Case Study: India• High proportion of its population in agriculture (62%)• Many areas are classified as rural & remote• Avg income: low (US$290 per capita)• Hi BR: 31/1000• Fertility rate=4• Population has doubled from 431,463 000 in 1960 to 1, 014,003 800 in 2000• It may overtake China in the next half century
• Current Population of India in 2012 -1,220,200,000 (1.22 billion)• Total Male Population in India - 628,800,000 (628.8 million)• Total Female Population in India - 591,400,000 (591.4 million) Sex• Ratio 940 females per 1,000 males• Age structure 0 to 25 years - 50% of Indias current population• Currently, there are about 51 births in India in a minute.
• Population of India in 1947 - 350 million• Indias Population in 2001 - 1.02 billion• Indias Population in 2011 - 1.21 billion• Although, the crown of the worlds most populous country is on Chinas head for decades,• …India is all set to take the numero uno position by 2030.• With the population growth rate at 1.58%, India is predicted to have more than 1.53 billion people by the end of 2030.
Reasons to control population:• A quickly regenerating population exacerbates shortages of food and water• the nation’s long-term growth will be hampered by a less healthy therefore less productive work force,• greater demand for natural resource consumption,• a higher level of environmental degradation resulting from such consumption.
Realizing these consequences...• Since 1950s - India has been implementing official family planning programs to curb population growth.• However, India’s population has more than doubled since those days (from 431,463,000 in 1960 to 1,014,003,800 in 2000)• current projections predict that India has a good chance of overtaking China as the most populated country in the world within the next half century.
India’s rate of population growth is actually decreasing...but..
• In 1991 India’s annual population growth rate was 2.15% and by 1997• this figure dropped to 1.7%, which indicates that India is indeed making some progress.• While this may be true, most evidence would suggest that the country’s policies have been largely ineffective• changes must be made to prevent further problems resulting from overpopulation.
So where did India’s efforts fall short?• Education regarding temporary methods of contraception was neglected in favor of encouraging sterilization.• Government agencies would have sterilization quotas to fill among the employees, and the inability to meet them was sometimes met with withheld salaries.• Workers were often rewarded with a radio or television if they successfully convinced enough people to opt for the surgery.• At its worst, India’s policy included declaring a state of emergency in 1976 and implementing forced sterilization in poor neighborhoods.• When applying for government loans, or jobs people were told that their chances of receiving such aids would be increased if they could produce a certificate of sterilization.
India - Family Planning• Efforts at population control -in the end successful.• Some states of India eg Kerala barely produce enough growth to maintain the existing population levels.• India tried unsuccessfully in the 70s to use compulsory sterilisation, one of the causes for Mrs Gandhis defeat at the polls in 1977.