Types of MigrationCauses of Number of peoplemovement Distance Legality Time scale involved Small Forced Group Legal Short term Short Individual Voluntary Illegal Permanent Long Mass Migration
Voluntary Migration – Long term (Permanent) Motivated by own choice / own freewill Looking for a change improvement in their employments Better quality of life in another place / country Common pull factors: Better employment opportunities High salary High standard of living
Over the last century, many Indian migrants have voluntarily settled over other parts of the world. Est 20 millions ethnic Indians live in countries outside India, Europe & North America found jobs in factory, helped rebuild the post war economies of countries they
Voluntary Migration – Short term Move to take jobs and Send part of their earnings back to their home country Intended to return back to home country Contract, control by Immigration policies Applied through agencies with work permits / visas Citizenship will not be given
In Hong Kong, 150,000 Filipino women working as domestic servants / nannies Many Bangladeshi, Indians, Th ais migrate to Brunei to work at many construction industry
Refugees Individual / Mass migration Motivated to find better place to live Common Push Factors: Religious wars / political wars / civil wars Ethnic prosecution / genocide Famine, disease, natural disaster
The drought in Sahel Region has resulted in the degradation of vast areas of the central and northern Africa Lead to agricultural unproductively More than 10 millions people have been forced to migrate to wetter regions of Africa Large numbers of Ethiopians fled to Sudan due to drought and civil wars,
"IOM has made an urgent appeal to donors for $2.6 million which would allow it to help 6,000 Ethiopians, many of them unaccompanied minors and women currently in a horrific situation. Some of the things that women, for example experience, they are often kept against their will by smugglers in their homes and we know of many instances of
Enters a country without legal approval Motivated by economic opportunities Sneak in by boats, on foot or by using fake
Retained in detention camps Forced to return to country of origin especially unskilled background people Heavily guarded border
Refugees may apply to seek political asylum in the destination countries In UK, Major concern is to ensure that refugees are genuine Those who are not qualify the strict criteria will be sent home Those who are qualified will be given access to job
Kosovo is a province of Serbia, the core former Yugoslavia 99% of its population – ethnic Albanians In 1999 – long term tension between Serbia and Kosovo led to war Serbia invaded Kosovo and set about killing or forcibly removing ethnic Kosovars. Thousands of people were killed, injured and or raped
Properties were destroyed and Half of the population fled to become refugees in neighbouring countries like Albania and Macedonia Among European countries only Germany agreed to accept a large number of refugees Britain and France argued that they had already provided aid on the ground in supplying security for the region as well as help for the refugees.
Refugees normally fled to neighbouringpoor countries and they usually arrive inlarge numbers in a short time. What arethe possible problems they maygenerate in the host countries?
Finding living spaces for them Food Shortages of medical care Spread of diseases Overcrowdiness Lack of facilities Tensions between the host population and refugees Very poor conditions
Why are the Britain and France reluctant to accept the Kosovo refugees? Britain and France argued that they had already provided aid on the ground in supplying security for the region as well as help for the refugees. They caused a lot of problems and it’s a burden to them