Inhabitants 48,768 Land area 655 km2 Water area 1 484 km2Number of jobs 24,900Primary production 2%Industry 28%Construction 8%Trade 11%Other services 51 % Kuva:
OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS• To create a residential district that functions as a national and international pilot area for energy-efficient planning• To create guidelines for energy-efficient town planning• To create a ”Living Lab” area for continuous pursuit of better energy efficiency• To develop business activities for the municipal energy company that respond to the needs of future low-energy construction• To promote energy-efficient construction• To minimize greenhouse gas emission and to curb climate change
THE SKAFTKÄRR PROJECT• Duration 2008-2012• Co-funders – City of Porvoo – Sitra – Porvoon Energia Oy• Other partners: – Posintra Oy (project coordinator) – Ministry of the Environment (in steering group) – Uusimaa Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment (in steering group)• Construction of Skaftkärr area 2011-2020
An energy-efficient residential area: Skaftkärr in the City of Porvoo, Finland Energy Development of LivingLab: business DevelopmentDevelopment of models for of counselling,spatial planning energy cooperation processes companies and feedback
DEVELOPING THE PROCESS OF SPATIAL PLANNING• Ways to steer and plan the energy efficiency are developed for all phases of the spatial planning process• New solutions and ways of working are created that can be applied elsewhere• The development work is directly connected to practial planning• The outline plan for Skaftkärr was ready in 2010, and detailed plans are presently drawn Questions that we posed when starting the project: – Can town planning address the energy efficiency of areas? – What ways are there to reduce carbon footprints? – Do we need to change planning practices and develop our planning process?
COMPARISON LEVEL: OLD OUTLINE PLAN FROM 2007 COMPARISON LEVEL 0+: ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND CARBON BALANCE Break-down of primary energy use Break-down of CO2 emissions in Skaftkärr alternative 0+ in Skaftkärr alternative 0+ Public Municipal transport Public transport Municipal engineering engineering Private car, other use Private car, Heating Heating other use Private car, Tap water commuting heating Property Tap water heating electricity Private car, 6% Household electricity Property electricity commuting Household electricityComparison level 0+ ‘Business As Usual’
SENSITIVITY ANALYSES. COMPARISON LEVEL: 0+ Changes to comparison level 0+ Primary CO2 energy Emissions Low-energy level heating - 12 % -8% Passive level heating - 19 % - 14 % Passive house, electrical heating -6% -4% Solar heating -6% -4% Passive houses and solar heating - 26 % - 18 % District heating - 33 % - 22 % Low-energy and district heating - 35 % - 24 % Area with geothermal heating - 18 % - 13 % All workplaces in Porvoo - 11 % - 19 % Facilities for teleworking -3 % -4% Half of commuting with electrical cars -7 % - 19 % Average Finnish district heating area - 16 % + 27 %In the sensitivity analyses, the relation between passive and low-energy houseswas also calculated with regards to energy consumption, emissions and costs.
SOLUTION MODELS: LAND USE M1 M2 M3 M4
CARBON BALANCE 16Tons of CO2 per year 11 6 Municipal engineering Kunnallistekniikka Public transport Julkinen liikenne Henkilöauto,car, Private muu other use 1 Henkilöauto,car, commuting Private työ Käyttäjäsähkö electricity Household 0+ M1 M2 M3 M4 Property electricity Kiinteistösähkö -4 Tap water heating Käyttövesi Heating Lämmitys YHTEENSÄ TOTAL -9
COSTS OF ENERGY SOLUTION Energy solution in total Energiaratkaisu yhteensäCost € / inhabitant over 30 years 7 000 Kustannus €/asukas 30 vuodessa 6 000 5 000 Power Sähkö 4 000 3 000 Heating Lämmitysjärjestelmä 2 000 system 1 000 0 TOTAL YHTEENSÄ -1 000 -2 000 The chart shows the cost -3 000 of the energy alternative M1 M2 M3 M4 as compared to model 0+
Cost of reducing CO2 emissions in models 1 to 4 COSTS OF ENERGYas compared to model 0+ SOLUTIONSHeating Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4CO2 reduction 3 505 3 026 4 065 7 105 CO2 tons / year Cost of reducing CO2 emissionsCO2 cost -207 -193 128 -45 € / CO2 tonsPowerCO2 reduction 0 0 3 116 3 116 CO2 tons /yearCO2 cost - - 443 49 € / CO2 tonsTotal -207 -193 571 4 € / CO2 tonsPorvoon Energy investments* The chart shows the cost of the energy alternative€ Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 as compared to model 0+District heating network 5 400 000 2 700 000 0 5 400 000 €Solar collectors** 0 0 0 7 100 000 €Total 5 400 000 2 700 000 0 12 500 000 €* The costs are transferred to all consumers in the price of district heating** The investment in solar collectors (incl. 40 % investment support) is expected to pay itself back in theform of decreased fuel costs
COSTS OF INFRASTRUCTURE0+ 38 Million €M1 18 Million €M2 15 Million €M3 38 Million €M4 20 Million €The Infra.net application was used for calculation. Model 0+ is the comparison level.Model 3 is equivalent in land use and therefore the infrastructure costs are the same.The other models are more economical, because land use is denser and there arefewer municipal engineerings systems and fewer park areas. The soil conditions, too,were taken into account in the calculations.
Analyses performed for the Skaftkärr A new energy-efficient residentialoutline plan: area for 6,000 people will be built in Porvoo’s Skaftkärr. The entire• Spatial structure and costs area will be designed and built• District-level energy consumption and solutions for energy efficiency in buildings,• District-level energy production and solutions services, living environment and• Traffic and environmental impacts traffic arrangements.• Services and social environment• Way of building and new forms of energy• New ways of workingEnergy impact assessment:• Energy impacts on whole Skaftkärr area• Energy impacts on example area and on the level of residential quarter• Impacts on municipal costs• Impacts on residents’ costs• Impacts on development of business models for energy company• Impacts on greenhouse gas emissions, curbing climate change, impacts on climate
OUTLINE PLAN FOR SKAFTKÄRR READY IN 2010• Guideline for the detailed plans for the area• Central factors with regard to energy efficiency: • Lower traffic-related energy consumption and emissions • Energy solutions (energy production modes) • Energy efficiency of buildings Bicycle & pedestrian Public transport
The energy-conscious townplan reduces the consumptionof primary energy by 38 %and CO2 emissions by 30 %when compared to traditionalplanning principles
Examples of promoting bicycling High-speed bicycle lanes The City of Porvoo have explored the feasibility of high-speed bicycle lanes. Fewer obstacles for pedestrians and cyclists give better energy efficiency. The purpose is to build a high-quality rapid bicycle connection between Skaftkärr, the city centre and vicinity services. One alternative is to cover bicycle lanes with solar panels. Rapid bicycle lanes are presently being planned for the entire city centre. Snabbcykelväg
DISTRICT HEATING IS THE BEST PRODUCTION MODE FORSKAFTKÄRR WITH REGARD TO ENVIRONMENT AND COSTS Natural gas 30 % Biofuels 68 % Oil 2 % Fuels for district heating, Porvoon Energia Oy 2011 For local production of heat and power,Combined heat/power production saves fuel wood-based fuel from vicinity forests is aThanks to the large portion of biofuels very good solution regarding total costsand the combined production of heating and the environment. 92 % is combined production, and 70 % uses biomass (chipand power, no other solution can even in wood).theory achieve lower CO2 emissions thatdistrict heating. Aim: to increase renewableIn Porvoo, district heating also pays off in energy to 90 % by 2015low-energy and passive-energy buildings.
The outline plan for Skaftkärr steersthe detailed planningToukovuori area:- start autumn 2010- ready autumn 2011Energy impactassessment
CARBON FOOTPRINT COMPARISON OFBUILDINGS TYPES AND STRUCTURESThe objective is to analyse the climate change impact of theproduction of building materials and compare it to the environ-mental impacts of energy consumed when the building is in use.Compared house types:
Comparison of carbon footprint of buildings:in Porvoo it makes sense to favour structures with wood. Multi-storey residential buildings: Main sources of carbon footprint during construction and use 30-year perspective of carbon footprint in multi-storey residential houses built according to new 2012 norms and useing district heating Multi-storey residential buildings: (Concrete frame / Wooden frame / Concrete frame, passive) carbon footprint caused by construction and 30 years of use
TOWN PLANNING DOES IMPACTENERGY EFFICIENCY• Town planning can significantly address the energy efficiency The key factors are: – Lower energy consumption and emissions caused by traffic – Energy solutions (energy production modes) – Buildings (energy efficiency and materials)
Developing the spatial planning process Looking at the emissions, municipal decision-makers INFRASTRUCTURE are aware of the impacts their planning choices have on the climate. Analyses of emissions and of ways of energy supply need to be integrated in the BUILDINGS TRAFFIC ENERGY environmental impact analysis of spatial planning processes. SUPPLY An action model andEMISSIONS FROM THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT guidelines for emission monitoring is developed in theInfrastructure has direct and indirect impact Skaftkärr project.on emissions
GOOD NEWSEnergy efficiency has a pricetag Carbon footprints cost, too Smaller footprints can reduce residential costsSpatial planning has its pricetag, too, but it can reduce the costs of implementation
PORVOO INVESTS IN CLEAN ENERGY SOLUTIONS• The City Council of Porvoo has granted Oy Porvoon Energia – Borgå Energi Ab a guarantee for a loan of 42.5 Million € to build a biopower plant in Tolkkinen.• With the project, biofuels will stand for 90 % of all district heating produced in Porvoo in 2015.• The City of Porvoo owns the municipal energy company Oy Porvoon Energia – Borgå Energi Ab.
SOLAR DISTRICT HEATING – When implemented, it would be a project of significant magnitude on a European scale – With this solution, the production of heating for Skaftkärr would become carbon neutral on an annual basis – The existing district heating network would be extended to give residents in other parts of Porvoo access to solar district heating – Presently under exploration
New business activities• How to decrease significantly the consumption of heating – the energy companies will need new business activities – the production and distribution of energy will need to be re-adapted• How to make district heating feasible in an area with low and passive energy buildings – i.e. solutions that support energy-efficient construction are explored• How to implement the energy solutions in the most sustainable way from an environmental viewpoint• Today’s production structure relies on renewable energy to more than 70 % – Aim: to increase renewable energy to 90 % by 2015
New business activities• Aim at wider range of services together with partners o A concept is under study where the energy company would offer ”energy packages” for buildings: (small-scale windmill, solar panels, connection and assembly, connection to power network, power storage, option to steer surplus production) o New power products (24 hour rate)• Intelligent user interface o An intelligent user interface could be built using an intelligent power network and innovative home automation o Example: network allowing energy transfer both ways o Tools enabling residents to monitor and regulate their energy use o Steering of heating and air conditioning e.g by a price signal consumption peaks are cut• These new products, too, serve energy efficiency!
ENERGY LIVING LAB• The Energy Living Lab involves residents and local enterprises in the development process• Aims at continuously better energy efficiency – Awareness of the use of energy reduces consumption – Energy follow-up allows for targeted energy counselling
• Real-time monitoring of energy consumption: – Piloting has already begun – Energy savings are sought by making invisible power consumption visible – Houses are equipped with meters allowing real- time on-line visualisation of the power consumed• Experimental house – Construction of the energy-efficient experimental house in Skaftkärr will begin in 2011 – The house will function as a platform that allows local enterprises to test new technology• Energy counselling and training: – Cooperation with educational institutes (Arcada, Edupoli, Inveon) – Energy counselling desk at the Kevätkumpu branch library – Open lectures at the Civic Institute of Porvoo
The planning and innovation of the Skaftkärr area is donein broad cooperation between local and other authorities,energy producers and developers, construction clients,equipment manufacturers and other enterprises, andthe future inhabitants.Reference group meetings. Future residents areinvolved to participate in the planning process.
Porvoo to become a cityof carbon-free housing• Today, the City of Porvoo is about to take a giant leap to become the number one place of residence in Finland in terms of energy efficiency.• Energy efficiency is one of the key priorities in the new city strategy.• The Skaftkärr project has given the City of Porvoo an opportunity to become a city of carbon-free living.• Inspired by the Skaftkärr project, the City of Porvoo has launched a versatile action plan that will systematically take Porvoo towards carbon-free housing. Such a substantial and genuine investment in energy efficiency is unique in the Finnish context.
Thank youfor your attention! www.skaftkarr.fi www.porvoo.fi www.sitra.fi www.porvoonenergia.fi www.posintra.fi