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Chapter                  5      Organising and Staffing the              SalesforceSDM-Ch.5                        1
Learning Objectives  • To understand the concepts of the sales organisation, and    the basic types of sales organisations...
Concepts of Sales                 Organisation  • A sales organisation assists the sales manager    to carry out needed ta...
Basic Types of Sales                  Organisations  Sales organisations are generally classified into  four basic types: ...
Line                               Organisation                                        Head                               ...
Line and Staff                                 Organisation                                      Head-Marketing           ...
Functional                                        Organisation                                          Head-Marketing    ...
Horizontal                               Organisation               Operations Team:   Research & Design Team:            ...
Specialisation within Sales                 Organisation  • Needed to increase effectiveness of salesforce  • Done by expa...
Geographic Specialisation                                           Head-Marketing       Marketing Research            Gen...
Product Specialisation    •   Used when the company has many products and / or brands    •   Two types of product speciali...
Product Specialisation (Continued)                                     Head-Marketing Marketing Research    Promotion     ...
Market Specialisation                                                  General Sales                                      ...
Combination Sales                                Organisation                                       Director – Sales      ...
Alternatives for Major Accounts • Major accounts / customers are called by various   names like key accounts, corporate ac...
Size of the                    Salesforce  • How many salespeople needed (or salesforce    size) to achieve a firm’s sales...
Workload                                   Method  •    Assumption: All salespeople have equal workload  •    Steps involv...
Workload Method (Continued)  • Advantages: simple method, conceptually sound, used for all    types of selling situations ...
Incremental Method  • It is based on marginal analysis theory of economics  • Basic concept: Net profits will increase whe...
Salesforce Staffing  • It is one of the most challenging and important    responsibilities / activities of sales managemen...
Planning                         Stage  • It consists of three steps:     • Establish responsibility for staffing process ...
Planning Stage (Continued)           Decide the number of salespeople needed  •    Steps followed by each territory sales ...
Outline Type of Salespeople                         Needed  The steps involved in the process are:     • Conducting a job ...
Preparing a Job Description  • It is a written document developed from the job    analysis  • The detailed job description...
Developing Job Qualifications /                     Specifications  • These are generally based on job description  • Job ...
Recruiting Salesforce  • Recruiting include activities to get individuals who will    apply for the job  • The general pur...
Finding the Sources of Sales Recruits • For identifying prospective candidates, firms use internal   and external sources....
Evaluating and selecting Recruiting Sources  • Recruiting sources are evaluated based on the database    built over number...
Selecting Salesforce  • Selection process consists of seven major selection    steps / tools  • Companies differ in using ...
Screening Resumes  • It is done when the company receives many resumes  • This step / tool not required, if somebody else ...
Interviews  • Widely used selection tool  • A good predictor of the candidate’s performance  • Initial interviews are used...
Testing  • Many firms use tests as a selection tool – EG P&G, IBM  • Purpose of testing: To find whether applicants have t...
Reference Checks  • They are important due to possibilities of resume frauds and    false personal information  • They are...
Hiring Stage  • After completing selection process, a list of candidates to be    hired is made  • In hiring stage, two ac...
Key Learnings  • A sales organisation assists a sales manager to carry    out needed tasks efficiently and effectively  • ...
Key Learnings (Continued)• Salesforce staffing process includes five stages: planning,  recruiting, selecting, hiring, soc...
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  1. 1. Chapter 5 Organising and Staffing the SalesforceSDM-Ch.5 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives • To understand the concepts of the sales organisation, and the basic types of sales organisations • To know specialization within the sales organisation, and alternative organizational approaches for major accounts • To determine the size of the salesforce by using various methods • To understand the major stages of salesforce staffing process, consisting of planning, recruiting, selecting, hiring, socialisation and assimilation • To realise the importance of the various steps included in planning, recruiting, and selection stagesSDM-Ch.5 2
  3. 3. Concepts of Sales Organisation • A sales organisation assists the sales manager to carry out needed tasks efficiently and effectively to achieve results • The basic concepts of the sales organisation are: • Degree of centralisation • Degree of specialisation • Line or staff positions • Market orientation • Effective co-ordinationSDM-Ch.5 3
  4. 4. Basic Types of Sales Organisations Sales organisations are generally classified into four basic types: • Line Organisation • Line and staff organisation • Functional organisation • Horizontal organisation We shall discuss main characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of each type of sales organisationSDM-Ch.5 4
  5. 5. Line Organisation Head Marketing Sales Manager Area Sales Area Sales Area Sales Area Sales Manager3 Manager4 Manager1 Manager2 salespeople salespeople salespeople salespeople Characteristics: All managers have line authority to direct and control subordinates. Used in small firms / departments Advantages: Simple organisation, clear authority, quick decisions, low cost Disadvantages: No support to line managers from subordinates who have specialised knowledge / skills. Less time for planning / analysisSDM-Ch.5 5
  6. 6. Line and Staff Organisation Head-Marketing Marketing Research Promotional Customer Service Sales Manager Manager Manager Manager Area Sales Area Sales Area Sales Manager-1 Manager-1 Manager-1 Salespeople Salespeople Salespeople Characteristics: Specialist staff managers are available for senior marketing / sales managers. Staff managers’ role is to assist / advise line managers. Used in medium and large size organisations Advantages: Better marketing decisions, superior sales performance Disadvantages: High cost and coordination, slower decision making, conflict may arise if staff managers’ role is not clearSDM-Ch.5 6
  7. 7. Functional Organisation Head-Marketing Marketing Research Promotional Customer Service Sales Manager Manager Manager Manager Area Sales Manager #4 Salespeople Characteristics: Each functional specialist has line responsibility over salespeople. Used by a large firm with many products / market segments, minimising line authority to functional managers Advantages: Qualified specialists guide salesforce, simple to administer Disadvantage: confusion due to more managers giving orders to salesforceSDM-Ch.5 7
  8. 8. Horizontal Organisation Operations Team: Research & Design Team: •Production / Operations •Customer Research •Quality Assurance •Product / Service Design •Systems Engineering Planning Team: •Strategic Planning •Accounts, Finance •HR, Administration •Chief Operation Officer Customer Support Team: Customer Satisfaction •Information Team: •Service •Sales & Marketing •Training •Pricing, Promotion •Channels, Logistics Characteristics: Removes management levels & departmental boundaries. Except planning team, all others are members of cross- functional teams. Used by firms having partnering relationships with customers. Advantages: Reduction in supervision, unnecessary tasks, & cost; Improved efficiency and customer responses.SDM-Ch.5 8
  9. 9. Specialisation within Sales Organisation • Needed to increase effectiveness of salesforce • Done by expanding basic sales organisation • Basis of specialisation • Geography • Type of product • Market • Combination of above • Criteria for selection – (1) nature of product, (2) salesforce abilities, (3) demands of selling job, (4) customer and market factsSDM-Ch.5 9
  10. 10. Geographic Specialisation Head-Marketing Marketing Research General Sales Customer Service Manager Manager Promotion Manager Manager Branch Sales Branch Sales Branch Sales Branch Sales Manager-1 Manager-2 Manager-3 Manager-4 Salespeople Salespeople Salespeople SalespeopleCharacteristics: salespeople, assigned geographic areas, are responsiblefor all selling activities to all customers within assigned areas. Branch salesmanagers adjust marketing plan to local needsAdvantages: Better market coverage and customer service, more controlover salesforce, quick response to local conditions & competitionDisadvantages: Limited specialisation of marketing tasks. Hence, it iscombined with product / market sales organisationSDM-Ch.5 10
  11. 11. Product Specialisation • Used when the company has many products and / or brands • Two types of product specialisation (x). Sales organisation with product specialised salesforce (y). Sales organisation with product managers as staff specialists Head-Marketing Marketing Research General Promotion Sales Training Manager Sales Manager Manager Manager Area Sales Managers – Area Sales Managers – Product Group ‘A’ Product Group ‘B’ Salespeople – Salespeople – Product Gr. ‘A’ Product Gr. ‘B’ Fig. ‘x’ Sales Organisation with product specialised salesforceSDM-Ch.5 11
  12. 12. Product Specialisation (Continued) Head-Marketing Marketing Research Promotion General Product Manager Product Manager Manager Manager Sales Manager Product Gr. ‘A’ Product Gr. ‘B’ Area Sales Managers Salespeople Fig. ‘y’ Sales Organisation with Product Managers as Staff SpecialistsIn fig. ‘x’: Characteristics: Salespeople in each product group sell only the productsin that groupAdvantage: Each product gets specialised attention from the salesforceDisadvantage: Sometimes, more salespeople contact the same customer, resultingin customer dissatisfaction and higher costIn fig. ‘y’: Characteristics: Each product manager plans and implements marketingplan, for a product groupAdvantage: Corrects the problem of duplication calls on a customer by salespeopleDisadvantage: Lack of product specialisation by salespeopleSDM-Ch.5 12
  13. 13. Market Specialisation General Sales Manager Sales Manager- Sales Manager- Sales Manager- Sales Manager- International- Government Consumer Markets Commercial Markets Area Sales Mgrs Area Sales Manager- Area Sales Manager- Area Sales Mgrs- International Commercial Government Consumer Markets Sales Executives Salespeople Salespeople Salespeople • Characteristics: Desirable when customers are classified by type, user industry, or channel. Salespeople carry out all activities for all products only for specific customer groups • Advantages: Meets needs of specific customer groups, implements customer-centred philosophy of the company • Disadvantages: Geographic duplication, high costSDM-Ch.5 13
  14. 14. Combination Sales Organisation Director – Sales & Marketing General Manager General Manager General Manager General Manager Sales - North Sales - East Sales - West Sales - South Regional Sales Regional Sales Regional Sales Mgr. – Govt. Mgr. - Commercial Mgr. - Dealers Salespeople Salespeople Salespeople • Characteristics: Many firms use some combination of specialisation organisations, called hybrid or combination sales organisation, with a view to minimise disadvantages and maximise advantages of specialisation organisations • Figure above shows combination of geographic and market specialisationsSDM-Ch.5 14
  15. 15. Alternatives for Major Accounts • Major accounts / customers are called by various names like key accounts, corporate accounts, house accounts • They make up a large share of a firm’s sales volume and profits • Firms use the following alternative approaches to deal effectively with them • Create a position of major / national account manager • Use existing territory sales managers • Create a separate division • Create a separate salesforceSDM-Ch.5 15
  16. 16. Size of the Salesforce • How many salespeople needed (or salesforce size) to achieve a firm’s sales and profit objectives is a key decision • Methods available to decide optimum salesforce size are as follows: • Workload • Sales potential (or breakdown) • Incremental • We shall discuss these methods briefly:SDM-Ch.5 16
  17. 17. Workload Method • Assumption: All salespeople have equal workload • Steps involved to calculate salesforce size are: 1) Classify customers as per their sales potential 2) Decide time per sales call and call frequencies for each class of customers 3) Calculate total market workload = (1) x (2) in hours 4) Decide total work time available per salesperson 5) Divide total work time available by different activities per salesperson in hours 6) Calculate total number of salespeople needed total market workload (3) = total selling time available per salesperson (5)SDM-Ch.5 17
  18. 18. Workload Method (Continued) • Advantages: simple method, conceptually sound, used for all types of selling situations • Disadvantages: Neglects sales productivity & salesforce turnover Sales Potential / Breakdown Method • The formula used is: S , where N = (1 + ) T N=Number of salespeople needed, or salesforce size P S=Annual sales forecast for the company in value (Rs. Million) P=Estimated productivity of the average salesperson in sales (Rs. Million) T=Estimated percentage of annual salesforce turnover • Advantages: Simple and straight forward • Disadvantages: Conceptually weak; lead time needed for a new salesperson to reach average productivitySDM-Ch.5 18
  19. 19. Incremental Method • It is based on marginal analysis theory of economics • Basic concept: Net profits will increase when additional salespeople are added, if the incremental sales revenues exceed the incremental costs • Merit: Conceptually accurate, as it quantifies relationships between salesforce size, sales, costs, profits • Demerit: Can not be used if historical data on sales and costs are not availableSDM-Ch.5 19
  20. 20. Salesforce Staffing • It is one of the most challenging and important responsibilities / activities of sales management • Salesforce Staffing Process includes following stages: • Planning • Recruiting • Selecting • Hiring • Socialisation • We shall briefly discuss each of the above stagesSDM-Ch.5 20
  21. 21. Planning Stage • It consists of three steps: • Establish responsibility for staffing process • Decide number of salespeople needed • Outline the type of salespeople needed • Establish responsibility for staffing process • Company management decides responsibilities for various stages / activities of staffing process • Generally in a medium / large size company, middle and senior levels H.R. and sales managers are responsible • Proper coordination needed between sales, marketing, and HR executivesSDM-Ch.5 21
  22. 22. Planning Stage (Continued) Decide the number of salespeople needed • Steps followed by each territory sales manager to plan requirement of sales people: 1) Decide optimum salesforce size (using methods discussed earlier) 2) Add number of promotions, retirements, transfers out, terminations, resignations expected from existing salespeople 3) Subtract expected transfers into the territory and existing salesforce 4) Make a total of new salespersons needed • Territory sales managers submit their requirements to national / general sales manager, who calculates the total number of new salespersons to be hiredSDM-Ch.5 22
  23. 23. Outline Type of Salespeople Needed The steps involved in the process are: • Conducting a job analysis • Preparing a job description • Developing job qualifications / specifications Conducting a Job Analysis • It is done by a person from sales / H. R. department, or a consultant. It consists of two tasks: (1) Analyse environment in which the salesperson would work – E.G. nature of customers, competitors, products. (2) Determine duties and responsibilities of the salesperson. Obtain information from sales managers, customers, etc.SDM-Ch.5 23
  24. 24. Preparing a Job Description • It is a written document developed from the job analysis • The detailed job description is a useful tool for recruiting, selecting, training, compensating, and evaluating salespeople • Some of the points it generally covers are: • Job title, reporting relationship, types of products / services sold, types of customers, duties and responsibilities, location and geographic area to be coveredSDM-Ch.5 24
  25. 25. Developing Job Qualifications / Specifications • These are generally based on job description • Job specifications / qualifications include education, sales experience, skills, and personality traits • Many studies done, but no generally accepted job qualifications for selecting salespeople, due to many types of sales jobs • Some methods used for developing job specifications are as under: • Study job description. Useful for a new company • Analyse personal histories of salespersons • Ask customersSDM-Ch.5 25
  26. 26. Recruiting Salesforce • Recruiting include activities to get individuals who will apply for the job • The general purpose of recruitment is to get enough qualified candidates, to enable company select the right persons • H.R. and sales managers must update information on government employment regulations • Recruiting stage / process includes following activities: • Finding the sources of sales recruits • Evaluating and selecting recruiting sources • Contacting candidates through the selected sourceSDM-Ch.5 26
  27. 27. Finding the Sources of Sales Recruits • For identifying prospective candidates, firms use internal and external sources. They include: Internal Sources External Sources • Employee referral • Advertisements in programmes newspapers and journals / • Current employees magazines • Promotions and transfers • The Internet (job sites) • Educational institutions • Employment agencies • Job fairs • Other companiesSDM-Ch.5 27
  28. 28. Evaluating and selecting Recruiting Sources • Recruiting sources are evaluated based on the database built over number of years • Evaluating factors are: • Performance rating of salespeople, after 2 years working • Percentage of salespeople retained, after 2 years working • Total cost of recruiting • Selecting most effective source of recruiting at least cost • For a new company, selection depends on cost • Contacting candidates through the selected source is done by H. R. departmentSDM-Ch.5 28
  29. 29. Selecting Salesforce • Selection process consists of seven major selection steps / tools • Companies differ in using selection tools, depending on expenditure budget and time available • Major selection tools / steps are: • Screening resumes • Application blank • Initial interview • Intensive interview • Testing • Reference check • Physical examinationSDM-Ch.5 29
  30. 30. Screening Resumes • It is done when the company receives many resumes • This step / tool not required, if somebody else like employment agency does initial screening • Initial screening of resumes are done by comparing with job specifications Application Blank • Widely used, it is a methodical way of collecting relevant information from the applicant • Advantages of using application blank (also called “formal application form”) are: (1) Easy comparison of many applicants (2) Useful for asking question during interview sessionsSDM-Ch.5 30
  31. 31. Interviews • Widely used selection tool • A good predictor of the candidate’s performance • Initial interviews are used for screening candidates • Intensive interviews are conducted to get indepth view of candidates • Interview structure / type of interviews: • Structured / patterned / guided interviews • Unstructured / non-directed / informal interviews • Semi-structured interviews • Behaviour and performance based interviews • Stress interviews • Purpose is to decide a candidate’s fitness for a jobSDM-Ch.5 31
  32. 32. Testing • Many firms use tests as a selection tool – EG P&G, IBM • Purpose of testing: To find whether applicants have traits / characteristics that lead to success in sales job • Type of selection tests: • Aptitude tests measure ability for selling and learning • Intelligence tests find out mental intelligence or intelligence quotient (IQ) • Interest tests find out level of interest in a sales career • Knowledge tests measure knowledge of products, markets, etc • Personality tests find out attitude or traits like empathy, self-confidence • Tests must have reliability and validity • Tests should be one of the selection tools and not the only toolSDM-Ch.5 32
  33. 33. Reference Checks • They are important due to possibilities of resume frauds and false personal information • They are done by letters / e-mails, telephones, or personal visits • Instead of candidate’s references, previous employers / customers to be included for reference checks Physical Examination • Objective is to find a physical problem that may prevent job performance of an applicant • Most companies want their prospective employees to undergo physical examination • Increasing number of firms ask applicant to complete the health information form without seeing a medical doctorSDM-Ch.5 33
  34. 34. Hiring Stage • After completing selection process, a list of candidates to be hired is made • In hiring stage, two activities are performed: (1) The company making the job offer (2) Persuading the applicant to accept it Socialisation Stage • It is the process through which new salespeople learn values, norms, attitudes, and behaviour of people working in the firm • Socialisation process starts before the new salesperson accepts the job offer and continues until the person is assimilated into the company culture • Assimilation is the second stage of socialisation process • Companies have this process, in order to retain new salespeopleSDM-Ch.5 34
  35. 35. Key Learnings • A sales organisation assists a sales manager to carry out needed tasks efficiently and effectively • Basic types of sales organisations are : (1) line, (2) line and staff, (3) functional, (4) horizontal • Specialisation within sales organisation, which are needed to increase effectiveness of salespeople, are: (a) geographic, (b) product, (c) market, (d) combination • Companies use alternate approaches to deal effectively with major accounts • Methods available for deciding optimum salesforce size are: workload, sales potential, and incrementalSDM-Ch.5 35
  36. 36. Key Learnings (Continued)• Salesforce staffing process includes five stages: planning, recruiting, selecting, hiring, socialisation• Planning stage includes (1) establishing responsibilities, (2) deciding number of salespeople needed, (3) profiling the type of salespeople needed• Recruitment stage consists of (a) finding sources of sales recruit, (b) evaluating and selecting recruitment sources, (c) contacting candidates• Selection process consists of seven steps / tools: (1) screening resumes, (2) application blank, (3) initial interview, (4) intensive interview, (5) testing, (6) reference check, (7) physical examination• Hiring stage includes (a) making the job offer, (b) persuading applicant to accept it• Socialisation stage is required to retain new salespeopleSDM-Ch.5 36
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