Republic of Kenya
Ministry of Transport &Infrastructure,
Department of Infrastructure,
Materials Testing & Research Divisi...
Session I

Introduction to Geosynthetics:
Type and Applications
1. Preamble
Presentation guidelines

2. Different types of geosynthetics

3. Main functions of geosynthetics
4. Major appl...
Preamble
What is a Geosynthetic
material?

 A planar product manufactured
from polymeric material used
within geomaterial...
TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS

1. GEOGRIDS

 A geosynthetic formed by a
regular network of tensile
elements and apertures,
typic...
1. GEOGRIDS
Type 1:
Categorized by the method/mode
of manufacturing:

Welded Geogrids

Triaxial Geogrids

Biaxial Geogrids...
GEOGRIDS
Type 2:
Categorized by the orientation of
ribs

Triaxial Geogrids

Uniaxial Geogrids

Biaxial Geogrids

Quaxial G...
2. GEOTEXTILES

 A geotextile/geofabric is a permeable
textile used with foundation, soil,
rock, earth, or any other geot...
2. GEOTEXTILES
Type:


Woven Geotextiles



Non-woven Geotextiles
Uniaxial Geogrids
 Geonets are made of stacked, criss-crossing
polymer strands that provide in-plane
drainage.

3. GEONETS

 Nearly all ge...
3. GEONETS
Type:


Biplanar



Triplanar

Biplanar Geonets

Triplanar Geonets
 These are products manufactured by
combining the superior features of
various types of geosynthetics.

4. GEOCOMPOSITES
...
4. GEOCOMPOSITES

Geocomposites
 Geomembranes are relatively
impermeable sheets of plastic.

5. GEOMEMBRANES
5. GEOMEMBRANES
6. GEOSYNTHETICS
CLAY LINERS [GCLs]

 Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs)
include a thin layer of finely-ground
bentonite cla...
6. GEOSYNTHETICS CLAY LINERS
TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS

6. GEOCELLULAR CONFINEMENT
SYSTEMS

 Geocellular confinement systems
(GCS) are 3-dimensional hone...
6. GEOCELLULAR CONFINEMENT
SYSTEMS
 Geomat is a three-dimensional erosion
control mat consisting of a UV-stabilized
labyrinth-like extruded polymer core
mou...
7. GEOMATS
Non-biodegradable Geomats

Biodegradable Geomats
 Another significant product
which has been “adopted” as a
geosynthetic is plastic pipe.

8. GEOPIPES

 There is a wide ...
8. GEOPIPES
9. GEOFOAMS

 Geofoam is manufactured into
large blocks which are stacked to
form a lightweight, thermally
insulating mas...
9. GEOFOAM
Main Functions Of Geosynthetics
1. Reinforcement
2. Filtration

Main Functions:

3. Separation
4. Drainage
5. Erosion Control
6. Barrier/Protection
1. REINFORCEMENT:
REDUCTION OF STRESS
INTENSITY (CONCENTRATION)
THROUGH WIDER
DISTRIBUTION
The stresses over the subgrade ...
INTEGRAL MECHANISMS THAT
CONTRIBUTE TO
PERFORMANCE
Geosynthetics provide reinforcement through
three possible mechanisms.
...
INTEGRAL MECHANISMS THAT
CONTRIBUTE TO
PERFORMANCE
Reinforcement Mechanisms Induced by Geosynthetics: (a) Lateral Restrain...
 Aperture Stability
Geosynthetics Characteristics
Influencing Reinforcing
Functions

 Aperture Size

 Junction Integrit...
2. SEPARATION:

 Preventing intermixing of soil types
or soil/aggregate to maintain the
integrity of each material yet st...
SEPARATION MECHANISMS
3. FILTRATION:

 Restraining soil particles subject
to hydraulic forces whilst
allowing the passage of
liquids/gases. Thi...
4. DRAINAGE:

 Allowing fluids and gases to flow
both through the plane of the
material. Commonly used as
components in g...
Geosynthetics Characteristics
Influencing Filter, Separation
and Drainage Functions

 Piping Resistance: Apparent
Opening...
 Isolating one material form another.
The most frequent use of this
function is in landfills where
impermeable linings pr...
5. EROSION CONTROL:

 Protecting and reinforcing slopes
and drainage channels from
erosive agents whilst allowing
the est...
Major Applications of Geosynthetics
 Subgrade Separation and Stabilization;

1. GEOSYNTHETICS IN
ROADS AND PAVEMENTS:

 Base Reinforcement;
 Overlay Stress...
SUBGRADE SEPARATION

 Separation refers to the ability of a
Geosynthetics to provide and
maintain physical separation bet...
Characteristics of Pavement Structure Subjected to Black Cotton Soil Intrusion

After Repeated Dynamic Loading and Cyclic ...
ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF INFERIOR MATERIAL INTRUSION INTO UPPER
PAVEMENT LAYERS
180

Relation with
Structural Thickness

Opti...
 Stabilization of weak subgrades entails the
confinement and mechanical interlocking
of aggregates within the apertures o...
SUBGRADE STABILIZATION
 Base Reinforcement is achieved through
lateral restrain [confinement].

BASE REINFORCEMENT

 With the addition of an ap...
OVERLAY STRESS ABSORPTION

 A geosynthetic interlayer can be placed
over the distressed pavement or within the
overlay to...
OVERLAY STRESS ABSORPTION
OVERLAY REINFORCEMENT

 Reinforcement occurs when an interlayer
is able to contribute significant tensile
strength to the...
(MODEL TESTING) – ASPHALT
CONCRETE CRACK
PROPAGATION
CHARACTERISTICS
Propagation of the primary crack in non-reinforced sa...
OVERLAY REINFORCEMENT
 Subgrade Dewatering;

2. GEOSYNTHETICS IN
SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE:

 Road Base Drainage, and
 Structure Drainage
 A high groundwater table can, and often
does, interfere with the stability of subgrade
soils. For instance, some clay so...
 The introduction of geotextiles into drainage
applications has enhanced the economical
application of blanket and trench...
 It has become customary to place a
vertical blanket of “pervious” sand or
gravel behind retaining walls for
protection a...
GEOSYNTHETICS IN SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
3. GEOSYNTHETICS IN
EROSION AND SEDIMENT
CONTROL:

 Slope Protection;
 Channel Protection, and
 Coastal Protection
GEOSYNTHETICS IN EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL:
 Embankments over Soft Foundations;
 Reinforced Steepened Slopes; and

4. GEOSYNTHETICS IN
REINFORCED SOIL SYSTEMS:  Me...
 The primary problem with these soft soils results from
their low shear strength and excessive consolidation
settlements ...
EMBANKMENTS OVER
SOFT FOUNDATIONS :

 soil reinforcement has emerged as an efficient,
economical and effective solution t...
 For many years, retaining structures were almost
exclusively made of reinforced concrete and were
designed as gravity or...
REINFORCED STEEPENED SLOPES [RSS]:
MECHANICALLY STABILIZED WALLS [MSE];
 Structure waterproofing;
 Water Supply Preservation; and

5. GEOSYNTHETICS IN
REINFORCED SOIL SYSTEMS:  Environmental ...
STRUCTURE WATERPROOFING
WATER SUPPLY PRESERVATION
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Summary of Benefits categorized into Structural and
Value Engineering

Benefits Based On Study Findings


Enhanced geotechnical engineering properties including
bearing capacity, structural capacity, shear strength and
deform...
VALUE ENGINEERING BENEFITS
Appropriate application of geosynthetics can
realize the following benefits.

 Construction co...
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Introduction to Geosynthetics Types and Applications_Sirmoi Wekesa

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This presentation introduces the different types of Geosynthetics, their functions and applications. its very informative and will form a good foundation to anyone interested in this versatile technology.

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Introduction to Geosynthetics Types and Applications_Sirmoi Wekesa

  1. 1. Republic of Kenya Ministry of Transport &Infrastructure, Department of Infrastructure, Materials Testing & Research Division, Studies on Geosynthetics Reinforced Materials November 2013: Technical Presentation – Session I Prepared and Presented by Sirmoi Wekesa Kensetsu Kaihatsu Ltd Civil Engineering Contractors, Consultants, Architects & Planners, Interior Designers
  2. 2. Session I Introduction to Geosynthetics: Type and Applications
  3. 3. 1. Preamble Presentation guidelines 2. Different types of geosynthetics 3. Main functions of geosynthetics 4. Major applications of geosynthetics 5. Major benefits of geosynthetics
  4. 4. Preamble What is a Geosynthetic material?  A planar product manufactured from polymeric material used within geomaterials to enhance geotechnical engineering/geostructural properties through reinforcement and/or improvement.  Geosynthetics is a generic term for all synthetic materials used in geotechnical engineering applications including geotextiles, geogrids, geomembranes, geocells, geocomposites, geonets etc.
  5. 5. TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS 1. GEOGRIDS  A geosynthetic formed by a regular network of tensile elements and apertures, typically used for reinforcement purposes
  6. 6. 1. GEOGRIDS Type 1: Categorized by the method/mode of manufacturing: Welded Geogrids Triaxial Geogrids Biaxial Geogrids Punched and Extruded Geogrids
  7. 7. GEOGRIDS Type 2: Categorized by the orientation of ribs Triaxial Geogrids Uniaxial Geogrids Biaxial Geogrids Quaxial Geogrids
  8. 8. 2. GEOTEXTILES  A geotextile/geofabric is a permeable textile used with foundation, soil, rock, earth, or any other geotechnical engineering-related materials as an integral part of a human-made project, structure, or system.
  9. 9. 2. GEOTEXTILES Type:  Woven Geotextiles  Non-woven Geotextiles Uniaxial Geogrids
  10. 10.  Geonets are made of stacked, criss-crossing polymer strands that provide in-plane drainage. 3. GEONETS  Nearly all geonets are made of polyethylene.  Two layers of strands are called “bi-planar”.  Three layers are called “tri-planar”.
  11. 11. 3. GEONETS Type:  Biplanar  Triplanar Biplanar Geonets Triplanar Geonets
  12. 12.  These are products manufactured by combining the superior features of various types of geosynthetics. 4. GEOCOMPOSITES  The objective is to produce materials which are multi-functional and are faster to install than the individual components.  Interface friction becomes an issue when geosynthetics are placed on slopes and bonded materials address this potential problem.
  13. 13. 4. GEOCOMPOSITES Geocomposites
  14. 14.  Geomembranes are relatively impermeable sheets of plastic. 5. GEOMEMBRANES
  15. 15. 5. GEOMEMBRANES
  16. 16. 6. GEOSYNTHETICS CLAY LINERS [GCLs]  Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) include a thin layer of finely-ground bentonite clay. When wetted, the clay swells and becomes a very effective hydraulic barrier.  GCLs are manufactured by sandwiching the bentonite within or layering it on geotextiles and/or geomembranes, bonding the layers with needling, stitching and/or chemical adhesives.
  17. 17. 6. GEOSYNTHETICS CLAY LINERS
  18. 18. TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS 6. GEOCELLULAR CONFINEMENT SYSTEMS  Geocellular confinement systems (GCS) are 3-dimensional honeycomblike structures filled with soil, rock or concrete.  The GCS structure, often called a Geocell, is made of strips of polymer sheet or geotextile connected at staggered points so that, when the strips are pulled apart, a large honeycomb mat is formed.  The GCS provides both a physical containment of a depth of soil and a transfer of load through
  19. 19. 6. GEOCELLULAR CONFINEMENT SYSTEMS
  20. 20.  Geomat is a three-dimensional erosion control mat consisting of a UV-stabilized labyrinth-like extruded polymer core mounted on a warp knitted mesh 7. GEOMATS  The Geomats act in three major mechanisms:  Surface reinforcement and confinement of the soil;  Protection against rain drops  Reinforcement of the slope and at the same time allowing vegetation [grass] growth
  21. 21. 7. GEOMATS Non-biodegradable Geomats Biodegradable Geomats
  22. 22.  Another significant product which has been “adopted” as a geosynthetic is plastic pipe. 8. GEOPIPES  There is a wide variety of civil engineering applications for these products, including:  highway and railway edge drains,  interceptor drains, and  leachate removal systems.
  23. 23. 8. GEOPIPES
  24. 24. 9. GEOFOAMS  Geofoam is manufactured into large blocks which are stacked to form a lightweight, thermally insulating mass buried within a soil or pavement structure.  Typical applications of geofoams include:  within soil embankments built over soft, weak soils;  under roads, airfield pavements and railway track systems subject to excessive freeze-thaw conditions; and  beneath on-grade storage tanks containing cold liquids.
  25. 25. 9. GEOFOAM
  26. 26. Main Functions Of Geosynthetics
  27. 27. 1. Reinforcement 2. Filtration Main Functions: 3. Separation 4. Drainage 5. Erosion Control 6. Barrier/Protection
  28. 28. 1. REINFORCEMENT: REDUCTION OF STRESS INTENSITY (CONCENTRATION) THROUGH WIDER DISTRIBUTION The stresses over the subgrade are higher in unreinforced flexible pavements than in geosynthetic-reinforced pavement due to stress distribution factor  1Relative Load Magnitudes at Subgrade Layer Level for:  (a) Unreinforced Flexible Pavement; and,  (b) Geosynthetics-Reinforced (Improved) Flexible Pavement.
  29. 29. INTEGRAL MECHANISMS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO PERFORMANCE Geosynthetics provide reinforcement through three possible mechanisms.  Lateral restraint of the base and subgrade through friction and interlock between the aggregate, soil and the geosynthetic .  Increase in the system bearing capacity by forcing the potential bearing capacity failure surface to develop along alternate, higher shear strength surfaces.  Membrane support of the wheel loads.
  30. 30. INTEGRAL MECHANISMS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO PERFORMANCE Reinforcement Mechanisms Induced by Geosynthetics: (a) Lateral Restraint (b) Increased Bearing Capacity; and, (c) Membrane Tension Support
  31. 31.  Aperture Stability Geosynthetics Characteristics Influencing Reinforcing Functions  Aperture Size  Junction Integrity  Radial stiffness
  32. 32. 2. SEPARATION:  Preventing intermixing of soil types or soil/aggregate to maintain the integrity of each material yet still allow the free passage of liquids/gases. Commonly used in between sub-base/subgrade and around drainage materials.  Contamination of the base course layers leads to a reduction of strength, stiffness and drainage characteristics, promoting distress and early failure of roadway.
  33. 33. SEPARATION MECHANISMS
  34. 34. 3. FILTRATION:  Restraining soil particles subject to hydraulic forces whilst allowing the passage of liquids/gases. This function is often partnered with separation.
  35. 35. 4. DRAINAGE:  Allowing fluids and gases to flow both through the plane of the material. Commonly used as components in geocomposites used for surface water runoff or for gas collection under membranes.
  36. 36. Geosynthetics Characteristics Influencing Filter, Separation and Drainage Functions  Piping Resistance: Apparent Opening Size - AOS (as related to soil retention),  Permeability: Flow capacity, and clogging potential.  Strength and Durability: Grab, Puncture strengths
  37. 37.  Isolating one material form another. The most frequent use of this function is in landfills where impermeable linings prevent contamination of surrounding soils 5. BARRIER/PROTECTION:  Preventing or limiting localized damage to an adjacent material, usually a geomembrane used to line a lagoon or a landfill. Thick geotextiles prevent puncture or excessive strain in the membrane.
  38. 38. 5. EROSION CONTROL:  Protecting and reinforcing slopes and drainage channels from erosive agents whilst allowing the establishment of vegetation cover.
  39. 39. Major Applications of Geosynthetics
  40. 40.  Subgrade Separation and Stabilization; 1. GEOSYNTHETICS IN ROADS AND PAVEMENTS:  Base Reinforcement;  Overlay Stress Absorption and  Overlay Reinforcement
  41. 41. SUBGRADE SEPARATION  Separation refers to the ability of a Geosynthetics to provide and maintain physical separation between the base course aggregate and the underlying fine grained subgrade.  It does prevent mixing of the two dissimilar materials, where mixing is caused by mechanical action generally induced by construction and operation traffic.  The ingress of fines by as little as 10% by weight results in the reduction of strength by more than 80%.
  42. 42. Characteristics of Pavement Structure Subjected to Black Cotton Soil Intrusion After Repeated Dynamic Loading and Cyclic Seasonal Effects
  43. 43. ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF INFERIOR MATERIAL INTRUSION INTO UPPER PAVEMENT LAYERS 180 Relation with Structural Thickness Optimum Batching Ratio 160 Reduction in CBR Practically Linear 140 Soaked CBR 120 Rate of Reduction and Reduction Characteristics Dependent on Batching Ratio and Quality of Bearing Material 100 Lower Bound Limits are Distinctly Dependent on Batching Ratio 80 60 CBR Reduction ~ PI Threshold @PI =40% 40 Tendency to Residural (Threshold) 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 Plasticity Index, PI (%) '1:1  Impact of Black Cotton Soil Intrusion '2:1 '3:1 '4:1 '5:1 50 '1:0  Impact of Varying Geomaterial Intrusion 60
  44. 44.  Stabilization of weak subgrades entails the confinement and mechanical interlocking of aggregates within the apertures of the geosynthetics to increase the bearing capacity.  The three main important functions of reinforcement: SUBGRADE STABILIZATION  Lateral restraint is the lateral interaction between the aggregate and the geosynthetic. The presence of the geosynthetic creates pressure in the aggregate that improves the strength and stiffness of the road structure.  Membrane action is the ability of a geosynthetic material to reduce and spread stress arising from the weak subgrade. Additionally, when a geogrid is involved, a third function can be described:  enhanced load distribution within the aggregate.
  45. 45. SUBGRADE STABILIZATION
  46. 46.  Base Reinforcement is achieved through lateral restrain [confinement]. BASE REINFORCEMENT  With the addition of an appropriate geosynthetic, the Soil-GeosyntheticAggregate (SGA) system gains stiffness. The stiffened SGA system is better able to provide the following structural benefits:  Preventing lateral spreading of the base  Increasing confinement and thus stiffness of the base  Improving vertical stress distribution on the subgrade  Reducing shear stress in the subgrade
  47. 47. OVERLAY STRESS ABSORPTION  A geosynthetic interlayer can be placed over the distressed pavement or within the overlay to create an overlay system. The geosynthetic interlayer can contribute to the life of the overlay via stress absorption, strain relief and provision of tensile strength.  A stress relieving interlayer retards the development of reflective cracks by absorbing the stresses that arise from the damaged pavement. It also waterproofs the pavement so that when cracking does occur, water ingress cannot worsen the situation.
  48. 48. OVERLAY STRESS ABSORPTION
  49. 49. OVERLAY REINFORCEMENT  Reinforcement occurs when an interlayer is able to contribute significant tensile strength to the pavement system. The reinforcement attempts to prevent the cracked old pavement from moving under traffic loads and thermal stress by holding the cracks together.  The benefits of geosynthetic interlayers include:  Reduction of overlay thickness  Delaying the appearance of reflective cracks  Lengthening the useful life of the overlay
  50. 50. (MODEL TESTING) – ASPHALT CONCRETE CRACK PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS Propagation of the primary crack in non-reinforced sample Interlayer bonding level of the binder and wearing course (the level of the reinforcement) Propagation of the primary crack in the geocomposite reinforced sample Propagation of the secondary crack in the geocomposite reinforced sample Propagation of the primary crack in the geogrid reinforced sample Reference lines for observations of crack propagation 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 Average test temperature T± 2σ: non-reinforced sample T=13,2 ± 0,4°C reinforced sample T=13,4 ± 0,7°C -3 -4 -5 0.00E+00 2.00E+05 4.00E+05 6.00E+05 Number of the cycles 8.00E+05 1.00E+06 1.20E+06
  51. 51. OVERLAY REINFORCEMENT
  52. 52.  Subgrade Dewatering; 2. GEOSYNTHETICS IN SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE:  Road Base Drainage, and  Structure Drainage
  53. 53.  A high groundwater table can, and often does, interfere with the stability of subgrade soils. For instance, some clay soils can swell or shrink as their water content increases or decreases, respectively. SUBGRADE DEWATERING:  Geosynthetic materials have become commonplace in subsurface drainage applications. Commonly, geotextiles are being used in lieu of select grades of sand because they are less expensive, provide more consistent properties, and are much easier to install.
  54. 54.  The introduction of geotextiles into drainage applications has enhanced the economical application of blanket and trench drains under and adjacent to the pavement structure, respectively. ROAD BASE DRAINAGE :  The excellent filtration and separation characteristics associated with filtration geotextiles permits the use of a single layer of open-graded base or trench aggregate enveloped in a geotextile.
  55. 55.  It has become customary to place a vertical blanket of “pervious” sand or gravel behind retaining walls for protection against hydrostatic pressures. STRUCTURE DRAINAGE :  One of the best ways to assure effective aggregate drainage is to sandwich an aggregate layer within layers of filtration geotextiles. The inclusion of a perforated drain pipe that collects and discharges seepage will increase the drain’s efficiency. Back fill is placed directly against the drain.
  56. 56. GEOSYNTHETICS IN SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
  57. 57. 3. GEOSYNTHETICS IN EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL:  Slope Protection;  Channel Protection, and  Coastal Protection
  58. 58. GEOSYNTHETICS IN EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL:
  59. 59.  Embankments over Soft Foundations;  Reinforced Steepened Slopes; and 4. GEOSYNTHETICS IN REINFORCED SOIL SYSTEMS:  Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls
  60. 60.  The primary problem with these soft soils results from their low shear strength and excessive consolidation settlements requiring special construction practices and leading to high construction costs.  Several methods of treatment are available to reduce the problems associated with soft foundations. These methods include: EMBANKMENTS OVER SOFT FOUNDATIONS :  Removal and replacement of soft soil.  Displacement of compressible material by end-loading.  Staged construction - placing fill at controlled rates to allow for consolidation and strength gains.  Installation of drains to facilitate consolidation.  Pre-loading the site to reduce settlements of the structure and provide higher strength.  Deposit improvement using admixtures (e.g. soil, cement, lime) or injections  Reinforcement of the soil matrix using a structural element.
  61. 61. EMBANKMENTS OVER SOFT FOUNDATIONS :  soil reinforcement has emerged as an efficient, economical and effective solution to the problem of constructing embankments over soft soils.
  62. 62.  For many years, retaining structures were almost exclusively made of reinforced concrete and were designed as gravity or cantilever walls which are essentially rigid structures and cannot accommodate significant differential settlements REINFORCED STEEPENED SLOPES [RSS]: unless founded on deep foundations.  The economic advantages of constructing a safe, steeper RSS than would normally be possible are the resulting material and rights-of-way savings. For example, in repair of landslides it is possible to reuse the slide debris rather than to import higher quality backfill.
  63. 63. REINFORCED STEEPENED SLOPES [RSS]:
  64. 64. MECHANICALLY STABILIZED WALLS [MSE];
  65. 65.  Structure waterproofing;  Water Supply Preservation; and 5. GEOSYNTHETICS IN REINFORCED SOIL SYSTEMS:  Environmental Protection,
  66. 66. STRUCTURE WATERPROOFING
  67. 67. WATER SUPPLY PRESERVATION
  68. 68. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
  69. 69. Summary of Benefits categorized into Structural and Value Engineering Benefits Based On Study Findings
  70. 70.  Enhanced geotechnical engineering properties including bearing capacity, structural capacity, shear strength and deformation resistance [achievement of higher resilient/elastic modulus (stiffness)].  Increased ranges of permissible resilient/linear elastic and lateral strains.  Improvement of the subgrade strength and deformation resistance through stress mobilization and expanded distribution, as well as further tension cut-off.  By spreading and distributing the imparted stresses over a wider area of the foundation, geosynthetics may be improving the foundation/subgrade in a mode that is analogous to stage loading consolidation.  Enhanced structural performance resulting from increased resistance to deformation.  Prevention of the migration of inferior material into the upper pavement layers. This results in the significant enhancement of structural performance and elongation of the life-span of the pavement structure. STRUCTURAL BENEFITS Structural benefits analyzed and realized on the basis of theoretical considerations and experimental data determined in this Study include:
  71. 71. VALUE ENGINEERING BENEFITS Appropriate application of geosynthetics can realize the following benefits.  Construction cost-time savings through the reduction of required pavement material quantities, whilst maintaining enhanced structural performance.  Elongated pavement structural life – span particularly as a result of incorporating the filtration/separation geotextile.  Reduction in maintenance requirements as a result of enhanced structural performance.  Environmental conservation mainly due to reduction in material quantities and erosion control.

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