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  1. 1. Renewable Energy Sources in India: Is It Viable Santanu Guru Liberty Institute New delhi
  2. 2. Renewable sources of energy cannot play a key role in india’s power sector in the next tevn years ,without consumers and the economy paying very high opportunity cost• Attraction towards renewable energy• Growth and emergence of renewable energy in india• Technology hurdles in renewable energy• Role of subsidies and other incentives offered by indian government11/20/03 200231019
  3. 3. Why renewable energy became so attractive in the 1970• Fear of disappearing of fossil fuel from world• Dependency of India on OPEC(Organization of Oil Exporting Countries)• Pollution and environmentally damaging emissions from fossil fuel based plants generating electric power• Emergence of renewable energy as the cleanest and cheapest technology11/20/03 200231019
  4. 4. Coal and oil reserves in IndiaFuel Proven Indicated Years to last reserves reservesOil 5.7 bbarrels 30 btonnes 50Coal 82 bbarrels 211 btonnes 300Recent international studies indiacate that no more than aquarter of india’s 26 secondary basins have a seriousexploration activity.these includes oofshore basins covringabout 3,80,000 sq km and on shore basins covering 13,40,000sq km.it contains 30 billion tonnes of reserves 5 times thecurrent figure.11/20/03 200231019
  5. 5. •Inflation rates after the two oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 were13 and 19 per in india .hence self reliance and importsubstition were development mantras used by our govt in hefive year plans.•But dependency on OPEC reduced by policy makersencouraging intensive exploration activities in untapped areasby attracting private capital 11/20/03 200231019
  6. 6. Gas Reduction in emission Sulphur dioxide 99% Nitrogen oxide 81% Carbon dioxide 58% particulates 95% •Electricity generation increased by 14pc between 1989 and 1996 by reducing emission gases by 20 pc with the help of high tech pollution control technology.this will increase the cost of electricity by only 1pc. These will leave renewable sources which is at least 50 pc more expensive than fossil fu Annual energy Report :2000 and 2001,NTPC11/20/03 200231019
  7. 7. India as a renewable energy super power• India is the leading country in the asia and in the world for generating electric energy by renewable energy• India is the fifth largest wind energy producer in the world• The ministry of non-conventional energy sources is the only one of its kind in the world• Only a fraction of the total potential of renewable energy sources has been utilized in india.11/20/03 200231019
  8. 8. Renewable energy :annual capacity addition in 90’sSources 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999Wind 12.5 61.0 235. 382.0 67.0 56.0143.0 0 0 0solar 0.15 0.12 0.10 0.11 6.50 5.0 5.0biomass 3.0 5.0 22.0 37.0 45.50 48.50 63.50Small 12.0 5.50 25.0 7.50 11.0 28.0 33. 5hydro11/20/03 200231019
  9. 9. Renewable energy capacities : potential and installed (till april 2000 inMW) source Potential installed Wind 45,000.00 1167.00 Solar 50,000.00 57.00 Bio-mass 21,000.00 255.00 Small-hydro 10,000.00 217.00 11/20/03 200231019
  10. 10. Renewable energy technology• Renewable energy technology are primitive• Renewable energy technology is inefficient and uneconomical• Renewable energy is not reliable• Renewable energy is dependent11/20/03 200231019
  11. 11. • It prevents from supplying either base load or peak load levels ofconsumer demand .even intermediate level is a big challenge• 2,100mw coal fired plant of NTPC at korba in Chattisgardgenerates more electricity than all the capacities installed underrenewable energy• For every kilowatt of installed capacity,conventional power plantsproduce 4,000 to 7,000kwh of electricity. Wind plant manage 2000 to2,500kwh and solar PV plants generate 750-1500kwh• More than 85pc of renewable enegy caopacity is for captiveconsumption• Low capacities ,lower utilization rates and irregular supplies playhavoc with electricity grid• The largest contributor to electricity supply in india ,wind energywith installed capacity of 1100mw produces 1650 gigawatt hour ofelectricity with a capacity utilization of 15pc which is less then asingle11/20/03 plant of 250mw coal 200231019
  12. 12. Average capacity of power plants(mw) Energy India source Coal 200 Gas 100 Wind 0.50 Solar 0.25 Bio-mass 20.0 Small-hydr0 1.5011/20/03 200231019
  13. 13. Capital cost of power plant in USA Fuel source Capital cost ($) Coal 1092 Wind 983 Biomass 1732 Solar 3500 Capital cost in renewable energy in Fuelindia source Cost (in crore in indian rupee per mw) wind 3-4 Small hydro 3-6 Biomass 3-4 Solar pv 25-3011/20/03 200231019
  14. 14. • Renewable energy is fully dependent on subsidies• Eight crore rupees is given as capital subsidy in the co-generation plant with maximum capacity of 20mw• Various studies estimate that US taxpayers have spent 25 to40 pc billion us dollars to enable renewable source of energy toget a one and half pc market share• India had spent more than 3000 crore during 1990spromoting wind energy.• IREDA has sanctioned 4600 crore till end 1999 as aloan.preventing the use of almost 1 million tonnes of coal (indiaconsumes close to 400 million tonnes of coal per year• It provides electricity at much rate• The capital cost of renewable energy plant is very high 11/20/03 200231019
  15. 15. Conclusion• Role of indain policy in making the renewable energy efficient and cheapest fuel as a substitute for the fossil fuels used in production of electric energy.• The indian government blindly spent the huge amount of money for making the renwable energy popular without considering the statistics• Bowing down to the wishes of green activities and placing obstacles in the growth path of conventional electric power supply would directly contradict the poverty reduction goals of policy-makers• Government should improve the existing power supply encouraging use of hi-tech technology.11/20/03 200231019
  16. 16. Thank you Presented by:Sandhya Subramaniam MS-IT(Agri)11/20/03 200231019