Chapter 12 law and class robot

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Chapter 12 law and class robot

  1. 1. Robotic & Automation By Abd Samad Hanif Chapter 12 • Laws of Robotic • Classification of Robotic and Automation • Types of Robotic and Automation • Selection of robot By : Abd Samad Hanif , Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  2. 2. • Laws of Robotic • Robot and Automation Classification • Robot and Automation Component / Element • Task in Each Component • Technology Level Learning Outcomes Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  3. 3. • Robot (a Slavic word for worker) was first introduced in 1921 in a play by the Czech playwright, Karel Čapek. • The use of the word Robot was introduced into his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) which opened in Prague in January 1921. • The word 'robotics' was first used in Runaround, a short story published in 1942, by Isaac Asimov (born Jan. 2, 1920, died Apr. 6, 1992). I, Robot, a collection of several of these stories, was published in 1950. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  4. 4. Three Laws of Robotics: • This law was Introduce by Isaac Asimov • He is a professor of biochemistry interested in academics writing and best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. • Having written or edited more than 500 books and an estimated 9,000 letters and postcards • Examples , Liar (1941) I Robot (1950), and Robot Visions (1990). Run around (1950), The Foundation Trilogy (1951-52), and Foundation's Edge (1982) witch won the award Hugo and Nebula. The Complete Robot series (1982), •Asimov suggested 3 “rules of Robot" witch known as “Zeroth law" in Science fiction short story magazine known as Run around (1950) Isaac Asimov Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  5. 5. The Law of Robot (1942) Law One : A robot may not injure a human being, or, (zeroth law) through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm,unless this would violate (break) a higher order law.(Liar 1941) Law Two : A robot must obey orders given by human beings,except where such orders would conflict with a higher order law.(First Law) Law Three : A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law.(First or Second Law. ) (Robot series ) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  6. 6. Additional laws The Fourth Law of Robotics : A robot must establish its identity as a robot in all cases.” • The 1974 Lyuben Dilov novel "Icarus's Way" introduced a Fourth Law of robotics: The Fifth Law : A robot must know it is a robot. • It was introduced by Nikola Kesarovski in his short story "The Fifth Law of Robotics". The plot revolves around a murder. The forensic investigation found out that the victim was killed by a humaniform robot using a simple hug. The robot directly violated the First and the Fourth Laws by not establishing for itself that it was a robot Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  7. 7. Base on hardware and software. Three main classification are : 1. Fixed (hard) automation – involve hardware only 2. Programmable automation – involve software only 3. Flexible automation – involve hardware and software Classification of Automation Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  8. 8. • Is a machine refer to totally hardware that can operate automatically without human interference. • Examples – door with spring load – watch , gravity machine, water-wheel, animal/wind – wheel. • Used in low and medium production manufacturing. • Special machine for production process efficiency at higher number/rate of product. • An Automatic machine and numerical control machine is an example of fixed automation because the inner construction and function can’t be change. 1) Fixed / Hard Automation Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  9. 9. 2) Programmable Automation • Combination of hardware (machine) and software (programmable). • Example – Production line assemble, Air condition, screen saver, traffic light, radiator • Used when rate of production are small and there is a variation at the product. • An equipments can be easily change their setup according to the product configuration needs after the first production is finish. • More different/variety and unique product can be produce economically in small amount. • One set of program to control the whole operation of product. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  10. 10. 3) Flexible Automation • Also known as “Flexible Manufacturing System(FMS)” and “Computer Integrated Manufacturing(CIM)”. • Combination of hardware and software ( same as programmable) but can easily changed during the operation without waiting the whole operation completed. • It can be programmed for different configuration product either at the beginning, middle or end of the production according to the production changes. • But usually configuration product are limited compare to the programming automation. • Allows combination of certain system. • In flexible automation, different product can be made in the same time at the same manufacture system. • Flexible Automation System mostly consist of series of workstation that is connected to the material operation and storage system, assembly line and control of operation of work by using a program for a different work station. Example – Automobile assemble line. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  11. 11. Function and control manufacturing Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  12. 12. • One of the main character in the programming automation is the programming product will be made in batch. • When the batch is completed, then the equipment will be programmed again to process another batch. • In flexible automation, different product can be made in the same time at the same manufacture system. • This character enable versatility level that is not available in the programming automation. Programmable vs Flexible Automation Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  13. 13. Classification of Automation Automation or Robot Automasi tetap (fixed automation) Number of material Automasi berubah (Flexible Automation) Productivity 3 9 30 100 1000 15000 500 15 Automasi pengaturcaraan (Programmable Automation) Production Per year Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  14. 14. Classification of robot
  15. 15. Introduction • Majority of us think that robot like a human • Actually robot look like human is very ray and hard to buildup • until now we can only produced an ASIMO • in science fiction, robot made to ensemble a human being • Since that human become one of the factor for the robot classification.
  16. 16. Classification of robot Possible classification schemes are base on : 1. Anatomy (Body) 2. Control of movement 3. Kinematics /geometry structure 4. Energy source 5. Authority body 6. Industry/non industry 7. Technology level 8. Based on design 9. Application/job 10. By number of degree of freedom (gripper configuration) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  17. 17. 1. Based On Anatomy (Body)  Arm  Two arm  Arm and leg  Arm, leg and face  Finger - 2 fingers - 3 fingers - 5 fingers Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  18. 18. 2. Based On Control of movement a) Limited sequence Robot b) From point to point Robot c) Continues Robot Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  19. 19. a) Limited Sequence Robot • The movement of robot is limited in linear direction. • Use of mechanical stop and limit switch to control the movement of manipulator. • Difficult to fixed the stop point. • The stop point on the path cannot be changed easily (only one stop point on a single path between the 2 point) • Mechanical stop give a fixed position stop (repetition +/- 0.5mm). Advantages : • the cost is cheap 25% to 50%. Compare to others. • This type of robot are used for casting, pressing and fixed movement. • The robot not sophisticated. Disadvantages : 1) Control and movement are limited. 2) used longer time for setting machine. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  20. 20. b) From Point to Point Robot • The movement of robot is in linear direction. • Can stop the axes at any point through the path. • At the end of the tool will be programmed at sequence discrete points in the work space. • No control for movement speed. • Move at different speed and distance. • Axes can reach the destination and stop before another axes. • Usually used in industry environment where amount of work is zero and consistency between the movement of the outside object like ”conveyer” not needed. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  21. 21. c) Continues Control Robot • The movement of robot is in any direction continuously. • For complex workstation environment. • Position and end tool must be controlled and follow 3 dimension (3-D) space. • Speed of movement action is different. • Example : paint spray, welding works and application. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  22. 22. Work space can be defined as space that robot manipulate (MOVE) a) Cartesian Coordinate /Movement (x,y,z) b) Cylindrical Movement(Ø, r, z) c) Spherical Movement(Ø, R, Ø) d) SCARA Movement(Ø, Ø, Z) e) Revolute Movement(Ø, Ø, Ø) 3. Based On Kinematics coordinate (MOVEMENT) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  23. 23. • There is 5 types of robot Coordinat ( INSTALLATION) • Shape of work space are determine by robot configuration. • Comparison between different robot configuration : 1. Cartesian (x,y,z) 2. Cylindrical (Ø, r, z) 3. Spherical (Ø, R, Ø) 4. SCARA (Ø, Ø, Z) 5. Revolute (Ø, Ø, Ø) Robot Kinematics coordinate Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  24. 24. Robot Coordinates Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  25. 25. 1) Cartesian Coordinate (x,y,z) • Cartesian coordinate (x,y,z) – movement base, access, height. • Advantages : – Consist of 3 linear axes. – Easy to describe. – Hard and roburst structure. – Can be programmed in off-line situation. – Linear axes can make mechanical movement layoff more easier. • Disadvantages : – Access is limited only at the front part. – Need wide area workspace. – Axes are quite difficult to change. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  26. 26. By : Abd Samad Hanif , Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  27. 27. 2) Cylindrical coordinate (Ø, r, z) • Cylindrical coordinate (Ø, r, z) – revolute base, access radius, height • Advantages : – 2 linear movement and 1 rotation axes. – well suited to round workspaces. – Access axes and height are stiff. – Easy to change rotation axes. • Disadvantages : – Cannot achieve/move upside from the body. – Rotation site are less strenght/roburst then linear axes. – Linear axes quite difficult to change. – Cannot move at the barrier. By : Abd Samad Hanif , Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  28. 28. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  29. 29. • Spherical coordinate (Ø, R, Ø) – revolute site, access, height radius • Horizontal movement that rotate. • Advantages : – 1 linear movement and 2 rotation axes. – Horizontal access ( long horizontal ). • Disadvantages : – Access is denied along the barrier. – Usually, access in short vertical. 3) Spherical coordinate (Ø, R, Ø) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  30. 30. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  31. 31. • SCARA coordinate (Ø, Ø, Z) – revolute site, access radius, height • SCARA is a summary from Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm. • Same workspace as cylinder robot,but access axes is a rotation joint in flat surface and parallel on the floor. • Advantages : - 1 linear movement axes, 2 rotation movement axes. - Height axes is hard and roburst. - Can do a lot of things/works in small workspace. - Can access along the barrier. - There is 2 paths/ways to reach 1 point. • Disadvantages : - Hard to programmed in off-line situation. - Consist of complex arm structure. 4) SCARA coordinate (Ø, Ø, Z) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  32. 32. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  33. 33. • Revolute coordinate (Ø, Ø, Ø) – rotation site, height radius, access radius • Advantages : – It have 3 rotation movement axes. – Can move/achieve above and bottom of the barrier. – Many/huge load for a small workspace. – 2 or 4 paths/ways to reach 1 point. • Disadvantages : – Hard to programmed in off-line situation. 5) Revolute coordinate (Ø, Ø, Ø) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
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  35. 35. Type of configuration (Geometry Structure Configuration) • Cartesian configuration (PPP) • Cylindrical configuration (RPP) • Spherical configuration (RRP) • SCARA configuration (RRP/PRR) • Revolute configuration (RRR) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  36. 36. • Also known as Rectilinear/Gantry configuration. • Positioning is done in the workspace with prismatic joints. • Manipulator with 3 prismatic joints that is known as Cartesian manipulator. • Joint variable is a Cartesian coordinate for end tool with the ground. • Kinematics explanation for manipulator is the most simple one. • This configuration is well used when a large workspace must be covered,or when consistent accuracy is expected from the robot. • Used for desk assembling application. • As robot gantry to remove thing and cargo. 1) Cartesian Configuration (PPP) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  37. 37. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  38. 38. Symbol for Prismatic joint z i2 d i1 Z = motion axis, d = sliding distance or joint variable) i = a links base Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  39. 39. • First joint is revolute that produce revolute motion at the base. • Second and third joint is prismatic joint (a prismatic joint for height and a prismatic joint for radius). • Joint variable is a cylindrical coordinate for end tool with the ground. • This robot is well suited to round workspaces. 2) Cylindrical Configuration (RPP) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  40. 40. z i2 i1  Symbol for Rotary joint Z = motion axis, i = a links  = angle of rotating joint base Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  41. 41. 3) Spherical Configuration (RRP) • Also known as polar ( magnet pole). • First and second joints is revolute. • Third joint is prismatic joint . • Joint variable is a spherical coordinate for end tool with the ground. • allow the robot to point in Many directions, and then reach out some radial distance. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  42. 42. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  43. 43. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  44. 44. • SCARA – summary for “Selective Compliant Articulated Robot for Assembly”. • There is 2 type of configuration, either : 1) First and second joints is revolute and third joints is prismatic or 2) First joints is revolute with second and third joints is prismatic. • Although it is a RRP type but it quite different from the polar in both arise and usage limit. • SCARA robot used in installation operation. • This robot conforms to cylindrical coordinates, but the radius and rotation is obtained by a two planar links with revolute joints. 4) SCARA Configuration (RRP/PRR) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  45. 45. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  46. 46. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  47. 47. 5) Revolute Configuration (RRR) • Also known as Articulated Manipulator atau Anthromorpic Manipulator. • Another word for Revolute Configuration is Articulated/Jointed Spherical configuration. • The robot uses 3 revolute joints to position the robot. • Generally the work volume is spherical. • Robot design is similar human hand/arm. This robot most resembles the human arm, with a waist, shoulder, elbow, wrist. • There is 2 types of robot design : – elbow types like PUMA. – Square connection like Cincinnati Milacron T3 735. • Elbow types prepare large Degree of Freedom (DOF) and compact space. • Parallel square connection usually less efficient but it have some advantage that can make the design more interesting and popular. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
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  49. 49. Classification of Robot Based on Energy • is refer to energy source TO MOVE THE actuator OR robot joint. • Normally there is four categories : 1) Electrical Robot 2) Hydraulic Robot 3) Pneumatic Robot 4) Mechanical Robot Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  50. 50. Used electrical energy to move the motor. • DC stepper motor, DC servomotor or AC servomotor,solenoid or plunger at the segment joint. • Advantages : - Very popular, - low price, - clean, - silent and - easy to assemble. • Avoided backlash ( slow response ) • Easy to control or brake the circuit/operation 1) Electrical Robot Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  51. 51. • Small and medium size of robot. • Usually used electric power through gear power that used servomotor and stepper motor. • Usually used DC motor, unless for bigger robot it will be equipped by AC motor. • Advantages : – More accurate. – Good Repeatability. – Need only small space. – Suitable for accurate work like assembling application. Electric Power Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  52. 52. • Disadvantages : – Less powerful and fast compare to hydraulic power. – Expensive price for the huge robot and powerful. – High risk to destructive burning. • Nowadays, there is new design style that used fully electric power. • New design based on direct power ( without gear ). Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  53. 53. • Develop in 1981 at Universiti Carnegie-Mellon, USA. • The motor replace the joint for the manipulator. • Or pulling the segment/link/lever by used of pulley and motor. • It will be equipped with power motor closely to robot joint. • Advantages : – Can vanish backlash and scarcity in mechanical. – Abolish the necessary of sending power ( more efficient). – backdrivable joint. Direct Drive Robot Example of Electrical Energy Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  54. 54. 2) Hydraulic Robot • Used hydraulic energy to move the actuator. • Advantages :More powerful and response more faster then electrical robot. • Used to manipulate high speed in range of huge payload. • Disadvantages : Less clean and cleanliness is a important feature in assembling application. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  55. 55. • Big size robot usually used hydraulic power. • Hydraulic power system always produce : - rotate movement ( energy / pressure to rotate ) - linear movement ( hydraulic piston ) • Advantages : - more strength ratio on weight. - Can move in high speed. • Disadvantages : - Need large workspace. - Oil leaking. Hydraulic Power Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  56. 56. 3) Pneumatic Robot • Both electrical and hydraulic robot usually use end tool from pneumatic power. • Limited for robot network. • In general, this robot is more cheaper and simple. • But it quite hard to control and perform less dynamic then other robot. Notes : • Usually robot movement can be classified based on arm geometry or kinematics structure. • Majority robot movement can be classified to 5 configuration : Cartesian (PPP), Cylinder (RPP), Sphere (RRP), SCARA (RRP) dan Revolute (RRR). Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  57. 57. Pneumatic Power • Suitable for small robot. • Degree of freedom (DOF) are more smaller such as 2 to 4 degree joint movement freedom. • Limited to take and place task with a fast cycle. • Pneumatic power also can be used in producing energy from piston to enable linear movement while rotation movement can be achieve through rotation. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  58. 58. • Power system for robot can be determine by : – Capacity to move body. – Operation speed. – Strength of dynamic performance. – Application type for robot. – In commercial, industrial robot are consist of variety movement power such as : 1) Electric power 2) Hydraulic power 3) Pneumatic power Notes : Usually Electric and Pneumatic Power used for more sophisticated robot. Comparison in Power System Robot : Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  59. 59. • Japan Industrial Robot Association (JIRA) – divide into 6 class. • Robotics Institute of America (RIA) – divide into 4 class (only consider class 3-6 as robots ) • Association Francaise de Robotique (AFR) – divide into 4 class ( A to D ) Classification of Robot Base on Authority Body Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  60. 60. JIRA (Japan Industrial Robot Association ) Class 1: manual handling device – a device with several DOF’s actuated by the operator. Class 2: fixed sequence robot – similar to fixed automation. Class 3: variable sequence robot – similar to programmable automation. Class 4: playback robot – the human performs tasks manually to teach the robot what trajectories to follow. Class 5: numerical control robot – the operator provides the robot with the sequence of tasks to follow rather than teach it. Class 6: intelligent robot – a robot with the means to understand its environment, and the ability to successfully complete a task despite changes in the surrounding conditions where it is performed.Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  61. 61. Class 3: variable sequence robot – similar to programmable automation. Class 4: playback robot – the human performs tasks manually to teach the robot what trajectories to follow. Class 5: numerical control robot – the operator provides the robot with the sequence of tasks to follow rather than teach it. Class 6: intelligent robot – a robot with the means to understand its environment, and the ability to successfully complete a task despite changes in the surrounding conditions where it is performed. RIA ( Robotics Institute of America ) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  62. 62. • Type A: Handling devices with manual control to telerobotics • Type B: Automatic handling devices predetermined cycles • Type C: Programmable, servo controlled robot with continuous point-to-point trajectories • Type D: Same as type C, but with the capability to acquire information from its environment AFR (The Association Francaise de Robotique) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  63. 63. Classification of Robot Base on Industrial / Non-Industrial • Non industrial robot use in home,school,field, for personal,education, army,medical,hobby, showcase and promote • Industrial robot in manufacturing, welding, cutting, formatting, assembling, heavy works,painting Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  64. 64. Example of non-industrial robot : • Helicopter • nuvo • asimo • REUTERS PIC 2003 • Robot WL-16 Non-Industrial Robot Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  65. 65. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  66. 66. Nuvo Robot (2005) (2005) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  67. 67. REUTERS PIC 2003 Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  68. 68. • Industrial robots is more complex. • Consist of some subsystem that operate together to perform function that have been determined. • Main importancy in the subsystem for the robot is kinematic, control system and driver. • Robots are used in a wide range of industrial applications. • The earliest applications were in materials handling, spot welding, and spray painting. • Robots were initially applied to jobs that were hot, heavy, and hazardous such as die casting, forging, and spot welding. Robots in Industry Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  69. 69. What is an Industrial Robot? This definition contains several important points: – The robot is a machine. – The robot is programmable; therefore, it can be given new instructions to meet new requirements. – The robot has a multifunction manipulator arm, which means it may be used in different ways, even within the same program. – The robot is flexible, enabling it to perform a variety of operations to meet special needs. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  70. 70. What is an Industrial Robot? There are many different device types that perform similar functions. For example: – Manual manipulator. A manipulator worked by a human operator. – Fixed-sequence robot. A manipulator that performs successive steps of a given operation; its instructions cannot be easily changed. – Variable-sequence robot. A manipulator similar to the fixed-sequence robot, but its instructions can be changed easily. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  71. 71. What is an Industrial Robot? (continued) – Playback robot. A manipulator that can reproduce operations originally executed under human control. – Numerically controlled (NC) robot. A manipulator that can perform a sequence of movements which is communicated by means of numerical data. – Intelligent robot. A robot that can itself detect changes in the work environment by means of sensory perception and adjust its movements accordingly. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  72. 72. • The robot classification based on movement can be divided into two class : • Static Robot (still) • Dynamic Robot (moving) Classification of Robot base on Movement Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  73. 73. Static Robot • These robots just stand at it’s place and still moving to do work with it’s arm. • These robot known as automatic control. • Doing same work reputably. For example : screw installation. • These robot are suitable to do task that is bored in the industrial. • Can be reprogrammed to do other task. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  74. 74. - Example of Stationary Robots : • Forging robot. • Assembling installation. • Blocking rod for car park. • Robotic Arm Stationary Robots Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  75. 75. • The base of robot can travel along the track or rail either on the floor or overhead mount. • This robot work at several place and can move/walk by itself. • The movement using wheel, foot or rail. • The tasks that have been done by robot needs to make it move from one place to another place. • The workspace maybe danger,difficult or wide. • Dynamic robot is divide into 3 types : – Walking robots. – Rolling robots. – Sliding robots. Dynamic Robot Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  76. 76. Walking Robots • This walking robot have a legs like an insect / animal or human. • Usually used at rocky place and difficult to be done by wheeled/rolling robot. • This types of robot need the balance ability to make sure its not collapse. • This robot have at least 2, 4, 6 or more. • If one of the legs is broken, it still can balance itself. • Design of this robot was adapted from human, insect or crawfish. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  77. 77. WL-16 Robot • Build by Univercity of waseda - named as WL-16 robot. • Use battery power. • First robot that bring human that is weight about 60kg and walk 30cm distance (Tokyo,Japan -2004) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  78. 78. Legged Robots • First humanoid robot is ASIMO. • Have a legs, can walk and dance liked human. • Orino Robot is added by the ability to run. • This robot is build by Japan Sony company. • Weight about 15 pound and before this it known as SDR. • Can dance and run about 15” per minute. • Can raise both leg in one time. • Can throw the ball and hold fan when it dance. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  79. 79. • Use wheel to move. • Move to search something fastly and easy. • Suitable for flat area. • Most suitable for observation, cautious, saving victim. • Dangers work at high risk to human, poisoning and viruses. Wheeled / Rolling robots Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  80. 80. • Example of usage : – Used to explore on the Mars surface (Mars Explorer), Robot spirit – Search victim – Extinct fire. – Detect intruder. – Move things from one place to another place. Wheeled / Rolling robots Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  81. 81. Autonomous (independently) Robots • Kind of Self-supporting or self- contained wheeled robot. • Depend on its own brain. • Execute its own programming to give right to take an action based on its environment. • Can learn new behaviour, starting with simple rutine and then adapted it to perform next task more better. By : Abd Samad Hanif , Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  82. 82. • The most better rutine will be repeat untill it become habit for the robot. • Able to learn ways to walk and avoid the barrier in front of it. • Imagine that robot with 6 legs, at first time its legs will move randomly and after a moment it will modify the programme and move in same tempo. • But, limited memory and brain. Autonomous (independently) Robots Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  83. 83. Sliding Robot • Move through rail that have been build. • Or through line path. • Most of this robot is static but it will be operate to do different task. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  84. 84. Virtual Robots 1. Not exist in reality world. 2. Virtual robot is in form of programming that is consist of software blocks in the computer. 3. Virtual robot can be similar as real robot and do only frequent/repeat task. - Example :WebCrawler : searching in the internet, will the information to the search engine. - Chatterbot : connect the conversation between users in the internet (ELIZA,ELVIS). Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  85. 85. Beam (bendul) Robots • BEAM- summary of Biology, Electronics, Aesthetics dan Mechanics. • Build to fulfill free time, easy and simple. • Construct based on environment. • BEAM looks like insects. • Easy to build into mechanical form. • Limited habit that make it easy to programmed in the memory. • Limited power of processing.Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  86. 86. Beam Robots • Electronics Use basic electronics.Without electronic circuit, it also can be use with solar power source. • Aesthetics BEAM Robot must tidy and attractive. BEAM Robot have colouring circuit but it will presented in form that is similar to the original form. • Mechanics Compare to the expensive and sophisticated, this robot is more cheap and easy to build. Using used material to build it. Use solar energy. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  87. 87. Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV) • Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) – type of robot that working without human and computer control. • AGV is design to follow the line that is paint on the floor or bury cabel. • AGV need to be controlled and guideline from the main computer or programming controll to tell which path it have to going through. • AGV also a special robot that is designed to lifting material and cannot be programmed again to do other task that is not related. • Mostly Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRS) used AGVs. • ASRS is an automatic warehouse that is use computer and robot to store and giving back material part. It can store in a large amount. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  88. 88. W. Grey Walter’s Tortoise • Machina Speculatrix” (1953) – 1 photocell, 1 bump sensor, 1 motor, 3 wheels, 1 battery • Behaviors : – seek light – head toward moderate light – back from bright light – turn and push – recharge battery • Uses reactive control, with behavior prioritization Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  89. 89. Principles of Walter’s Tortoise • Parsimony – Simple is better • Exploration or speculation – Never stay still, except when feeding (i.e., recharging) • Attraction (positive tropism) – Motivation to move toward some object (light source) • Aversion (negative tropism) – Avoidance of negative stimuli (heavy obstacles, slopes) • Discernment – Distinguish between productive/unproductive behavior (adaptation) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  90. 90. Braitenberg Vehicles • Valentino Braitenberg (1980) • Thought experiments – Use direct coupling between sensors and motors – Simple robots (“vehicles”) produce complex behaviors that appear very animal, life-like • Excitatory connection – The stronger the sensory input, the stronger the motor output – Light sensor  wheel: photophilic robot (loves the light) • Inhibitory connection – The stronger the sensory input, the weaker the motor output – Light sensor  wheel: photophobic robot (afraid of the light) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  91. 91. Example Vehicles • Wide range of vehicles can be designed, by changing the connections and their strength • Vehicle 1: – One motor, one sensor • Vehicle 2: – Two motors, two sensors – Excitatory connections • Vehicle 3: – Two motors, two sensors – Inhibitory connections Being “ALIVE” “FEAR” and “AGGRESSION” “LOVE” Vehicle 1 Vehicle 2 Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  92. 92. Classification of Robot Base on Technology • This classification same as computer. • According to the level of technology used. • The factor are number of axes, payload, cycle time, accuracy, control and actuation. • The tree levels of technology are : – Low level technology – Medium level technology – High level technology Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  93. 93. Low – Technology Robots • Used in industrial for simple job like machine loading and unload ( doing same sequence of job in a particular time) . • The task can’t be change during working - fixed control. • The axes of movement are between two to four • Non servo controlled robots. Need mechanical stop at the end of each axes of travel. • The axes motion are generally up/down, reach and rotate gripper. • Stop after finish the job/task and repeat back Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  94. 94. • Payload (load capacity) that manipulator can position is at the end of effectors this weight is measure at the center of wrist flange of the robot. • The maximum of weight can range from 3-13.6 Kg. • The time taken for robot to move from one location to other (cycle time) depend on payload and length manipulator arm must travel. • For low technology robot have very high cycle time from 5 – 10 second. • The accuracy ( how closely a robot can position its payload to a given programmed point) related to the repeatability for LTR is very high (0.050 – 0.024 millimetre. Low - Technology Robots Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  95. 95. Medium Technology • Primarily for picking and placing and loading and unloading • More sophisticated than low-technology robots (more movement) • Have a large work cell. Its mean axis travel is grater • Have a three, five to six axes (Degree of freedom) of motion (up/down, reach, rotation, band, roll, yaw (rotational) • Have a grate payload able to handle weight from 68 -150 kg. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  96. 96. Medium Technology • The cycle time form reach axis from 25 to 65 centimeter take 1secont to execute . Rotation 150 cm/sec. • The accuracy is not as good as LTR because of increased number of axes • Capable to repeating their position data to meet the requirement of the job. For 0.2 mm to 1.3mm • Microprocessor used to control the robot system • Can be control by manually, all the position and movement can be recorded and stored Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  97. 97. High-technology Robots • Used for multi purpose job such as material handling, press, transpiring, painting, sealing, spot welding and arc welding. • Have an axes form six to nine to 16 or more almost same as human movement • The payload about the same ad medium-technology robot around 68-150 kg. • The cycle time also same as MTR in additional every axes have their own cycle time. • The accuracy and repeatability is the garters, by used of feed back data from 1-0.4 mm. • Can perform well although the object is not at the correct position by use of sensor and microprocessor high bit 16-31 bps)Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  98. 98. A comparison the payload factor Low technology robot Medium technology robot High technology robot payload 3-4.5 Kg 22.7-56.7 kg 3-80 kg Drive system pneumatic hydraulic Electric/hyd raulic Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  99. 99. Artificial Intelligence • Officially born in 1956 at Dartmouth University – Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy, Herbert Simon • Intelligence in machines – Internal models of the world – Search through possible solutions – Plan to solve problems – Symbolic representation of information – Hierarchical system organization – Sequential program execution By : Abd Samad Hanif , Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  100. 100. AI and Robotics • AI influence to robotics : – Knowledge and knowledge representation are central to intelligence • Perception and action are more central to robotics • New solutions developed: behavior-based systems – “Planning is just a way of avoiding figuring out what to do next” (Rodney Brooks, 1987) • Distributed AI (DAI) – Society of Mind (Marvin Minsky, 1986): simple, multiple agents can generate highly complex intelligence • First robots were mostly influenced by AI (deliberative) Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  101. 101. Shakey • At Stanford Research Institute (late 1960s) • A deliberative system • Visual navigation in a very special world • STRIPS planner • Vision and contact sensors Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  102. 102. Early AI Robots: HILARE • Late 1970s. • At LAAS in Toulouse. • Video, ultrasound, laser rangefinder. • Was in use for almost 2 decades. • One of the earliest hybrid architectures. • Multi-level spatial representations. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  103. 103. Early Robots: CART/Rover • Hans Moravec’s early robots • Stanford Cart (1977) followed by CMU rover (1983) • Sonar and vision By : Abd Samad Hanif , Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  104. 104. Lessons Learned • Move faster, more robustly • Think in such a way as to allow this action • New types of robot control : – Reactive, hybrid, behavior-based • Control theory – Continues to thrive in numerous applications • Cybernetics – Biologically inspired robot control • AI – Non-physical, “disembodied thinking” Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  105. 105. Challenges By : Abd Samad Hanif , Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  106. 106. First Generasion Robot – Fixed sequence program – Take and placed task – Blind and deaf dan ( no sense ) – Less ability to make decision. – Bight control is open. – Upgrade : (Sophisticated robot ) the ability will be upgraded. – Some action control by sense. – Can know when something happen but cannot rectify. – Closed control bight have been introduced. Classification of Robot base on design Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  107. 107. Second Generation Industrial Robot • Have a coordinate control between manipulator and eye sensor ( under progress testing) • New ability : – Mobility – Voice recognization command. – Have touch foresee. – Multi arm action with hand to hand coordination arm that is flexible. – Microprocessor intelligence – Multi robots in crowd-swarm action. – Can make decision. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  108. 108. Second Generation Industrial Robot • Upgrade : – Perceptual motor function. – Responses to the sense simulator to control the movement compare prerecorded movement. i.e, it determined what to do to accomplish desired steps by itself. Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  109. 109. Third Generation Industrial Robot • Move faster, more robustly • Have an AI (Non-physical, “disembodied thinking) to operate on their own for example discrete part assembly • Make a decision to commit a deference job/task • Only need a few information to do their job/task. • Be able to learn a new thing without reprogram • Cybernetics - Biologically inspired robot control • New types of robot control: Reactive, hybrid, behavior-based Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  110. 110. Classification of Robot Base on Job or Task There is various job or task that can be done by a robot such as : 1. Bomb destroyer 2. Searching and communicate 3. Searching victim in disaster 4. Seaching for Information - temperature - enemy - on planet Mars 4. Simple assembling – push, pull 5. Lifting and place 6. Entertain/ Hobby/ Friend/ to serve ( waiter) / player 7. Observe and guard (security guard) 8. Assembling line in manufacturing There is many ways to categorize the robot . Some are based on job or task. Some are based on work.Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  111. 111. Selection of Robot • Consider available robot (the robot you have first). • Consider the combination of technical characteristic. – Number of axes ( paksi ). – Types of control system. – work volume – Easy to program – Accuracy and repeatability of movement – Payload - Load carry capacity • For a batter selection choose the higher specification than needed. By : Abd Samad Hanif , Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  112. 112. • We will use a table to represent the usage of updated robot application. • Base on task/application with specify amendment (refer to Table 2.1 ). • By using this characteristic table, it help engineers to choose less alternative for the right robot model. Choose of robot base on Characteristic of Application Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  113. 113. Aplikasi Ciri Teknikal Yang Biasa Diperlukan Moving material Axes amount : 3 to 5 Control system : point to pint or limited sequence. Power system : pneumatic or hydraulic ( for heavy load ) Programming : manual, powered leadthrough Machine Loading Anatomy : polar, cylindrical, revolute arm Axes amount : 4 or 5 Control system : point to pint or powered leadthrough Power system : electric or hydraulic ( for heavy load ) Programming : powered leadthrough Spot welding Anatomy : polar, revolute arm. Axes amount : 5 to 6 Control system : point to pint Power system : electric or hydraulic Programming : powered leadthrough Arc welding Anatomy : polar, cartesian, revolute arm. Axes amount : 5 to 6 Control system : continous path. Power system : electric or hydraulic Programming : manual, powered leadthrough. Spray coating Anatomy : revolute arm Axes amount : 6 or more. Control system : continous path. Power system : hydraulic Programming : manual leadthrough. Assembly Anatomy : revolute arm, Cartesian, SCARA Axes amount : 3 to 6 Control system : point to pint or continous path. Power system : electric Programming : powered leadthrough, textual language Accuracy and repeatability : high Table 2.1 Application and Characteristic of Robot Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  114. 114. Quiz • What is the best method for classification of robot and why it used? Explain it. • Can you give two example of fixed and programmable automation machine. • What is the purpose of having a cycle time in robot • Explain the word payload for a robot • What is the guide line to distingue among robots technology level Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
  115. 115. Assignment I • How do you specify the robot class? • What is the factor involve in classification of robot ? • Discuss on the latest robots • This robot can be teach and do their job although is far from the owner, explain on it • Your robot is running through a crowed just to get a bottle of water for you, is that action right or wrong Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education

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