Experiential learning


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Experience as The Source of Learning and Development

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Experiential learning

  1. 1. By : Siti Khadijah Ibrahim (Lecturer ofTarbiya Faculty Islamic State UniversityJakarta) Experience asThe Source of Learning and Development
  3. 3.  No account of human learning could be considered complete without an examination of culturally accumulated knowledge, its nature and organization, and the processes whereby individual learners contributed and partake of that knowledge
  4. 4. Form of Knowledge?  Empiricist : a “discovery” is new for the person who makes it, but what is discovered was already in existence in external reality and there is therefore no construction of new realities.  The Nativist or apriorist maintains : that the forms of knowledge are predetermined inside the subject thus again, strictly speaking, there can be novelty.  By contrast, for genetic epistemologist, knowledge results from continous construction, since in each act of understanding, some degree of invention is involved: in development, the passage from one stage to the next is always characterized by the formation of new structures which did not exist before, either in the external world or in the subject’s mind. (Piaget, 1970, p. 77).
  5. 5. APPREHENSION VS COMPREHENSION A DUAL-KNOWLEDGE THEORY  The experiential learning cycle will suffice to illustrate the limitations of either the rationalist or the empiricist philosophies alone as an epistemological foundation for experiential learning. Experiential learning is based on a dual knowledge theory: the empiricists’concrete experience, grasping reality by the process of direct apprehension, and the rationalists’ abstract conceptualization.
  6. 6. THE DIALECTICS OF APPREHENSION AND COMPREHENSION  The interactionism of experiential learning theory places knowing by apprehension on an equal footing with knowing by comprehension, resulting in a stronger interactionist position, really a transactionalism , in which knowledge emerges from the dialectic relationship between the two forms of knowing.
  7. 7. Dialectics, Doubt, and Certainty  The relationship between apprehension and comprehension is dialectic in the Helegian sense although the results of either process cannot be entirely explained in terms of the other, these opposite processes merge toward a higher truth that encompasses and transcends them.
  8. 8.  The creation of knowledge is neither a dogmatism of apprehension or comprehension nor an utter skepticism, but an attitude of partial skepticism in which the of comprehension is held provisionally to be tasted against apprehensions, and vice verse. The critical difference between personal and social knowledge is the presence of apprehension is a way of knowing in personal knowledge
  9. 9. THE STRUCTURE OF SOCIAL KNOWLEDGE: WORLD HYPOTHESES  This tension between common sense and expert knowledge, between cognitive security without responsibility and cognitive responsibility without full security, is the interior dynamics of the knowledge situation. The indifiniteness of much detail in common sense, its contradictions, its lack of established grounds, drive thougt to seek definiteness, consistency and reason.
  10. 10. Root Metaphor ?  Pepper (formism/realism), root metaphor is the observed similarity between objects and events.  The second of mechanism (naturalism or materialsm), root metaphor is the mechine.  The third is contextualism (pragmatism), the root metaphor of the changing historical event.  The final relatively adequate world hypothesis is organicism (absolute idealism), root metaphor is achievement of harmonious unity
  11. 11. SOCIAL KNOWLEDGE AS LIVING SYSTEMS OF INQUIRY-THE RELATION BETWEEN THE STRUCTURE OF KNOWLEDGE AND FIELDS OF INQUIRY AND ENDEAVOR  Knowledge does not exist solely in books, mathematical formulas, or Philosophical systems: it requires active learners to interact with, interpret, and elaborate these symbols. The complete structure of social knowledge must therefore include living systems of inquiry, learning subcultures sharing similar norms and values about how to create valid social knowledge
  12. 12. THE EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT  There is a quality of learning that cannot be ignored. It is assertive, forward moving, and proactive. Learning is driven by curiosity about the here and now and anticipation of the future. The experiential learning cycle was not a circle but spiral, filling each episode of experiential with the potensial for movement, from blind impulse to a life of choice and purpose. (Jhon Dewey)
  13. 13. LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT AS TRANSACTIONS BETWEEN PERSON AND ENVIRONMENT  The experiential learning theory of development focused on the transaction between internal characteristics and external circumstances, from experience that shapes and actualize development potentialities
  14. 14. DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION IN DEVELOPMENT  The dialectics of learning comes a human developmental progression marked by increasing differentiation and hierarchic integration of functioning.The concepts of differentiation an hierarchic integration are fundamental to virtually all theories of cognitive development and adult development. Differentiation has two aspect, an increasing complexity of units and a decreasing interdependence of parts.
  15. 15. UNILINEAR VS. MULTILINIAR DEVELOPMENT  The experiential learning theory of development differs significantly from most Piaget inspired theories of adult development in its emphasis on development as a.multilinier process. The Piagetian theories of cognitive and adult development portray the course of development as unlinier, as some from of movement toward increasing differentiation and hierarchic integration of the structures that govern behavior.
  16. 16.   The exclusive linearity of the  Piagetian approach in three  respect:  It recognizes individual differences in the developmental process. Individuals are different only insofar asthey are at different stages of development.  Arises from the tasactional perspectives of experiential learning that conceptualizes development as the product of personal knowledge and social knowledge.  The practical implications of the issues above. The true path toward individual and cultural development is to be found in equal inquiry among affective, symbolic, perceptual, and behavior knowledge systems.
  17. 17. THE EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING  THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT   The way learning shapes the course of development can be described by the level of integrative complexity in the four learning modes. 1. Affective complexity in concrete experience result in higher order sentiments, 2. perceptual complexity in reflective observation results in higher order observations, 3. symbolic complexity in abstract conceptualization results in higher order concepts, and 4. behavioral complexity in active experimentation results in higher order actions.
  18. 18. ADAPTATION, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND  DEVELOPMENT  As the extention of consciousness increases, the same behavioral action is imbued with broader significance, representing an adaptation that takes account of factors beyond the immediate time and space situation.