FIGURE 5- 1Exposure routes for chemical agents in hazardous waste.
FIGURE 5-2Overview of absorption, distribution, storage,transformation, and elimination of a toxic substance in thehuman b...
FIGURE 5-3Types of doses for dermal contact withcontaminated soil.
FIGURE 5-4Correlation of atmospheric benzene concentrationswith urinary phenol levels in workers in a rubbercoating plant.
FIGURE 5-5Effect of dose fractionalization onaccumulation of a toxic compound.
FIGURE 5-6Sequence of events leading up to atoxic response.
FIGURE 5-7Representative cellular targets fortoxic action.
FIGURE 5-8Lock-and-key model for toxicaction.
FIGURE 5-9Example of compounds withidentical molecular formula butdifferent toxicity.
FIGURE 5-10Inhibition of enzymeacetylcholinesterase (AChE) byorganophosphorus.
FIGURE 5-11Dose-response relationship (doseversus mortality).
FIGURE 5-12Dose-response relationship for erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP)in blood as a function of the blood lead level in...
FIGURE 5-13Effect of EGM on the relativeorgan weights of testes andprostate.
FIGURE 5-14Health effects frombreathing and/oringesting lead.
FIGURE 5-15Health effectsfrom breathingbenzene.
FIGURE 5-16Adequacy of human exposure dataon health effects of benzene.
FIGURE 5-17Adequacy of animal test data onhealth effects of benzene.
FIGURE 5-18Location of NOAELand LOAEL doses withrespect to the thresholdon a typical dose-response curve.
FIGURE 5-19Three stages in carcinogenesis.
FIGURE 5-20Metabolic activation ofbenzo(a)pyrene.
FIGURE 5-21Example of apoint mutationthrough basepair substitution.
FIGURE 5-222,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo(p)dioxin.
FIGURE 5-23Hypothetical dose-response curve for atypical completecarcinogen.
FIGURE 5-24Extrapolation of dose-response relationshipfor liver tumorsinduced by 2-cetylaminofluorene inthe low-dose range.
FIGURE 5-25Toxicological/ecologicalrelevance and time scaleof toxic responses forlevels of biologicalorganization.
FIGURE 5-26Idealized plot of dose-response relationship.
FIGURE 5-27Graphicalinterpolation of time-ependent LC50values for sodium selenite.
FIGURE 5-28Biomagnification of pesticides inaquatic food chains.
FIGURE 5-29Possible movement and fate of acontaminant after absorptioninto the bloodstream of fish.
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  1. 1. FIGURE 5- 1Exposure routes for chemical agents in hazardous waste.
  2. 2. FIGURE 5-2Overview of absorption, distribution, storage,transformation, and elimination of a toxic substance in thehuman body.
  3. 3. FIGURE 5-3Types of doses for dermal contact withcontaminated soil.
  4. 4. FIGURE 5-4Correlation of atmospheric benzene concentrationswith urinary phenol levels in workers in a rubbercoating plant.
  5. 5. FIGURE 5-5Effect of dose fractionalization onaccumulation of a toxic compound.
  6. 6. FIGURE 5-6Sequence of events leading up to atoxic response.
  7. 7. FIGURE 5-7Representative cellular targets fortoxic action.
  8. 8. FIGURE 5-8Lock-and-key model for toxicaction.
  9. 9. FIGURE 5-9Example of compounds withidentical molecular formula butdifferent toxicity.
  10. 10. FIGURE 5-10Inhibition of enzymeacetylcholinesterase (AChE) byorganophosphorus.
  11. 11. FIGURE 5-11Dose-response relationship (doseversus mortality).
  12. 12. FIGURE 5-12Dose-response relationship for erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP)in blood as a function of the blood lead level in subpopulations.
  13. 13. FIGURE 5-13Effect of EGM on the relativeorgan weights of testes andprostate.
  14. 14. FIGURE 5-14Health effects frombreathing and/oringesting lead.
  15. 15. FIGURE 5-15Health effectsfrom breathingbenzene.
  16. 16. FIGURE 5-16Adequacy of human exposure dataon health effects of benzene.
  17. 17. FIGURE 5-17Adequacy of animal test data onhealth effects of benzene.
  18. 18. FIGURE 5-18Location of NOAELand LOAEL doses withrespect to the thresholdon a typical dose-response curve.
  19. 19. FIGURE 5-19Three stages in carcinogenesis.
  20. 20. FIGURE 5-20Metabolic activation ofbenzo(a)pyrene.
  21. 21. FIGURE 5-21Example of apoint mutationthrough basepair substitution.
  22. 22. FIGURE 5-222,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo(p)dioxin.
  23. 23. FIGURE 5-23Hypothetical dose-response curve for atypical completecarcinogen.
  24. 24. FIGURE 5-24Extrapolation of dose-response relationshipfor liver tumorsinduced by 2-cetylaminofluorene inthe low-dose range.
  25. 25. FIGURE 5-25Toxicological/ecologicalrelevance and time scaleof toxic responses forlevels of biologicalorganization.
  26. 26. FIGURE 5-26Idealized plot of dose-response relationship.
  27. 27. FIGURE 5-27Graphicalinterpolation of time-ependent LC50values for sodium selenite.
  28. 28. FIGURE 5-28Biomagnification of pesticides inaquatic food chains.
  29. 29. FIGURE 5-29Possible movement and fate of acontaminant after absorptioninto the bloodstream of fish.

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