2011 04-13 kurnitski-era17
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  • 1. ERA17 – Finnish action plan2010-201716.05.2011 Jarek Kurnitski
  • 2. Finnish action plan 2010–2017• Initiative to tackle 2020/2030/2050 targets• Goal: to achieve 2020 targets in 2017• Includes all major sectors and issues of built environment accounting for about 60% of total final energy use and CO2 (centralized energy production and electric cars not included)• Ended up with concrete policy measures for immediate implementation• 31 proposals for 5 key areas prepared: - Roadmap for building regulation - Integrated land use planning - On site RES - Existing building stock package - R&D package Jarek Kurnitski 16.05.2011 © Sitra 2010
  • 3. Preparation of ERA17 action planBackground studies for the action plan:• Final energy use and consequent emissions caused by built environment• REHVA study on Benchmarking Regulations and Incentives on Energy Performance of Buildings in selected European countries (available in English)• National energy scenario analyses until 2050• Impact assessment for proposed measures• ERA17 is a joint force of Ministry of the Environment, Sitra and Tekes, prepared by expert group of 40 persons led by Minister of the Housing, Jan Vapaavuori• ERA17 includes follow up of implementation for 2 years Jarek Kurnitski 16.05.2011 © Sitra 2010
  • 4. REHVA benchmarking:• Roadmap of some countries towards nearly zero energy buildings to improve energy performance of new buildings• Many countries have prepared long term roadmaps with detailed targets• Helps industry to prepare/commit to the targets Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
  • 5. REHVA benchmarking study: incentives DE IT FR Hu BE SE Summary Table of Incentives YEAR 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 Direct Funding of Energy Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Stopped Repairs FINANCIAL Financial Help for Low-Income Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Households Green Loans / Soft Loans Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Third Party Financing Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Stopped Tax Deduction Yes Yes No Yes Yes TAXES (2009) Labour Lower VAT on Labour and Stopping Materials & No Labour n.a. Materials Material TECHNOLOG Subsidies on Sustainable Y SPECIFIC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Energy Devices n.a. per kWh (€/kWh) Yes Yes Yes Yes No Feed-in Tariffs n.a. Green Certificates No Yes Yes Yes Yes OTHERS Rent Indexation n.a. n.a. n.a. No n.a. No (Owner-Renter Balance)11 Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations At this moment, the sole case of rent indexation has been found in the Netherlands.
  • 6. REHVA benchmarking studyReported national practices and trends, some findings:• the new building regulation applied on renovations in most of countries, but in different ways, in some countries almost all requirements apply for major renovations• innovative systems (such as demand controlled systems or ground loop systems etc.) difficult to handle/ not yet included in “official” calculation process• calculation procedures based mainly on national methods, dynamic calculation accepted in some countries• most of the countries use primary energy in definition of energy performance in [kWh/m²,a] – EPBD has established a common methodology• still many differences in details of energy calculation frame: boundaries, reference building approaches, calculation rules… Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning Associations
  • 7. Finland: Decoupling for all energy used in the building stock soon possible Delivered energy use in residential and commercial builindg stock 100 89,2 86,8 84,0 83,3 80 72,9 66,2 Ohter 60 Appliances (f acility&tenant) TWh Electrical heating GSHP, electricity 40 District heat Oil, natural gas Wood, pellet 20 0 2007 2020 2050 2020 2050 2050 P1 P2 P3 P2P1: 50% heating energy reduction in all major renovation P1P2: no reduction at all in major renovations (compensated by quality improvements)P3: theoretical, all building stock renovated to meet 2010 requirements in 2050 Jarek Kurnitski 16.05.2011 © Sitra 2010
  • 8. Towards Swiss 2000 W per person society?In which society we are living in Finland (pop. 5.33 milj):• 7800 W per person (total primary energy use 365 TWh)• 6600 W (end energy use 307 TWh)• 1900 W (delivered energy use to buildings w/o industrial 87 TWh) Jarek Kurnitski 16.05.2011 © Sitra 2010
  • 9. Despite of reduced total energy use in 2020, electricity use will most probably continue to increase Electricity District heat Total electrical energy use in Finland Total district heat energy use in Finland 140 40 35 120 30 100 P1 P2 25TWh TWh 80 VNK A 20 60 VNK C 15 Actual 40 10 20 5 0 0 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Jarek Kurnitski 16.05.2011 © Sitra 2010
  • 10. Specific emissions estimated to be roughly the same in the long term for the electricity and district heat Electricity District heat Average specific emissions of electricity production Average specific emissions of district heat production 250 250 200 200kgCO2/MWh 150 P1 150 kgCO2/MWh P2 100 VNK A 100 VNK C 50 50 0 0 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Jarek Kurnitski 16.05.2011 © Sitra 2010
  • 11. ERA17 measures with the highest impact• Net zero energy building regulation for new buildings - roadmap of code requirements for next 10 years - will mostly meet “cost optimal” criterion, except PV needing feed-in tariff - reasonable cost, and savings even higher compared to existing building stock• Improvement of existing building stock - incentives needed, not cost efficient in buildings with district heating - cost efficient in electrically heated houses, still incentives needed to activate• Integrated land use planning with increased density (UGB etc.) - almost no cost at all, savings through cheaper infrastructure - better utilization of local energy supply solutions - less vehicle km per person – significant reduction in fossil fuels• Built environment can use 20-35% less energy in 2050 relative to 2010• Most of investments cost effective, improving living and working quality Jarek Kurnitski 16.05.2011 © Sitra 2010
  • 12. Next step: 2012 building code• Zero energy building compliant energy frame and calculation methodology• Requirements tightened 2003, 2007 and 2010, from 2012 based on primary energy• 2012 performance level roughly equal to primary energy requirement of passive houses in residential buildings System boundary of net delivered energy System boundary of delivered energy Solar gains/loads On site renewable energy w/o fuels DELIVERED ENERGY NEED NET ENERGY ENERGY Heating NEED BUILDING electricity Cooling (electricity, district heat, district cooling, fuels) heating energy TECHNICAL Ventilation SYSTEMS district heat DHW Net delivered energy cooling energy district cooling Lighting Energy use and Appliances electricity production fuels Heat gains from (renewable and occupants System losses non-renewable) and conversions Heat exchange EXPORTED ENERGY electricity heating energy cooling energy Jarek Kurnitski 16.05.2011 © Sitra 2010
  • 13. Source: Kurnitski J. Contrasting the EP-value comparison, 2008 data principles of EP requirements and calculation methods in EU member states. REHVA journal, December 2008, 22–28.• The figure shows maximum allowed delivered energy without household electricity (i.e. delivered energy to 180 heating, hot water and ventilation Oil or gas boiler systems) in each country for fossil 160 Max allowed delivered energy, kWh/(m 2a) Electrical heating fuel or electrical heating in 140 140 m2 house 120• In the comparison, the degree-day 100 corrected data is used, all values are corrected with 17 C degree- 80 days to Copenhagen 60• Component-based regulations 40 causes significant penalties for Finland 20 0• The data represents the situation Denmark Norway Sweden Estonia Germany Finland in 2008, and is not up to date, due New reg. from 2010 2010 2010 to regulation changes in Denmark, Sweden and Finland Jarek Kurnitski 16.05.2011 © Sitra 2010
  • 14. Denmark and Sweden 2010, Finland 2012-draft, others2008 180 Oil or gas boiler 160 Electrical heating Max allowed delivered energy, kWh/(m 2a) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Denmark Norway Sweden Estonia Germany Finland Jarek Kurnitski 16.05.2011 © Sitra 2010
  • 15. Denmark and Sweden 2010, Finland 2012, others 2008 180 Oil or gas boiler 160 Electrical heating Max allowed delivered energy, kWh/(m 2a) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Denmark Norway Sweden Estonia Germany Finland Jarek Kurnitski 16.05.2011 © Sitra 2010
  • 16. 2012 energy calculation methods• Advanced buildings/innovative systems need advanced calculation methods – no alternatives for dynamic simulation tools• Energy simulation/commercial simulation tools will become major calculation method in Finland 2012: - dynamic simulation required in buildings with cooling system (both for mechanical and free cooling) due to heat transfer dynamic phenomenon - summer overheating/room temperatures to be simulated in all buildings in typical rooms – may lead to some (free?) cooling in apartment buildings - exception for single family houses, there temperature simulation is not needed• Requirement of the validated simulation software in the code, all relevant European and other validation standards accepted• Initiative for tools testing/comparison planned (voluntary R&D activity)• The approach – nationwide experiment never done before Jarek Kurnitski 16.05.2011 © Sitra 2010