b heterozygous recessive allele , dominant allele
  • 6. 4. Genotypeก I TT , Tt , tt 4 T/T , T/t , t/t Genotype 2 )55 24 - homozygous genotype ` homozygous dominant - homozygous recessive - heterozygous genotype5. Phenotype6. Dominant7. Recessive
  • 7. ก ก ก5 & )( 3 & )( 3 & & ก ก ก ` 3 I!H ก5IH K : 3 ก& ก H $- 3 ก ก H ก (I3 ก5#7 ก H 1ก " 35& & ก & )( 3 ก 2( 0 &#788 # & ก : 3 HK I 12- 3 ก ก H #J ก ก& ก#9&ก& & P : e 2( 6& #ก &P : e & )( 3 & & 3 ก 6&( 64 ก 5 0 4
  • 8. # ( &) 6 I
  • 9. Unit factor 5( ก $I ( 0ก2(52 1 ก 2 ( &I 3 (1. H # 0ก 6 ก g ก2. ก ) ก ก 3. 12 3 ก" #h 1 ก : 3 ก 6 I3 3 2( K g I1. ก !ก 0ก2(52 1 gene 1 202. ก !ก ) ก ก 3. :3 4 " 3 4. :3 ` ) #J ) 3 5. #J ก2 &
  • 10. ก I
  • 11. ( I ก -) ก I ก I ก H F1 F2 : F22( 0 K 3 0 H 0 0 787 H 2.84 : 10# I k7ก (5 )M5 (5 (5 882 )M5 2.95 : 10# I ก II ก ก 5474 II 2.96 : 1 g I g 4 I( 4 4 I( 3.01 : 1 K) ก ก ก& ก ก ก& ก ก& ก 3.14 : 1 I ก ( I( ( ( I( 3.15 : 1 I k7ก I( 4 I( I( 4 2.82 : 1
  • 12. #ก I1. P = Parential generation ก ,, F1 = first filial generation %& ,, F2 = second generation2. *+,- .,/ 0/ 1ก234 &- 1 5ก 6 6 6 . ก factor3. ก F1 84 . 1ก234 .,9 &ก:6% ; ก1 %4. ก6ก+ 8&กก& =1 > - gene 8&ก &- 4/ ?,-5. 6 . ก 1ก234 .,9 &ก:A F1 & Dominant 6 . ก 1ก234 .,9 &ก:A F2 & Recissive6. 1ก234 .,9 &ก:A F1 : 1ก234 .,9 &ก:A F2 = 3 : 1
  • 13. กnI1. Law of segregation P TT x tt T T t t gamete P Tt x Tt gamete T t T t
  • 14. 2. Law of independent assortmente 45 ) ก กก ( ก 3 e 45( ก : " 3 & H P Tt x Tt gamete T t T t F1 TT Tt Tt tt
  • 15. Test ` cross#J ก 6 4 5 genotype I & (& ( #J ) 3 4 1 K "#6 ก5 Homozygous recessive H g ก - RR 4 Rr g ก x rr g ก x rr g ก g ก : g II . . g ก = RR 1: 1 g ก = Rr
  • 16. Back cross#J ก 6 1 ก K 0ก6 F1 ก 5"#6 ก5 4 )ก ก ก ก ( ( Monohybrid cross )
  • 17. ก& I& 1ก234 1 5ก 2 1ก234( Dihybrid cross )- #J ก ก ก 1 & ก I & (& 2 ก 3 ก-: ก & ( genotype ,phenotype K " 3 2 (& H 1. Punnet Squares: 3 R = gene 2(52 ก g ก r = gene 2(52 ก g II Y = gene 2(52 ก g 4 y = gene 2(52 ก g I(
  • 18. P I1, 6 O ก *.6% ; - x I1, 6 O > > 4*.6>. RRYY rryygamete Ry ryF1 RrYyF1xF1 RrYy x RrYyGamete R Y - RY R Y - RY y - Ry y - Ry r Y - rY r Y - rY y - ry y - ry
  • 19. RY Ry rY ryRY RRYY RRYy RrYY RrYyRy RRYy RRyy RrYy RryyrY RrYY RrYy rrYY rrYyry RrYy Rryy rrYy rryy
  • 20. Phenotype Genotype ( ( genotype phenotype RRYY 1 / 16g ก - 4 RRYy 2 / 16 9 / 16 RrYY 2 / 16 RrYy 4 / 16g ก -I( RRyy 1/ 16 3 / 16 Rryy 2 / 16g II - 4 rrYY 1 / 16 3 / 16 rrYy 2 / 16g II -I( rryy 1 / 16 1 / 16
  • 21. # 1. genotype 9 & 2. ( genotype 1 : 2 : 2 : 4 : 1 : 2 : 1 : 2 : 1 3. phenotype 4 & 4. ( phenotype 9 : 3 : 3 : 1
  • 22. 2. Branching system P I1, 6 O ก 6% ; - x I1, 6 O > > 4 - 6>. RRYY rryygamete RY ryF1 RrYyF1 x F1 RrYy RrYy RrRr YyYygamete ¼ RR : 2/4 Rr : ¼ rr ¼ YY : 2/4 Yy : ¼ yy
  • 23. 1ก234 ., 1 1ก234 ., 2 1= &* genotype ¼ YY 1 / 16 RRYY1 / 4 RR 2 / 4 Yy 2 / 16 RRYy 1/4 yy 1 / 16 RRyy ¼ YY 2 / 16 RrYY2 / 4 Rr 2 / 4 Yy 4 / 16 RrYy 1/4 yy 2 / 16 Rryy ¼ YY 1 / 16 rrYY1 / 4 rr 2 / 4 Yy 2 / 16 rrYy 1/4 yy 1 / 16 rryy
  • 24. ก 1 ก 2 ( Phenotype3/ 4 ก 3/4 4 9 / 16 g ก - 4 1/4 I ( 3 / 16 g ก -I(1/4I I 3/4 4 3 / 16 g II - 4 1/4 I ( 1 / 16 g II -I( 3. 1 ก :3 0-K ( & gamete = 2n-K ( & genotype = 3n-K ( & phenotype = 2n
  • 25. 1. Aa BB Cc2. Aa Bb Cc DD Ee FF
  • 26. 0#)55ก ก ก 1. ก )55 Complete Dominant#J ก ก 1 gene I gene 3 " 3 50 #J "# กn H F1 #J ก F2 #J ก : ก 3 =3:1 =9:3:3:1
  • 27. 2. ก )55 Incomplete Dominant2.1 ก ก ก5 gF1 genotype = Aa 0F2 genotype AA : Aa : aa = 1 : 2 : 1 phenotype ) : 0 : I ( = 1 : 2 : 1
  • 28. 2.2 ก I I "ก Andalusion blue
  • 29. 2.3 ก ก I I 122.4 ก ก ก &H ก
  • 30. 3. ก ก )55 Co ` dominant: ก H gene H 2(52 ก " I e! ก )ก ) ) 2( " 3 $ก ! # ก9 ก ก ( ก 0 4 ABO allele ก (I3 IA , IB ) i#ก & gr A genotype IA IA, IA i gr B ,, I B IB , IB i gr AB ,, I A IB gr ii genotype ii
  • 31. 4. ก ก )55 Over dominantก& ก allele : P heterozygous ) กPhenotype 4 ก( allele : P homozygous I `) P TT 0 3 M tt 0 1 M F Tt 0 6 M
  • 32. Multiple alleleก allele gene ก& ก( 2 )55I!H "# 2(52 ก) กI ก : ก ! 1 gene ก ( K) 05 chromosome #J homologous ก . 1. ก I 0 4 ABO 0 4 ABO gene 2(52 3 allele 24 IA, IB ) iiIA = allele 2(52 ก 3 antigen AIB = allele 2(52 ก 3 antigen B