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Business world today change rapidly and people needs change day by day. Due to the technology changes people adopt new technologies and devices. After introducing mobile people try to do their day to ...

Business world today change rapidly and people needs change day by day. Due to the technology changes people adopt new technologies and devices. After introducing mobile people try to do their day to day activates through the mobile devices. To retrieve this data vendors developed mobile applications and they needed back end DB server but limited resources in mobiles such as memory, power, processing power and connection types they can’t used normal database, therefore, vendors introduced mobile database tools.

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Mobile datebase tool Document Transcript

  • 1. Literature Survey on Mobile Database Tools Sisuru Sisuru Shamith Kekiriwaragodage
  • 2. 2 Abstract Business world today change rapidly and people needs change day by day. Due to the technology changes people adopt new technologies and devices. After introducing mobile people try to do their day to day activates through the mobile devices. Such as bank transactions, price checking. Whether information, online shopping etc; To retrieve this data vendors developed mobile applications and they needed back end DB server but limited resources in mobiles such as memory, power, processing power and connection types they can’t used normal database, therefore, vendors introduced mobile database tools. Most of the tools are followed client server architecture and these tools have small footprint for memory usage, using less resource and connected thorough wireless technology. Due to competition vendors introduced many open source and commercial Databases, such as SQL Anywhere, IBM mobile database, Oracle Lite, SQLBase, SQLite, MongoDB etc; Most of the mobile DB tools have common features that fulfill the client’s needs. Data availability, integrity and confidentiality is most important factors to fulfill this thing DB needs a features. In other hand it needs to well secure mechanism to protect data. Most of mobile DB has encryption mechanism as well it has synchronization mechanism for data availability. This document describes the features that have on mobile databases as well strength and weakness of the mobile database tools.
  • 3. 3 Table of Contents Abstract........................................................................................................................................................2 1. Introduction..........................................................................................................................................4 2. Mobile Database Tools......................................................................................................................6 2.1 Common Features in Mobile Database Tools.............................................................................6 2.2 Mobile Database Review................................................................................................................8 2.2.1 SQL Anywhere ............................................................................................................................8 2.2.2 DB2 Everyplace...........................................................................................................................8 2.2.3 SolidDB........................................................................................................................................9 2.2.4 SQL Server Compact ...................................................................................................................9 2.2.5 Oracle Database Lite....................................................................................................................9 2.2.6 SQLBase ....................................................................................................................................10 2.2.7 SQLite........................................................................................................................................10 2.2.8 Berkeley DB...............................................................................................................................11 2.2.9 DB4o..........................................................................................................................................11 2.2.10 MongoDB ................................................................................................................................11 2.2.11 TinyDB ....................................................................................................................................12 2.2.12 Prest Lite..................................................................................................................................12 2.3 Strengths and Weaknesses.........................................................................................................12 2.3.1 Strengths ....................................................................................................................................12 2.3.1 Weakness ...................................................................................................................................13 Conclusion.................................................................................................................................................14 Reference List...........................................................................................................................................15 Appendix....................................................................................................................................................18
  • 4. 4 1. Introduction In modern ear mobile devices are played significant role in the society. Business world as well as general public is used of mobile technology for their day today works. After introducing smart phones mobile data requirement rapidly increase. In competitive world people need to get information anytime, anywhere in efficiency and effective manner. In business world employee mobility was high. Therefore, information transfers, make correct decisions effectively people need to access reliable sources as well make life easy people like to know information about price listing, bank transfers, distance and time calculation of two destinations, taxi services and restaurant details of nearest location, etc; Mobile data driven application can access anytime, anywhere as well as lower cost mobile connectivity and dominant lightweight computing devices fulfill above people requirements (Nuri, n.d). In storing application data currently most mobile application developers used flat files. These files recodes haven't well defined interrelationship therefore applications became slow. This approached helps reduce application size and as well as easier to manage, but developer need to developed all the required DB functionalities and application need to be defined the recode organization within the file (Banibaheb, n.d; Geier, 2013). Data synchronization is very difficult in mobile file and central database. Insertion and deletion is difficult in large files, if insertion of the flat files, large part of the file need to rearrange as well deletion user leave the whole file or rearrange the file. Searching recodes in flat files are extremely slow (Brans, 2006). Mobile Database Management system help overcome the above problems and retrieve the fast and reliable information for users. “Mobile database is a database that connected to the mobile devices through the mobile network or database that actually contained by the mobile devices” (Banibaheb, n.d; Mobile database,2014). Mobile databases are existed in on mobile devices and it's physically separated from the central database server. Without the connectivity DB can handle local queries as well it is capable to communicating with other mobile clients form different area or the central database server (Banibaheb, n.d; Gruenwald,&Olken, n.d). Use of mobile databases synchronization between mobile and central database is easy as well insertion and deletion easy because data do not stored
  • 5. 5 in logical or sequential manner. Used of indexes in trees searching become more efficient (Brans, 2006). In mobile database used two type of database architecture. (Refer appendix for diagrams) 1. Client-Server Mobile Database 2. Peer to Peer Mobile Data Base - Client-Server Mobile Database This the traditional model of the information system. In every node has small mobile DB that connected to the central DB in server through DBMS, this is the main model for the most of current databases. However, the server became a single point failure, its effected the system performance as well in storing data on mobile machines to central database might be some failure (Banibaheb, n.d; Drosatos, Efraimidis&Karakos, n.d). - Peer to Peer Mobil Database In Peer to peer mobile databases actives are based on the clients' database. In each point part of the server and the client functions related to each process. In here one peer client want some data, particular client send request to other peer client and request data forwarded by peer who found the requested data. The main issue of this architecture is the availability of the data cause of connectivity problem (Banibaheb, n.d) . Popularity of the mobile technology and mobile database software vendors developed several commercial and open sources software. Such as SQL Anywhere (iAnywhere), DB2 Everyplace, IBM Mobile Database, Oracle Database Lite, SQLite , Mongo DB, db4o etc; Following sections in this reports described the features, technology used, strength and weakness of the mobile database tool available in the market.
  • 6. 6 2. Mobile Database Tools Today software market available number of open source and commercial Mobile Database Tools available. Following table represent the some available Mobile DB tools. Commercial Software Open Source Software SQL Anywhere (iAnywhere) SQLite DB2 Everyplace (Services are stop by IBM) Barkeley DB IBM Mobile Database DB4o SQL Server Compact Perst Lite SQL Server Express Mongodb Oracle Database Lite CouchDB SQLBase TinySQL Sparksee 5 mobile Picosql 2.1 Common Features in Mobile Database Tools Compatibility for several Operating Systems (Potable Databases) - Mobile devices are running different platforms and most of the applications designed based on the OS. Using same application with different DBs for different OS is costly. Therefore, DB tools need to compatible for the different OS‟s (Nuri, n.d; Geier, 2013). Small memory foot print - Mobile devices have limited memory. Database is a part of the application; therefore memory foot print size is affected to the application running. Application and data is a most important part. Therefore, mobile DBs need to be customized that include only required functionalities (Banibaheb, n.d; Nuri, n.d; Geier, 2013;). Data Synchronization – Mobile devices can not connected 24X7 and users need to connect several applications in the same time. In other hand it‟s not store large amount of data because of limited capacity. To reduce the risk DBMS need to have proper synchronization with back end database. It has proper synchronization in offline DB and back end source as well it has to be synchronized with different communication networks (WAN,LAN) , different data sources
  • 7. 7 such as different vendors database client side to different for server side. Therefore, its need to support ODBC, JDBC like connection protocol for synchronized. (Banibaheb, n.d; Nuri, n.d; Geier, 2013). Storage Engine- Most mobile DBs support storing data in the disk but in memory consent it supports to flash devices as well its support the data transaction and concurrency control. To access the data quickly it supported flexible row formats and access methods (indexing) such as B Three, Hash and Heap. As well it must be lower power consumption (Banibaheb, n.d; Nuri, n.d; Geier,2013;). Security- Data security is most important parameter, mobile applications runs in critical data DB security highly essential. Data lost, damage or theft is harmful for business. Data transfer in wireless technology has more risk. Therefore, mobile DB has proper end to end security to transfer data securely. Established Data encryption and decryption mechanisms in both Clint and server are most suitable mechanism to protect data (Banibaheb, n.d; Nuri, n.d; Drosatos,Efraimidis & Karakos, n.d; Geier, 2013;). Lower Power Consumption- In mobile devices processor, display and network connectivity are the main power consumers. These mobile devices have only limited power resource therefore; most of mobile DB‟s optimized the power consumption efficiency (Banibaheb, n.d). Database Management- Mobile DB‟s support to proper administrator handling such as access controls, viewing statues, etc; as well it support important database activities such as backup and restore the data, recovery after failures and table and index reorganizing. Some of the DB‟s like tinyDB and picoDB has self management features, it haven‟t DBA to handle database, its handle all DBA task automatically (Banibaheb, n.d; Nuri, n.d; Geier, 2013;). Support of development tools- Most of the DB supports lot of application development tools such as C++, .net,Visual basic, Java, etc; [ Geier, 2013]. Embeddable Database- Some of the DB‟s used embeddable databases. Mobile application include both DB and the application, it‟s embeddable with DDL file in the application and possible to deploy the database as a standalone for multiple transaction. In here DBA haven‟t direct access to mobile (Nuri, n.d; Banibaheb, n.d).
  • 8. 8 Open Source tools more flexible- Open Source tools aloud to users changes in DB for their needs and it not dependent in vendor changers but user have totally responsible for coding and supporting the application (Geier, 2013). 2.2 Mobile Database Review 2.2.1 SQL Anywhere SQL Anywhere was initiated by Watcom as Watcom SQL in 1992. Later WatconSQL renames to Sybase SQL. In 1995 Sybase merge with SAP and launched SQL Anywhere database for mobile and remote office applications. In mobile database market it captured 68% (Banibaheb, n.d; SQL Anywhere,2013). Consider the minimum technical requirements it need Pentium 2 or upper 32 bit CPU, 512 RAM for server and 4M for client and 500MB+ for full version, only for server 20MB+, only for client 10MB (Sybase, 2010). SQL anyway support windows, windows mobile, Linux, Sun Solaris, Mac OS, IBM AIX, HP- UX and UlterLite OS works on Windows, Windows Mobile, Blackberry OS, IOS, Android etc; (Sybase, n.d; SQL Anywhere,2013). This was a embeddable relational Database management system with self management future. As well its works watcom SQL, T-SQL, Java, C/C++ tools and Ulralite technology its need only less than 75 KB memory footprint (Stoeffler, 2013). Using Mobilink synchronizing technology, SQL Remote with ODBC, JDBC connections its synchronized data QAnywhere helps secure and robust data transfer between DB and applications and its used 256 bit ASE chipper to secure client and server communication. In file access it used Heap indexes (Sybase, 2011). 2.2.2 DB2 Everyplace DB2 Everypalce is a IBM product, but after April 2013 sells and supports discontinued. It‟s replaced to IBM soidDB and its only needs 350 Kb footprints. It had following features Data synchronization, Self management DB, Low power consumption, high security encryption, access control, indexing, concurrency control and integrity (Banibaheb, n.d; IBM Educational Assistant, 2007).
  • 9. 9 2.2.3 SolidDB SolidDB founded by Heksinki, Finlan in 1992. It‟s acquired by IBM in 2007 (SolidDB ,2013). It has two visions, first one is IBM SolidDB, it‟s a standalone relational Database with high speed and availability. Second one is IBM SolidDB universal cache feature (IBM, n.d,a). Its woks on following OS with some technical requirements AIX- 64 bit system with POWER7, HP-UX- Itanium-based HP Integrity series, Linux- 32-bit and 64-bit system based on Intel or AMD processor, Solaris- 64 bit system with UltraSPARC or x86 processor and Windows 32-bit and 64-bit system based on Intel or AMD processor supported to running Windows OS (IBM, n.d,b). It‟s used B+ tree indexing for file access and maintains high availability transaction connectivity is more importance, therefore its used ODBC and JDBC. It can synchronize mobile and database and allowed to offline access to DB. Database replication and other DB functions also allowed in SolidDB (Woloski & Hartnell, 2010; SolidDB,2013). 2.2.4 SQL Server Compact SQL Server Compact is a relational database owned by the Microsoft. It‟s formally called SQL Server Mobile edition. It is free to download and redistribute (Banibaheb, n.d). It was supported several versions of windows operating systems, windows server and windows mobile OS. Its only required 5MB RAM and 2MB Disk storage. In software side it required „.Net framework 3.5‟, IE 6.0, Activesync 4.0 and VS2008. Its support store up to 4GB single .sdf files( SQL Server Pro, 2008). Sever compact support application developed by ASP.NET, C#, C++ and VB tools. As security purposes its used RSA 128 bit encryption mechanism. LINQ, ADO,NET, OLE DB used for access middleware. In synchronization it used ADO.NET, as well Server CAL used for remote data access and replications (Microsoft Server, n.d). 2.2.5 Oracle Database Lite Oracle Lite initially named at Omniscience ORDMS, It was product of Omniscience Object Technology Inc. After acquired by oracle, it rename as Oracle Lite. It was Relational Database
  • 10. 10 management system that contains two parts such as Oracle Database Lite Client and Oracle Database Lite Mobie Sever (Banibaheb, n.d; Oracle, 2010a). Its support following operating Systems such as Windows, Windows Mobile, Linux, Solaris, HP- UX,IBM AIX, IOS etc; (Oracle, 2010b; Oracle, 2011). Oracle Lite need only 1MB memory for run and 3MB hard disk space suffusion to install the application (Banibaheb, n.d). Used of the ODBC, JDBC, ADO.NET Oracle Lite connect several different client side OS such as Java, IOS, Blackberry etc, It‟s also compatible with SQLite and Berkeley DB [overview]. Oracle Lite enable synchronized between client and server with SSL encryption mechanism. If connection lost in mobile devices but users can work and after reconnected its automatically restore to the data base. It has development kit that includes lot of APIs and code to develop application as well it contains executables, DDLs etc; to deployed application in client side easily. Managed the DB functionalities Oracle Lite need the DBA (Oracle, n.d; Geier, 2013). 2.2.6 SQLBase SQLBase is a first Relational Database for the PC environment and in 2004 they release SQLBase for mobile devices with small foot print. It was owned by Gupta Technologies LLC. Umang Guptha is a founder of the company (Behri & McLouth, 2004; SQLite, 2014). It was supported Windows and Linux environment and using ODBC, OLE DB, JDBC, .NET Data provider and C/API connect with other platforms. It consume small footprint in memory and small CPU power. It was using encrypted data to client server communication and synchronization, as well using strong password mechanism to protect data and access control. It have backup and restore facility with DBA control. B-Tree or Hash used for accessing files (Behri & McLouth, 2004; SQLite, 2014). 2.2.7 SQLite SQLite is open source DB foundered by D. Richard Hipp in 2000. It was a RDMS written by C. It was a zero configuration database engine. Complete database stored in a single cross platform. It only need 500KB footprint in memory and it support many OS such as Windows, Windows mobile, Linux, Mac OS-x Android, iOS. SQLite is support lot of programming languages such as C/C++, C#, Basic, PHP, Pascal etc; As a middle ware it used ADO.NET, ODBC, ActiveX
  • 11. 11 (SQLite, 2014; SQLite, 2014). It was fast DB but it has issue in concurrency, locking, scalability, lacking DB Sharing in across the network (Rosland, 2003). 2.2.8 Berkeley DB Bekeley DB founded by University of California, Berkeley and later it acquired by Oracle Corporation. It was a embedded database written in C and its available for licensed version as well as free GNU GPL version (Oracle, 2014; Berkeley DB, 2014). It was supported Linux, Windows, Solaris, Max OS/X, Apple iOS, Android 2.x and Cygwin operating systems. Its need 1244kb memory footprint in windows as well its support C++,C#, Java, Python, Ruby and many other programming languages. It‟s make good secure access control mechanism and used B-Tree and extendible hashing to file access. It has not facilitated to network sharing through API, therefore recently Oracle release 11g R2 to facilitated to connecting oracle DB and SQLLite. It was facilitated most of database management functions such as concurrency control, integrity etc; (Oracle, 2014; Berkeley DB, 2014). 2.2.9 DB4o DB4o is a objected oriented database system that founded by Carl Rosenberger in 2000. In 2008 it was owned by Versant Corporation. It has commercial licensed version and GPL Version. It was written C# and Java. Its only need 600k foot print for installation. It was zero administration tool with encryption for secure transaction within and cross platform and facilitated to sharing the memory. It also has replication system that synchronized objects both directions between DB4o and other database such as oracle. Its support java and .NET APIs. It supports programs written on C#, Java, VB.Net (Db4objects, 2014; Db4o, 2014). Lake of support in query, backup, restoring, Poor performance full text search, lack of indexing for string, problems in replications in administratively and delete filed not removed until next defrag are some of issue in (Db4objects, 2014; Db4o,2014). 2.2.10 MongoDB MongoDB is the primary no SQL database developed by Mongo Inc in 2009. It was a cross platform document oriented database developed by C++. Today most of leading companies such as ebay, foursquare used Mongo DB as there backend software. It supports many OS‟s such as Windows, Linux and it support many popular programming languages and divers that help to
  • 12. 12 connect MongoDB. It tightly integrated with Opa language that developed by MonogoDB. This DB mostly works on 64-bit systems and memory limitation arises in 32bit systems. Its allowed ad hoc quires, indexing, replication on primarily and secondary (if primary fails secondary run automatically), load balancing and may more features (MongoDB, 2014a; MongoDB, 2014b; MongoDB, 2014). 2.2.11 TinyDB Tiny DB is a embedded database that develop by University of Barkeley. It was light weighted data base written on Java. It takes only 3KB footprint memory and it include JDBS driver. It works on cross platform and its support only essential functionalities for sensor applications, most of the time it support only select operation. It was not support views, data integrity, concurrency, indexing, encryptions, access control, data synchronization and self management (Banibaheb, n.d ; Brain, n.d; firoz, 2008 ; Sourceforge, 2013). 2.2.12 Prest Lite Prest Lite is a open source object oriented embedded database for mobile applications develop by Mcobject‟s. Its written on Java ME Platform and its works cross platforms (Mcobject, 2014a). It was a highly transparency and fixable database. Use of different indexing algorithm like B= Tree, T-Tree, R-Tree its accessibility was high. Its only takes only 250KB footprint for memory. Its enable automatic recovery, data replication (synchronous or asynchronous), backup, data encryption, concurrency control full text search, portable database format, fast database uploads, caching, availability of development tools and may features as well as benefits available on the Preset Lite (Mcobject, 2014b; Mcobject, 2014b). 2.3 Strengths and Weaknesses 2.3.1 Strengths Following strengths can be identified overall in mobile database tools (Banibaheb, n.d; Kumar, n.d; Harrison, 2010; Subramanuan, 2012). Fast access to place that data store High reach ability Highly portable Its support to process different type of data efficiently
  • 13. 13 Works on different platforms Data Availability Support applications developed in several programming languages. Support connections drivers Data synchronization Security functions for protect data In open source software highly flexible in user needs In NoSQL and embedded database have some of following advantages Increase the scalability of DB Handle large amount of data Avoid the DBA (Functions handle system itself) Cost effectiveness (storing cost and transaction cost less than RDBMS), 2.3.1 Weakness Following Weakness can be identified overall in mobile database tools (Banibaheb, n.d; Kumar, n.d; Harrison, 2010; Subramanuan, 2012). Limited resources High Cost Limited Power Supply Mobility Disconnections of the mobile and server connectivity Bandwidth of wireless network was restricted. Issue in Wireless Communication speed Issue in wireless security Misbehavior physical activities In NoSQL and embedded database have some of following disadvantage Consider about satiability RDBMS more mature Less Support Less Analytical and business intelligence
  • 14. 14 Maintain No DBA its requests lot of skills to maintain in DB Less expertise compare to RDBMS No normalization union and joins Conclusion In 21 ear people‟s needs and wants increase rapidly, a part of that business world needs also increase. Business and people need to get information quickly; it may be business information, day to day life needs, traffic conditions, weather conditions, price details etc; to reach this target people need some quick accessible palace. After the mobile phone introducing, people try to get all information through the mobile. Due to that mobile phone industry growth people try to fulfill all their needs though the mobile devices. Therefore, industry developed mobile applications. In this application need to be small because mobile devices have less resources like memory, power and processor capabilities etc; In mobile applications need to backend data storing facility, therefore industry introduce mobile databases for mobile devisees because normal DB‟s can‟t be used in mobile devices due to resources scarcity. In software industry different vendors developed many commotional and open source DBs, such as Oracle Lite, SQLite, SQL Anyware, SQL Server Compact etc; Works on the mobile devices every DB need some common features otherwise its failed. Most importantly any DB tools need work in most of the OS platforms because mobile manufactures used and application developers used different platforms. Synchronization between client servers in secure manner as well DB needs run on small footprint are most important. DB needs more secure features, connection oriented driver support and support different programming tools. DB management, Data recovery, restoring, maintain integrity and concurrency controls functions should be include the DB. Today‟s world mobile industry and mobile application industry rapidly growing, therefore features of DB tools and capabilities of the tools gradually increase. As well mobile devices capabilities also increase therefore in future most of the weakness in Mobile DB tools are reduced and it‟s become more popular.
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  • 19. 19 - Peer to Peer Mobil Database 2.2 Peer to Peer Mobil Database Architecture (Banibaheb, n.d)