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Sirajrock operating-system Document Transcript

  • 1. Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) UNIT – I Disk Operating System (Dos) J.C.S COMPUTER Introduction History and Version of Dos: - Dos Personal Computer ij lokZf/kd iz;qDr gksus okyk Operating System gSaA IBM rFkk MicroSoft Company }kjk ;g 1981 esa IBM Company ds fy, cuk;k x;k FkkA vr% bls MicroSoft DOS Hkh dgrs gSaA ckn esa ;g PC DOS dgyk;kA blds ckn MicroSoft Company vius bl Operating System esa fodkl djrh jgh A 1981 esa MicroSoft DOS dk igyk Version 1.0 Launch fd;k x;kA fQj 1983 esa DOS 2.0, 1984 esa 3.0 rFkk mlds ckn 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 rFkk 6.22 Version tks lcls vf/kd mi;ksx esa fy;k tk jgk gSaA pwafd Dos dks PC ij iz;ksx ds fy, cuk;k x;k gSa blfy, bls PC DOS Hkh dgrs gSa vr% ;g Single User Operating System FkkA ;g ,d le; esa dsoy ,d gh User ds vkns’kksa dk ikyu dj ldrk gSaA CP/M80, CP/M-86, UCSD-p ;s Operating System Hkh ml le; esa mi;ksx esa fy, tkrs FksA ckn esa MicroSoft Company us tc GUI Based Operating System, Windows dk fodkl fd;k rc DOS dks mldk vfuok;Z Hkkx cuk fn;k x;kA ges’kk Operating System dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, Application Program cuk, o Use esa fy;s tkrs gS tSls Typing ds fy, WordStar o Tebular Work ds fy, Lotus dke esa fy;s tkrs FksA DOS dks CUI (Character User Interface) Hkh dgrs gSaA tc ge Computer dks Start djrs gSa rc DOS fdlh Disk ij gksuk pkfg,A ;gka Disk Floppy ;k Hard Disk dqN Hkh gks ldrh gSaA blds fcuk Computer Boot djrs gSa rks Hardware esa fLFkr ,d Program (Bootstrap Loader) DOS dks Disk dh Primary Memory esa Load dj nsrk gSaA bls gh Computer dh Booting dgrs gSaA DOS ,d CUI Operating System gSaA vr% blesa lkjk dk;Z Characters ds }kjk gh fd;k tk ldrk gSaA DOS esa dk;Z djus ds fy, gesa Commands ;kn djuk vko’;d gSaA tks Command Use esa fy;s tk jgs gSa mUgsa Proper Syntax ds vuqlkj fy[kk tkuk pkfg, vU;Fkk DOS ml Command ds fy, Error Message Display djsxkA Computer dh Booting Process – Computer ds Start djus ls ysdj Monitor ij DOS Prompt vkus rd dh izfØ;k dks Booting Process dgrs gSaA tc ge Computer dks izkjEHk djrs gSa rks DOS Hard Disk ;k Floppy Disk esa jgrk gSa vFkkZr~ og Computer dh Main Memory esa ugha gksrk gSaA DOS dks Main Memory esa ykus ds fy, Computer esa ,d Program gksrk gSa ftls Boot StrapLoader dgrs gSa og ;g dk;Z djrk gSaA Booting izfØ;k dks ge fuEu pkj Hkkxksa esa ckaV ldrs gSaA (1) POST (2) Boot Record (3) System Files dks Primary Memory esa ykuk (4) Autoexec.BAT File Run gksukA Computer dks On djus ij ,d Program Computer dh Testing djrk gSa fd Keyboard, Monitor, Disk vkfn lgh :i ls Computer ls tqMs+ gSa vFkok ugha ;fn buesa ls dksbZ Hkh lgh rjhds ls tqMk ugha gks ;k [kjkc gks rks gesa + Computer Screen ij ml ls lEcfU/kr Error Message fn[kkbZ nsxkA ;g izfØ;k POST (Power On Self Test) ds uke ls tkuh tkrh gSa ftlesa Computer izkjEHk gksus ij Lo;a dk ijh{k.k djrk gSaA Post ds ckn Dos dks Secondary Memory ls Primary Memory esa ykus dk dk;Z izkjaHk gksrk gSaA lcls igys Computer Dos dks Floppy ij <wa<rk gSaA ;fn Floppy Drive esa Floppy mifLFkr ugha gSa rks DOS dks Hard Disk esa <aw<k tkrk gSaA bl izfØ;k esa Boot Record }kjk ;g Check fd;k tkrk gSa fd Floppy ;k Hard Disk esa vko’;d System Files gSa ;k ughaA lHkh Files fey tkus ij Boot Record nks System Files IO.SYS rFkk MSDOS.SYS dks Primary Memory esa Load dj nsrk gSaA MSDOS.SYS eq[;r% Operating System laca/kh dk;Z djrh gSa rFkk IO.SYS Input, Output devices ls lacaf/kr dk;Z djrh gSaA bu Files ds vfrfjDr ,d vU; File Command.Com Hkh Primary Memory esa Load gks tkrh gSaA blds }kjk fofHkUu Command Memory esa vk tkrs gSaA blds i’pkr~ ,d File ftls Autoexec.Bat File dgrs gSa og RUN gksrh gSa ftlds QyLo:i gesa Screen ij DOS PROMPT (C:/>)display gksrk gS ftl ij User dk;Z djuk izkjEHk djrk gSaA Files & Directories Structure Dos esa lHkh Record Data Files ds :i esa O;ofLFkr jgrk gSa tSls fdlh d{kk esa lHkh fo|kFkhZ ds uke Student Name dh File esa Store dj ds j[k ldrs gSaA izR;sd File dks igpku ds fy, ,d uke fn;k tkrk gSaA File Disk ;k vU; fdlh Storage medium ij Store fd;s x;s MkVk vkSj lwpuk dh ,d bdkbZ gSaA lwpuk dk lcls NksVk Hkkx Data Item gksrk gSaA Data Item lkekU;r% o.kZekyk ds v{kj], vad, fpUg gksrs gSaA ,d File esa ge vusd izdkj dh lwpuk,a Store dj ldrs gSaA fdlh laLFkk ds deZpkfj;ksa ds uke] tUefrFkh] Salary vkfnA Computer dh Electronic File eq[; :i ls nks izdkj dh gksrh gSaA SIRAJ SIR 1
  • 2. Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) J.C.S COMPUTER (1) Data File (2) Program File Data File esa lwpukvksa dks Record ds :i esa j[kk tkrk gSaA tSls Student dh File esa Student ds Roll No., Address bR;fn Store djds j[k ldrs gSaA Program File esa ge fdlh Computer Hkk"kk esa fy[ks funsZ’kksa dks laxzfgr djrs gSaA Elements of File - ,d Data File esa cgqr lkjs Record gks ldrs gSaA izR;sd Record vusd Field ls feydj cuk gksrk gSaA rFkk izR;sd Field esa Character gksrs gSaA bl rjg ,d Computer File esa rhu rRo Character, Record o Field gksrs gSaA Characters o.kZekyk ds v{kj vad rFkk fo’ks"k fpUg gks ldrs gSaA Computer esa dqy 256 izdkj ds Character gks ldrs gSaA tc Computer File dks ,d Table ds :i esa rS;kj fd;k tkrk gSa rks bldk izR;sd Column Field dgykrk gSaA tSls Student File esa Name, Roll No., Data of Birth vkfn lHkh Fields dgyk;sxsA fdlh File esa Stored Information dh iwjh Row ,d Record dgykrh gSa vFkkZr~ ,d Record esa lHkh Fields ds MkVk gksrs gSaA Rules For File Naming :-izR;sd Computer esa rS;kj File dks Disk esa Store djus ds fy, mldk ,d uke fu/kkZfjr fd;k tkrk gSaA bl uke dh lgk;rk ls Disk ij ls bl File dks iqu% izkIr dj ldrs gSaA mls Delete dj ldrs gSa rFkk mlesa Stored Information dks Edit Hkh dj ldrs gSaA Dos esa File uke ds nks Hkkx gksrs gSaA (1) File Name (2) Extension Rules for File Name – (1) File Name vf/kdre 8 Character esa fn;k tk ldrk gSaA (2) File Name esa dksbZ Hkh Space ugha Use gksxkA (3) nks File ds uke ,d leku ugha gks ldrsA (4) ,sls File uke ugha fn;s tk ldrs ftuds 'kCn DOS esa fo’ks"k vFkZ j[krs gSaA (5) File Name ds chp Underscore dk iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSaA (6) File dk uke Alphabet Character ls gh Start gksuk pkfg, ;k igyk Character Alphabet gksuk pkfg, ckn esa dksbZ Number ;k fpUg gks ldrs gSaA File Name dk Extension – File ds uke ds ckn tksMk tkrk gSaA File Name rFkk Extension dks (.) dot ds lkFk + vyx fd;k tkrk gSaA Extension vf/kdre 3 Character dk gksrk gSaA Extension dk eq[; mn~ns’; File dk izdkj crkuk gksrk gSaA .DOC – Document File .DBF – Data Base File .XLS – Excel File .BMP – Pain Brush File .PPT – Power Point File .MDB – MicroSoft Access File Directory – Files dks O;ofLFkr djus ds fy, mUgsa vyx&2 lewqgksa esa rFkk vyx&2 Sub Directories esa j[kk tkuk lgh jgrk gSaA ftl izdkj ge vyx&2 dk;ksZ ls lacaf/kr Document dks vyx&2 Folders vFkok vyekjh ds vyx&2 [kkuksa esa j[krs gSa blh izdkj DOS esa Files dks O;ofLFkr djrs gSaA tSls ;fn ge School ls lacaf/kr lHkh files dks School Directory esa Store dj ns rks gesa og Files <wa<us esa vklkuh jgsxhA Directory dks ge rhu Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr dj ldrs gSaA (1) Current Directory – ftl Directory esa ge dk;Z dj jgsa gSa og Current Directory dgykrh gSa tSls ;fn ge C:SchoolSecondary> esa dk;Z dj jgs gSa rks Secondary gekjh Current Directory dgyk;sxhA (2) Sub Directory – Dos dk Directory Structure Hierarchal Format esa gksrk gSa vFkkZr~ ,d eq[; Directory ds vanj dbZ Sub Directory rFkk izR;sd Sub Directories ds vUnj dbZ vkSj Sub-directories cuk ldrs gSaA vr% ,d Directory ds vanj dh nwljh Directory Sub Directory dgykrh gSaA (3) Root Directory – Dos esa File Structure ds lcls izkjfEHkd LFkku dks Root Directory dgrs gSaA bls ge Back Slash () }kjk display djrs gSaA SIRAJ SIR 2
  • 3. J.C.S COMPUTER Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) Drives – fdlh Computer esa 1 ;k vf/kd Disk Drives mifLFkr gks ldrh gSaA disk drive dh igpku ds fy, Dos izR;sd Disk Drive dks ,d v{kj dk uke nsrk gSaA lkekU;r% Floppy Disk A rFkk B v{kj ls tkuh tkrh gSa rFkk hard disk dh igpku C ls dh tkrh gSaA vr% fdlh Command ds lkFk ;g Hkh funsZf’kr djuk vko’;d gksrk gSa fd fdl Drive dks iz;ksx esa ykuk gSaA Dos Prompt ls ;g irk fd;k tk ldrk gSa fd ge fdl Drive ij dke dj jgs gSaA A:> Ist Floppy Drive B:> IInd Floppy Drive C:> Hard Disk Drive D:> Second Partition of Hard Disk Drive E:> CD ROM Drive System Files of Dos – MicroSoft DOS Operating System dh eq[; Files dqN fo’ks"k dk;ksZ tSls Booting, Input, Output ds fy, Drives fu/kkZfjr djuk, Operating System ds Internal Commands dks Memory esa Store djuk vkfn ds fy, cuh gksrh gSaA bu Files ds Extension Hkh fo’ks"k gksrs gSa tSls .Sys, .Bat, .Exe, .Com vkfnA ;s Program Files gksrh gSa ftUgsa DOS cukrs le; cuk;k x;k gSaA (1) IO.Sys rFkk MSDOS.Sys Files – ;s nksuks Files System Files gksrh gSa ftuds uke bl Directory List esa ugha ns[k ikrsA ;g nksuksas Files Booting ds le; Lor% gh Computer dh Volatile Memory RAM esa Store gks tkrh gSaA ;g nksuks Files Dos-Kernel dk izfrfuf/kRo djrh gSaA DOS-Kernel Computer esa Input-output devices vkSj Operating System ds e/; lEidZ LFkkfir djrk gSaA IO.SYS File Input Output ls lEcf/kr fØ;kvksa dks Handle djrh gSa tcfd MSDOS.SYS Dos Kernel ds fy, Operating System ls lEidZ LFkkfir djds funsZ’kksa dks laxzfgr djds j[krh gSaA (2) Command.Com File - ;g File DOS esa Command Interpreter dk dke djrh gSaA ;g ,d Program File gksrh gSaA Directory List esa ;g File gesa fn[kkbZ nsrh gSaA ;g File User dks Computer ls lEidZ LFkkfir djus esa lqfo/kk iznku djrh gSaA blesa Operating System ds fofHkUu Internal Command Store jgrs gSaA ftUgsa User DOS Prompt ij Type djds Execute djrk gSaA Command.Com dks Shell Hkh dgrs gSaA blesa Commands dh Exe Files dh List gksrh gSaA (3) Autoexec.Bat - Booting ds ckn Operating System Disk ij Autoexec.bat File dks <wa<rk gS vkSj bls Execute dj nsrk gSaA ;g fØ;k Computer dks On djus ij izR;sd ckj gksrh gSaA ;g File vius vki Execute gksrh gSa ftlls blesa fy[ks Commands Run gks tkrs gSa mlesa MicroSoft DOS ds fy, izkjfEHkd funsZ’k gksrs gSa ftuesa Disk ij mifLFkr vU; Program ds Path fu/kkZfjr gksrs gSaA DOS dks bu Path ls Program dks Execute djus esa lgk;rk feyrh gSaA ;g Command .Com ds Transient Portion ds }kjk Run djk;k tkrk gSaA (4) Confing.Sys File – Computer dks On djus ds ckn og Boot gksrk gSaA Autoexec.Bat File ls DOS vU; Software dh fLFkfr fu/kkZfjr djrk gSaA blds ckn DOS }kjk Computer esa fLFkr Hardware dh fLFkfr o izdkj fu/kkZfjr djus dh ckjh vkrh gSaA blds fy, ;g File mi;ksx esa yh tkrh gSaA ;g File ,d Text File gksrh gSaA blesa ,sls Command gksrs gSa tks Computer esa Hardware Devices dks fu/kkZfjr djrs gSa ftlls DOS rFkk Application Program budk mi;ksx dj ldsA bl File esa fu/kkZfjr Hardware ds vuqlkj Dos LFkku dks fjDr j[krk gSaA ;g File Disk ij Root Directory esa Stored jgrh gSaA blesa ge Editing dj ldrs gSaA bl File esa fy[ks tkus okys dqN Commands fuEu gSaA (a) Buffer - ;g MicroSoft DOS dks ;g crkrk gSa fd Disk esa lwpukvksa ds vknku&iznku ds fy, fdruk Hkkx fjDr NksM+k tk;sA (b) Country – fofHkUu ns’kksa dh Hkk"kkvksa ds fy, System dks fu/kkZfjr djrk gSaA (c) Device – fdlh Hardware Device dks mi;ksx esa ysus ls lacaf/kr Program Device Driver dks Memory esa laxzfgr djrk gSa tSls Mouse or Printer Drives vkfnA (d) Files – ;g fu/kkZfjr djrk gSa fd ,d ckj esa fdruh Files Memory esa [kksyh tk ldrh gSaA (e) Shell - ;fn ge Command.com ds vykok vU; Command Interpreter dk iz;ksx djuk pkgrs gSa rks ;g mUgsa fuf’pr djus ds dke vkrk gSaA Types of Dos Commands tc dksbZ Operating System Computer dks lapkfyr djrk gSa rks ;g user rFkk Hardware ds chp lEidZ LFkkfir djus ds fy, Command Interpreter ds }kjk User ls funsZ’k ysus ds lqfo/kk Hkh iznku djrk gSaA MicroSoft DOS Hkh ;g lqfo/kk nks izdkj ds Command }kjk iznku djrk gSaA (1) Internal Command - ;g Command DOS ds lkFk gj le; miyC/k jgrs gSa D;ksafd ;g Booting ds le; gh Memory esa Store gks tkrs gSaA vr% bu Commands dks dHkh Hkh Execute dj ldrs gSaA ;g lHkh Commands SIRAJ SIR 3
  • 4. J.C.S COMPUTER Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) Command.Com File esa Stored gksrs gSaA budks Run djus ds fy, DOS dks fdlh Supported File dh vko’d;rk ugha jgrh gSa tSls & DIR, MD, CD, RD, DEL, DATE, etc. (2) External Commands - ;g ,sls NksVs Program gksrs gSa tks hard disk ij Store jgrs gSaA tc Hkh User bu Commands dks mi;ksx esa ysrs gSa rks DOS ml Command ls lacaf/kr Program File dks Run dj nsrk gSaA vr% bu Commands dks mi;ksx djus ds fy, DOS dks dqN Supported Files dh vko’;drk gksrh gSaA tSls & Format, XCopy, Backup etc. Commands – (1) Copy Con - ;g ubZ File cukus ds fy, mi;ksx esa fy;k tkrk gSaA Syntax: copy con filename <type any text> press ctrl+z to save the file. Example: copy con A1 My country is India. ^Z(save the file) (2) Type - ;g Command igys ls cuh File dks ns[kus ds fy, mi;ksx esa fy;k tkrk gSaA Syntax: Type filename Example: type A1 (3) Dir - ;g Command fdlh drive ij fLFkr Files rFkk Directories dh List ns[kus ds fy, mi;ksx esa fy;k tkrk gSaA Syntax : C:> DIR (Option) Options used with Dir Command : (a) /P - ;g Page Wise List ns[kus ds fy, (b) /W – Width Wise ns[kus ds fy, (c) /A – System & hidden Files With Normal Files dks Display djrk gSaA (d) /S – Display Sub Directories also (e) /B – File rFkk dir ds iwjs uke Display djrk gSaA budh dksbZ Detail Display ugha gksrhA (f) /AH - ;s flQZ Hidden Files dh List Display djrk gSaA (g) /AD - ;g flQZ Directories Display djrk gSaA (h) /AS - ;g flQZ System Files Display djrk gSaA (i) /O - ;g Files rFkk dir dh List Alphabetical Order esa fn[kkrk gSaA igys lkjh Dir Display gksrh gSa rFkk fQj lHkh File Display gksrh gSaA (j) /ON – Sorted by Name (k) /OS – Sorted by Size (Smallest First) (l) /OD – Date rFkk Time ds fglkc ls Sorted (m) /L – List Display in Lower Case Letters (4) CLS – bl Command dk Use Screen dks Clean djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA Example : C:> Cls (5) MD – (Make Directory) ;g ubZ Dir cukus ds fy, mi;ksx essa fy;k tkrk gSaA Syntax : C:> MD <dirname> Example : C:> MD PGDCA (6) CD (Change Directory) – fdlh nwljh Dir ij tkus ds fy, vFkkZr~ Dir Change djus ds fy, dke esa fy;k tkrk gSaA Syntax : C:> CD <dirname> Example : C:> CD PGDCA (7) CD.. – Prompt ij ,d Step ihNs vkus ds fy,A Example : C:PGDCA> CD.. (8) CD - lh/ks gh Root Dir ij vkus ds fy, mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSaA Example : C:> CD SIRAJ SIR 4
  • 5. Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) J.C.S COMPUTER (9) RD (Remove Directory) – fdlh Dir dks Remove ;k gVkus ds fy, mi;ksx esa fy;k tkrk gSaA fdlh Dir dks Delete djus ds fy, ;g t:jh gSa fd og Dir iw.kZ :i ls [kkyh gksA vFkkZr~ ml Dir dh Sub dir o Files dks igys gVkuk gksxkA Syntax : C:> RD <dirname> Example : C:> RD PGDCA (10) Del – Files gVkus ds fy, ;g Command Use esa fy;k tkrk gSaA Syntax : C:> Del <filename> Example : C:> Del Hello (11) REN – File Name Change djus ds fy, Syntax : C:> REN <Old Name> <New Name> Example : C:> REN PGDCA 2PGDCA (12) Copy – fdlh File dh nwljh Copy cukus ds fy, mi;ksx esa vkrk gSaA File dh Copy mlh Drive ;k Folder esa cukbZ tk ldrh gSaA Syntax : C:> COPY <Source File> <Destination File> Example : C:> COPY C:HitechPGDCA D:Hitech2 (13) CHKDSK - ;g Disk dh Statistical detail ns[kus ds fy, mi;ksx esa vkrk gSaA ;g Command fuEu izdkj dh lwpuk,a nsrk gSaA Total Disk Space, Total Folders & Files, Total dusters, Hidden Files etc. Example : C:> CHKDSK (14) Move - ;g Command Folders dks Rename djus ;k Files dks ,d txg ls nwljh txg Move djus ds fy, mi;ksx esa fy;k tkrk gSaA Syntax : C:> MOVE <Old Folder Name> <New Folder Name> Syntax : C:> MOVE <Old File Loation> <New File Location> (15) Attrib – blls ge Files ds attributes Change dj ldrs gSa vFkkZr~ mls Read Only, Hidden ;k System File cuk ldrs gSaA C:> Attrib <Attribute> <file name> Attributes Are : +R – Apply Read Only -R – Remove Read Only +H – Apply Hidden -H – Remove Hidden +S – Apply System -S – Remove System (16) Edit – bl Command ls dksbZ Hkh File cuh gqbZ gSa mlesa Correction ;k fdlh izdkj dk Change djus ds fy, iz;ksx esa vkrk gSaA Example : C:> EDIT (17) Format – fdlh Disk dks Format djus rFkk u;s Tracks o Sector cukus ds fy, mi;ksx esa fy;k tkrk gSaA bl Command ds }kjk Tracks o Sector ds lkFk Fat Area Hkh Create gksrk gSaA bl Command dks mi;ksx esa ysdj ge fdlh Disk dks Bootable Disk Hkh cuk ldrs gSaA ge fdlh iqjkuh Disk dks Hkh Format dj ldrs gSaA bl fLFkrh esa Disk ij fLFkr iqjkuk Data Lost gks tkrk gSaA Syntax : C:> FORMAT <drivename> Example : C:> FORMAT A: Options Used with Format : /S = For Creating Bootable Disk /U = Don’t Save old information like FAT /Q = For Quick Format Quick Format option rHkh mi;ksx esa ysuk pkfg, tc ,d ckj Floppy dks igys Format fd;k tk pqdk gksA ;g option dsoy System Area dks gh Format djrk gSaA (18) FDISK - ;g Command fdlh Disk esa Partition cukus ds fy, mi;ksx esa fy;k tkrk gSaA ;g Command nsus ij DOS }kjk dqN Information Step by Step ekaxh tkrh gSa ftUgsa Feed djds Partition Example : C:> Fdisk Process dks iwjk fd;k tk ldrk gSaA SIRAJ SIR 5
  • 6. Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) J.C.S COMPUTER (19) SYS – ;g Command fdlh Disk dks Bootable cukus ds fy, mi;ksx esa fy;k tkrk gSaA blds }kjk Operating System dh eq[; Files Source ls Destination ij Transfer dj nh tkrh gSaA (20) Tree - ;g Command fdlh Drive ds Dir Structure dks ,d Tree ds Format esa Display djrk gSaA ;fn ge Sub Directory ds lkFk&2 mu Directory esa miyC/k Files dks Hkh ns[kuk pkgrs gSa rks Tree Command ds lkFk /F Option dke esa vk;sxkA C:> Tree /F (21) Deltree – ;g Command directory dh lHkh Sub Dir rFkk mlessa lHkh Files dks ,d lkFk Delete djus ds fy, mi;ksx esa fy;k tkrk gSaA Example : C:Hitech> Deltree (22) XCopy - ;g Command Copy Command dh rjg gSa ijUrq bldh lgk;rk ls ,d lEiw.kZ dir Structure ,oa mlesa miyC/k lEiw.kZ Files ,d gh Command ls nwljh txg Copy dh tk ldrh gSaA C:> XCopy <Source> <destination> C:> XCopy Student D:Student SE Options Are : S = Sub Directories also E = Includes Empty Directories also V = It Verifies the Copies (23) Disk Copy – bl dh lgk;rk ls ge fdlh Disk dh Duplicate Copy Create dj ldrs gSaA bldk mi;ksx djus ds fy, ;g t:jh gSa fd tks Disk Use esa yh tk jgh gSa og cjkcj Capacity dh gksA ge fdlh ,d Drive dks Source rFkk Target nksuksa :iksa esa iz;ksx dj ldrs gSaA Syntax : C:> Disk Copy <Source drive> <Target drive> Example : C:> Disk Copy A: C: /1 = Copies Only the Ist side of the disk (24) Disk Comp (Disk Compare) - ;g Command nks leku Disks dh Tracks rFkk Sector Wise rqyuk djrk gSa vxj nksuksa esa dksbZ varj gSa rks fuEu Message Display djrk gSa Compare error on side 1 Track 1 Syntax : C:> Diskcomp <Source dir.> <Target disk> Example : C:> Diskcomp A: A: (25) Print – bl Command dk iz;ksx fdlh Disk ij fLFkr fdlh File dks fizUV djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA Syntax : C:> Print <Filename> (26) Mode – bl Command dk iz;ksx Screen ds Display Mode dks cnyus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA vFkkZr~ izR;sd Line esa iznf’kZr gksus okys v{kjksa dh la[;k (80) rFkk Edit Screen dk Colour Change djuk gks rks bl Command dk iz;ksx djsaxsA DOS esa lkekU;r;k izR;sd Line esa 80 Characters Display gksrs gSa vxj ge Character dh la[;k 40 djuk pkgrs gSa rks fuEu Command fy[ksaxsA C:> Mode CO40 C:> Mode Mono - ;g Command DOS Editor dh Screen dks B/w dj nsxkA C:> Mode CO80 - ;g Command okil DOS Editor esa Colour Display dj nsxk rFkk Display Mode dks 40 ls 80 dj nsxkA (27) DOSKEY – bl Command dk iz;ksx User }kjk iz;ksx fd;s tk jgs Commands dks Memory esa lqjf{kr j[kus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA (28) Path – fdlh izksxzke dks ju djus ds fy, gesa ml Sub Directory esa tkuk gksrk gSaA ftlesa og izksxzke File gSaA bl File dks fdlh vU; Dir ij gksrs gq, ju ugha fd;k tk ldrkA ;fn ge ml File dks C-Prompt ij ls gh Directly Run djuk pkgrs gSa rks blds fy, Path Command ds }kjk bldk Path Set djuk gksxkA Path Command esa tks Hkh directory specify dh xbZ gS ml directory ds izksxzke dks lh/ks gh C-prompt ls ju fd;k tk ldrk gSaA SIRAJ SIR 6
  • 7. J.C.S COMPUTER Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) (29) BACKUP – bldk iz;ksx egRoiw.kZ File dks ,d ls vf/kd Copy rS;kj djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA Syntax : C:> Backup <Source File> <Target File> Example : C:> Backup C:DTP A: /S – fdlh dir dh lHkh File rFkk Sub dir dks Backup ysus ds fy,A (30) Wild Card Characters – tc gesa DOS esa Files rFkk Dir ds lewg ds lkFk dk;Z djuk gks rks bu Characters dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSaA ;g 2 izdkj ds gksrs gSa {* rFkk ?} * = dksbZ Hkh Character fdrus Hkh Character tSls & Dir *.exe Dir a*.txt Dir *.* Dir Au*.exe ? = dksbZ Hkh Character, exj mrus ftrus ? gSaA tSls & Dir Au????.* Dir ????.??? Dir S???.E?? Dir ????????.??? (31) Help – fdlh Hkh File ;k Command ds ckjs esa enn pkfg, rks ml Command ds ckn /? yxkuk gksrk gSaA Example : C:> Dir /? Executable V/s Non-executable Files Executable File - ;g os Files gksrh gSa tks lh/ks gh Execute gks tkrs gSaA ;s File Computer ds le>us ;ksX; Hkk"kk esa gksrh gSaA fdlh “h File dks igys Compile djuk iM+rk gSa ftlls os ml Hkk"kk esa Convert gks tkrh gSa ftlls Computer le> ldsA fdlh Hkh izksxzke dks ju djus ds fy, mldh exe File cukuh vko’;d gksrh gSaA exe file dks ge Command Prompt ij Type djds mls lh/ks ju djk ldrs gSaA Non Executalbe File - ;g ,d Normal File gksrh gSa tks fd fdlh Hkk"kk dks mi;ksx esa fy;s cxSj vU; Application Softwares esa cukbZ xbZ gksrh gSaA ;g Files mlh Application Software esa Open gksrh gSa ftlesa og cuh gksrh gSa rFkk nwljh Application esa Call Hkh dh tk ldrh gSaA ;g Executable Files dh rjg ju ugha gksrh gSaA File Allocation Table (FAT) – tc Computer esa fdlh File dks Store djus ds fy, Command fn;k tkrk gSa rks og hard disk ij Blank Space esa File dks Store dj nsus ds ckn ml File ds uke rFkk Memory Location Address dh Information ,d fo’ks"k izdkj dh Table esa Record dj nsrk gSaA ftls (FAT) dgrs gSaA tc ml File dks okil Retrive ;k Open djus ds fy, Computer dks Command fn;k tkrk gSa rc Computer bl FAT Area ls ml File dk irk dj ogka rd igqaprk gSa rFkk File dks Read djds Computer dh Main Memory esa Load dj nsrk gSaA tgka ls ml File dks Screen ij Display dj fn;k tkrk gSaA FAT esa Disk ij Stored izR;sd File ds ckjs esa fuEu lwpuk Record jgrh gSaA (1) Name of File (2) Date & Time of Information & Updation of File (3) Files Attributes (Hidden or Read Only) (4) Address of Starting Location (5) Size of Files FAT fdlh Hkh Disk ds Starting Track (0th Track) ij Create gksrh gSa fdlh Hkh Computer ds fy, FAT cgqr egRoiw.kZ gksrh gSaA D;ksafd ;fn fdlh dkj.k ls ;g destroy gks tk;s rks ge Disk ij fdlh Hkh File dks Stored ugha dj ldrsA SIRAJ SIR 7
  • 8. J.C.S COMPUTER Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) UNIT – II WINDOWS 95/98 Windows Concepts:- MicroSoft DOS ,d CUI(Character User Interface) Operating System gSaA bl OS esa Command dks Type djus dh vlqfo/kk dks lekIr djus ds mn~ns’; ls MicroSoft us ,d u;k izksxzke fodflr fd;k tks Windows dgyk;kA ;g Programme GUI(Graphical User Interface) dh lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSa rFkk fofHkUu Commands dks Graphics ds :i esa Display djrk gSaA blesa fofHkUu Application Programm dks ,d vk;krdkj Box esa iznf’kZr fd;k tkrk gSa ftUgssa Window dgrs gSa vr% bldk uke Windows j[kk x;kA tc MicroSoft dk DOS Market esa py jgk Fkk rHkh Apple Computers us 1984 esa Apple Macintosh uked ,d ,slk OS cuk;k tks GUI Technique ij vk/kkfjr FkkA mlesa Mouse ds }kjk dk;Z laHko FkkA Computer Start gksus ij ;g OS ,d ,slh Screen Display djrk Fkk ftlesa dbZ lkjs fodYi miyC/k gksrs Fks tks Icons ds :i esa FksA fdlh dk;Z fo’ks"k ds fy, ge lacaf/kr icons dks Click dj ldrs FksA ;gh Windows dk izkjfEHkd :i FkkA Apple Company us bls dsoy vius Computer rd gh lhfer j[kk rc MicroSoft us Windows 3.1 rFkk 3.11 Version fodflr fd;s tks MicroSoft DOS }kjk lapkfyr gksrs FksA lu~ 1995 esa MicroSoft us Computer {ks= esa ,d ØkfUrdkjh ifjorZu fd;k vkSj GUI esa gh OS Develop fd;k ftldk uke Windowss 95 FkkA bl izksxzke ds lapkyu ds fy, vc DOS-OS dh vko’;drk ugha jghA blds ckn 1998 esa Windows 98 rFkk 2000 esa Windows 2000 ds :i esa u;s Version fodflr fd;sA Windows 2000 ls MicroSoft us mlesa Networking dh lqfo/kk Hkh 'kkfey dj yhA Windows 95 dh lcls cM+h [kwch ;g gSa fd ;g iwjh rjg Graphics ,oa icons ij vk/kkfjr gSaA MicroSoft us DOS dks bldk ,d Hkkx cuk fn;k gSaA bl rjg DOS ds yxHkx lHkh Command Hkh Windows esa mi;ksx fd;s tk ldrs gSa ijUrq Windows us gekjk dk;Z bruk vklku dj fn;k gSa fd gesa fdlh Command dks mi;ksx esa ysus dh t:jr gh ugha gSaA blesa miyC/k fofHkUu File rFkk Application Software gesa icons ds :i esa Screen ij Display tkrs gSa rFkk Mouse ds ,d Click ls bUgsa Open fd;k tk ldrk gSaA Windows esa dbZ izdkj dh lqfo/kk,a miyC/k gSaA blesa ,d lkFk ,d ls vf/kd dk;Z (MultiTasking) Hkh fd, tk ldrs gSaA blls Computer ds Processor dk vf/kdre mi;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSaA Windows izR;sd Dir, File ;k Programme dks ,d vyx Windows esa fn[kkrk gSa blfy, bls Windows uke fn;k x;k gSaA Windows 95 esa Plug & Play dh lqfo/kk miyC/k gSa ftldk ykHk ;g gS fd gesa hardware yxkus ds fy, dksbZ Settings ugha djuh gksrh cfYd Computer tc Start gksrk gSa rks og vius vki ml hardware dks detect dj ysrk gSaA Windows 95 esa OLE (Object Linking & Embedding) dh lqfo/kk Hkh miyC/k gSaA bldh lgk;rk ls ge document dks link dj ldrs gSaA Windowss 95 16 bit FAT ij dk;Z djrk gSaA 1998 esa MicroSoft us Windows dk u;k Version fudkyk ftls WIN 98 uke fn;kA blesa os lHkh lqfo/kk,a miyC/k Fkh tks Windows 95 esa Fkh ijUrq blesa dbZ ubZ lqfo/kk Hkh gSaA MicroSoft us lu~ 2000 esa Windows dk u;k Version Windows 2000 fudkyk A blds 2 Editions gSa & Windows 2000 rFkk Windowss 2000 Server Edition gSaA blesa ls Windows 2000 Windows 98 dk ifj"d`r :i gSaA tcfd bldk Server Version Windows NT dk ifj"d`r :i gSaA Difference Between DOS & Windows DOS 1. ;g CUI Environment Provide djkrk gSaA 2. blesa Single User Single tasking Facility feyrh gSaA 3. blesa FAT 16 Technology Use esa yh tkrh gSaA 4. blesa Command /;ku esa j[kuk iM+rk gSaA 5. blesa Entertainment Facility izkIr ugha gksrh gSaA 6. blesa dksbZ Hkh Pointing devices dh t:jr ugh jgrh gSaA 7. blesa OLE Facility izkIr ugha gks ikrh gSaA SIRAJ SIR 8 Windowss 1. ;g GUI Envirement Provide djkrk gSaA 2. blesa Multi User Multi Tasking Facility izkIr gksrh gSaA 3. blesa FAT 32 Technology Use esa yh tkrh gSaA 4. blesa icons rFkk Menu /;ku esa j[kuk iM+rk gSaA 5. blesa Entertainment Facility izkIr gksrh gSaA 6. blesa Pointing devices Use esa yh tkrh gS tSls Mouse, Light, Pen, Scanner etc. 7. blesa OLE Facility izkIr gksrh gSaA
  • 9. Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) J.C.S COMPUTER Characteristics or Features of Windows 98 :1. FAT 32 – Windows 98 FAT 32 dks Support djrk gSa tc fd 95 FAT 16 dks Support djrk FkkA FAT 32 Disk Space dk csgrj mi;ksx djrk gSa D;ksafd blesa ,d Cluster 4 Kb Size dk gh gksrk gSa tcfd iqjkus FAT esa ;g 16Kb o 32Kb dk gksrk FkkA bldk vFkZ ;g gSa fd ;fn dksbZ File 200 byte dh gSa rks FAT 32 mls Store djus esa 4Kb dh txg ysxkA tcfd iqjkus FAT 16Kb ;k 32Kb dh txg ysrs FksA 2. Internet Explorer – Windows 98 ds lkFk ,d Powerful Internet Explorer fn;k x;k gSa ftlls Net ij dk;Z f’k?kzrk ,oa vklkuh ls gks ldrk gSaA ;g Java Enabled Software gSa ,oa JavaScript rFkk VB Script dks Support djrk gSaA 3. Accessibility - ;g lqfo/kk [kkl dj ds disable yksxksa dks /;ku esa j[k dj cukbZ x;h gSaA 4. New Hardware Support – Windows 98 dbZ u;s Hardware dks support djrk gSa tSls USB Port, DVD Player vkfnA 5. Better Networkign Facility – bldh Networking dh lqfo/kk fiNys lHkh Windows Version ls lcls vPNh gSaA 6. Long File Name – blesa iqjkus DOS Style file Name dh txg Long Names (Max. 256 characters) fn;s tk ldrs gSaA 7. ACPI (Advanced Configration & Power Interface) – fdlh Hkh dkj.k ls ,dne ls Power Supply can gks tk, rks Windows ds Corrupt gksus dh lEHkkouk T;knk gksrh FkhA bl leL;k ls cpus ds fy, WIN 98 esa dkQh lq/kkj fd;k x;k gSaA 8. Mutiple Display Facility - ,d ls T;knk Monitor ,d CPU ls attach dj display fd;k tk ldrk gSaA Max 8 Monitor ,d CPU ls attach gks ldrs gSaA 9. WIN 98 Update Wizard – bl Wizard dk iz;ksx gekjs Computer ij igys ls install Windows 98 ds iqjkus Version dks Update djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA bl lqfo/kk dks mi;ksx esa ysus ds fy, Computer bUVjusV ls tqMk gksuk vko’;d gSaA + 10. Different izdkj ds Entertainment Facility like web T.V., Desktop Themes, NetShows ;s Internet ls Connect gksus ij gh izkIr gks ldrs gSaA 11. OLE – Different Application Software dks ,d nwljs Application esa Call dj mudh lqfo/kk ys ldrs gSaA 12. Plug & Play – igys dksbZ Hkh u;s Hardware yxkus ds fy, mls install djuk iM+rk Fkk mlds drives dks pykuk iM+rk FkkA Windows 98 desa u;k Hardware attach dj nsus ij Automatically detect djus dh facility Provide djrk gSaA 13. Display Setting Enhacement – dksbZ Hkh Setting Change djus ds ckn Computer dks Reboot djus dh vko’;drk gksrh Fkh ijUrq blesa ;g leL;k gVk nh xbZ gSaA vc Colour vkSj Pixel Setting fcuk Computer dks Reboot djkds apply fd;k tk ldrk gSaA Windows And Their Parts/Windows Structure Windows ij vk/kkfjr fofHkUu izksxzke dks pykus ij Monitor Screen ij iznf’kZr gksus okys v;krdkj {ks= dsk Window dgk tkrk gSaA fofHkUu izksxzke dh Window fHkUu&2 :i esa izLrqr gksrh gSaA Windows Environment esa pyus okyk izR;sd Programme Window Interface dk gh iz;ksx djrk gSaA vr% lHkh izksxzke dh Windows yxHkx feyrh&tqyrh gh gksrh gSaA Window eq[;r% nks izdkj dh gksrh gSaA (1) Application Window (Parent) (2) Document Window (Child) Application Window fdlh Hkh Application Programme dks Start djus ij iznf’kZr gksus okyh eq[; Window gksrh gSaA ;g Application Programme dk dsUnz gksrh gSaA Document Window fdlh Application Window esa iznf’kZr gksus okyh Window gksrh gSaA Application esa tc fdlh File dks vksiu djrs gSa rks og Document Window esa Open gksrh gSaA vr% Document Window Application Window dk ,d Part gksrh gSaA Document Window, Application Window ds vHkko esa iznf’kZr ugha gks ldrhA Application Window esa miyC/k fofHkUu Options dk iz;ksx Document esa fd;k tk ldrk gSaA tcfd Document Window ds Option flQZ mlesa iznf’kZr File ij gh ykxw fd;s tk ldrs gSaA SIRAJ SIR 9
  • 10. J.C.S COMPUTER Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) Document Close djus ij Application Window Close ugha gksrh gSaA tcfd Application Window Close djus ij mlds vUnj vkus okyh lHkh Document Window Close gks tkrh gSaA Parts of a Windows or Windows Structure (1) Control Menu – Active Windows ds mij ck;s dksus esa ,d icon iznf’kZr gksrk jgrk gSaA bl ij fDyd djus ls ,d menu Open gksrk gSa ftlesa fofHkUu Option miyC/k gksrs gSA bu Options dks mi;ksx esa ysdj ge muls lEcaf/kr dk;ksZ dks dj ldrs gSaA (2) Title Bar – gj Active Windows ds lcls mij iznf’kZr gksrh gSaA blesa File dk Title rFkk Control Buttons Display gksrs gSaA blds lcls cka;h vksj Control Menu iznf’kZr gksrk gSaA (3) Menu Bar – Windows Environment esa dk;Z djus okys Programme Menu ij gh vk/kkfjr gksrs gSaA bu Programme esa fd;s tk ldus okys fofHkUu dk;Z bu Menu esa fn;s x;s gksrs gSaA Menu bar title bar ds uhps fLFkr gksrh gSaA menu bar ij menu ds uke gksrs gSa ftu ij Click djus ls ml ls lacaf/kr Option iznf’kZr gksrs gSaA (4) Control Button – (A) Maximize – Active Window dks iwjh Screen ij iznf’kZr djus ds fy, mi;ksx esa fy;k tkrk gSaA (B) Minimize – blds }kjk Active Window Minimize gksdj Task bar esa cVu ds :i esa Display gksrh gSaA ml ij okil fDyd djus ls Active Window iqu% maximize gks tkrh gSaA (C) Restore – bl dk iz;ksx Active window dks iqu% iqjkus vkdkj esa iznf’kZr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA (5) Tool Bar – Tool Bar Menu Bar ds uhps fLFkr gksrs gSaA Tool Bar ij Windows esa fd;s tk ldus okys fofHkUu dk;ksZ dks 'kh?kzrkiwoZd lEiUu djus ds fy, lacaf/kr Tool Buttons ds :i esa iznf’kZr gksrs gSaA ge vko’;drkuqlkj fofHkUu Tool Bars dks Display vFkok hide dj ldrs gSaA (6) Scroll Bar – GUI esa fdlh Hkh lwpuk dks iznf’kZr djus ds fy, Windows Display gksrh gSa ijUrq ;g vko’;d ugha gSa fd lEiw.kZ lwpuk ,d Windows esa fn[kk;h tk ldsA vr% Windows ds nka;h vksj Verticall Scroll Bar rFkk cka;s dh vksj Harizamtal Scroll Bar iznf’kZr gksrs gSaA buds }kjk Screen dks mij&uhps ;k ck;sa&nk;sa Move fd;k tk ldrk gSaA (7) Status Bar - ;g Harzizamtnl Scroll Bar ds chp iznf’kZr gksrh gSaA Status Bar User dks Current Position fn[kkrk gSaA bl ij iznf’kZr gksus okyh lwpuk,a vyx&2 izksxzke ds fy, vyx&2 gksrh gSaA (8) Work Area – izR;sd Windows dk dsUnzh; Hkkx Work Area gksrk gSaA blh LFkku ij fdlh izksxzke ls lacaf/kr dk;Z lEiUu fd;s tkrs gSaA Desktop – Computer dks Start djrs gh lcls igys tks Screen fn[kk;h nsrh gSa og Windows Operating System dk Desktop dgykrk gSaA bl ij fofHkUu izdkj ds icons rFkk uhps dh vksj Task bar iznf’kZr gksrh gSaA Desktop ij iznf’kZr gksus okys icon dh la[;k bl ckr ij fuHkZj djrh gSa fd Installation ds le; geus Windows dks fdl izdkj Configure fd;k gSaA Desktop ij lcls uhps fn[kus okyh Task Bar ij ck;ha vksj Start cVu iznf’kZr gksrk gSa rFkk nk;ha vksj Clock rFkk dqN vU; icon Display gksrs gSaA Desktop ij fn[kus okys fofHkUu icons ij double SIRAJ SIR 10
  • 11. J.C.S COMPUTER Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) Click djds muls lacaf/kr izksxzke dks ge vksiu dj ldrs gSaA Desktop ij by default dqN icons fn[krs jgrs gSa tSls & My Computer, Recycle Bin, My Documents, Internet Explore vkfnA buds vykok ge fdlh File ;k Software dks Shortcut ds :i esa Desktop ij yk ldrs gSaA Desktop ij u;k Folder Hkh Create gks ldrk gSaA Dektop ij fn[kus okyk dksbZ Colour ;k Picture mldk Background ;k Wallpaper dgykrk gSaA bls vko’;drkuqlkj ifjorZu fd;k tk ldrk gSaA J.C.S COMPUTER SIRAJ SIR Task Bar – Windows esa Task Bar ,d vR;Ur mi;ksxh LFkku gSaA Task blds vkxs dqN icon fn[krs gSaA Task Bar ij nk;ha vksj ges’kk le; fn[kkrk icons fn[krs gSa mls Quick Launch Tool Bar dgrs gSaA blds lkFk gh bl izksxzke ds uke Push button ds :i esa fn[krs gSaA Quick Launch Tool Bar Single Click djds gh open fd;k tk ldrk gSaA Bar ij ck;ha vksj Start Button rFkk jgrk gSaA Task Bar ds ftl Hkkx ij Bar ij orZeku le; esa [kqys gq, lHkh ij iznf’kZr icons ls lacaf/kr izksxzke dks Start Menu – Task Bar ij fn;s x;s Push button Start dks Windows dk izos’k }kjk Hkh dgk tkrk gSaA bl ij Click djus ls ,d Menu iznf’kZr gksrk gSa ftlesa Program, Documents, Setting, Search, Help, Run, Log off rFkk Shut Down Option miyC/k gksrs gSaA vxj fdlh Option ds vkxs “ ” iznf’kZr gksrk gSa rks bldk vFkZ gSa fd blesa dqN vkSj Sub Menu miyC/k gSa vxj fdlh Option ds vkxs ( … )iznf’kZr gksrk gSa rks bl ij Click djus ls ,d Dialog Box Display gksxkA ftl option ds vkxs dksbZ Hkh Singnal iznf’kZr gh ugha gksrk gSa rks og Lo;a gh ,d izksxzke gksrk gSaA My Computer – Windows 98 ds Desktop ij lcls mij ck;ha vksj iznf’kZr gksus okyk icon My Computer gksrk gSaA ;fn ge ;g Kkr djuk pkgrs gSa fd Computer esa dkSu&2 ls Drive, Printers ;k Networking dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSa rks gesa My Computer dk iz;ksx djuk gksxkA bl ij Double Click djus ls fuEu Screen iznf’kZr gksxhA double click it SIRAJ SIR 11
  • 12. J.C.S COMPUTER Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) J.C.S COMPUTER Screen of My Computer ;fn gesa ;g tkudkjh pkfg, fd fdl Drive ij dkSu&2 ls Folders o File gSa rks ge ml Particular Drive ij Double Click djds irk dj ldrs gSaA Drives esa fn[kus okyh fdlh File dks Double Click djds ;gha ls Open fd;k tk ldrk gSaA My Computer Window esa fdlh File dks fdlh nwljs Folder esa Copy ;k Move fd;k tk ldrk gSaA bl Window ds }kjk fdlh Drive esa u;k Folder cukuk] Delete djuk ;k fdlh Folder ;k File dks Rename Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gSaA My Computer Wndow ls ge Floppy dks Format Hkh dj ldrs gSaA blesa miyC/k Control Panel Option }kjk ge Computers ds fofHkUu Devices dh Setting Change dj ldrs gSaA tSls & Keyboard, Mouse blesa miyC/k Printer Folder }kjk ge dksbZ u;k Printer Install dj ldrs gSa ;k igys ls Install Printers dh tkudkjh izkIr dj ldrs gSaA Recycle Bin - ;g ,d Container dh rjg dke djrk gSaA ;ga Harddisk esa ,d lqjf{kr LFkku gksrk gSa tgka Delete dh xbZ File rFkk Folders dqN le; rd lqjf{kr jgrs gSaA tc ge fdlh File ;k Folder dks Harddisk ls Delete djrs gSa rks os Recycle Bin esa Transfer gks tkrs gSa ijUrq Floppy ls fdlh File ;k Folder dks feVk;k x;k gSa rks og Recycle Bin esa Transfer ugha gksrh gSaA Recycle Bin ds fy, Harddisk dk ,d fuf’pr LFkku Reserve jgrk gSaA ;g Disk dh dqy {kerk ds 10% ds cjkcj gksrk gSaA ;fn geus Harddisk ds Partition fd;s gq;s gSa rks izR;sd Partition dk 10% Hkkx Recycle Bin ds fy, Reserve jgsxkA ge viuh vko’;drkuqlkj Recycle Bin dh Storage {kerk dks ?kVk c<+k ldrs gSaA (Right Click – Properties) tc rd dksbZ File ;k Folder Bin esa gSa rc rd mls okil mldh Original txg ij Restore fd;k tk ldrk gSaA blds fy, ml Particular File dks Select djds Recycle Bin ds cka;h vkSj fLFkr “Restore” Word tks fd hyperlink gksrk gSa ij Click djrs gSaA Recycle Bin esa iznf’kZr Files o Folder vxj mi;ksxh ugha gSa rks mUgsa Recycle Bin ls gVk nsuk pkfg,A blds fy, File Menu esa “Empty Recycle Bin” Option dk iz;ksx fd;k tk;sxkA fdlh File ;k Folder dks fcuk Recycle Bin esa Hksts lh/ks gh delete djuk gks rks Shift+Delete Key Press dh tk;sxhA Hardware Requitement for Windows 98 :(1) 486 DX/66 MHz vFkok blls vf/kd {kerk okyk Process (2) VGA/SVGA Monitor, vPNs Display Card ds lkFkA (3) Hard disk esa U;wure 120 MB rFkk vf/kdre 245 MB fjDr LFkkuA 120 MB fjDr LFkku gksus ij Windows 98 dh U;wure lqfo/kk dk U;wure {kerk ds lkFk iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSaA 295 MB fjDr LFkku gksus ij bldh leLr lqfo/kkvksa dk vf/kdre {kerk dk iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSaA (4) Minimum 16 MB RAM (5) Mouse ;k vU; dksbZ Printing Device (6) CD-ROM (7) Key Board SIRAJ SIR 12
  • 13. J.C.S COMPUTER Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) Windows Accessories Start – Programme – Accessories - Character mep - Note pad - Word pad - Paint Brush - Calculator (I) Note Pad – NotePad ,d Simple Text File rS;kj djrs o Text dh Editing djus ds fy, iz;ksx fd;k tkus okyk ,d izksxzke gksrk gSaA blfy, bls Text Editor Hkh dgrs gSaA Note Pad esa Text dh Formating djuk lEHko ugha gSaA Formating ls rkRi;Z gSa fd Text ls vkdkj&izdkj o dyj dks Change djukA Note Pad ds varxZr vf/kdre 64Kb vkdkj rd dh Text File rS;kj djuk gh laHko gSaA blesa rS;kj Text File esa vf/kdre 64 x 1024 = 65536 Character gh Stared fd;s tk ldrs gSaA blls vf/kd vkdkj dh File dks rS;kj djus ds fy, gesa nwljs Word Processing Software tSls Word Pad rFkk MS-Word dk iz;ksx djuk gksxkA Note Pad esa rS;kj dh xbZ File esa 1 ykbZu esa vf/kdre 1024 Character Type fd;s tk ldrs gSaA blds ckn 1025 oka Character lor% gh vxyh ykbZu esa VkbZi gksus yxrk gSaA Note Pad dh Windows esa fuEu rRo iznf’kZr gksrs gSaA Title Bar, Control Menu – Minimise, Max, Close, Menu bar, Text Area, Scroll Bar. Notepad Layout Note : Word Wrap – Note Pad esa vxj bl Option dks Select fd;k gSa rks ykbZu iw.kZ gksus ij Text Lor% gh vxyh iafDr esa VkbZi gksus yxrk gSaA ;g fØ;k Word Wrap dgykrh gSaA (II) Word Pad - ;g Hkh ,d Text Editor gSa rFkk Note Pad dh Hkkarh typing dk dke blesa Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gSaA blesa Note pad ls vf/kd Facilities miyC/k gksrh gSaA ;g Windows dk ,d inbuild Text Editor gSa rFkk bls ge MicroSoft-Word dk NksVk :i Hkh dg ldrs gSaA ijUrq blesa MicroSoft-Word dh Hkkarh dk;Z rFkk mlesa izkIr gksus okyh vU; lqfo/kk,a tSls Drawing vkfn dk;Z ugha dj ldrs gSaA blesa Notepad dh rjg dk;Z dj mls Formating Hkh dh tk ldrh gSaA blesa MicroSoft-Word dh rjg ,d Horizontal Ruler, Tool bar rFkk Status Bar Hkh fn[kkbZ nsrk gSaA blesa cuus okyh File ;k Extention RTF gSa tks fd MicroSoft-Word esa Hkh Open gks ldrh gSaA SIRAJ SIR 13
  • 14. J.C.S COMPUTER Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) J.C.S COMPUTER Screen Of Word Pad (III) Character Map – fdlh Hkh Application esa dk;Z djrs le; fo’ks"k fpUgksa dk iz;ksx djus ds fy, Windows us ,d Option fn;k gSaA ftlesa fofHkUu izdkj ds Special Characters rFkk symbols cus gksrs gSaA bu Symbol dks nks izdkj ls ml Application ds Text Area esa yk;k tk ldrk gSaA igys rks mls Character ;k Symbol dks Select dj Drag dj ogka ys tk;k tkrk gSa tgka ij og pkfg, vkSj NksM+ fn;k tkrk gSa rFkk nwljk fd mls Select dj ml Display Box esa Insert button ij Disk djus ij og ogka Paste gks tkrk gSa tgka ij Cursor gSaA (IV) Paint Brush – bl izksxzke dk iz;ksx dyj vFkok B/W Bitmap Files dks cukus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA bl izksxzke esa new rFkk igys ls cuh gqbZ Bitmap Files ij dk;Z dj ldrs gSA blesa ,d default Tool box ck;ha vksj iznf’kZr gksrh gSaA bl Tool box dks bl LFkku ls nk;ha vksj vFkok vU; fdlh LFkku ij j[kk tk ldrk gSaA bl Tool Box esa fofHkUu izdkj ds Tools Available jgrs gSa tSls Pencil Tool, Line, Curve, Text, Poligon, Air Brush, SIRAJ SIR 14
  • 15. Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) J.C.S COMPUTER Rectangle, Magnifier, Pick Color, Eraser, Fill With Color, Freehand Select, Select, Ellipse, Rounded Corner Rectangle, Brush rFkk Preference Tool miyC/k jgrs rFkk budks Select dj viuk dksbZ Hkh bitnmap Image rFkk igys ls cuh Image dks Modify dj ldrs gSaA J.C.S COMPUTER (V) Calculator – Windows ds Start Menu ds Program Group esa Accessories esa fn;s x;s bl izksxzke dk iz;ksx ge Numeric rFkk Scientific Calculation djus ds fy, djrs gSaA Calculator dk iz;ksx ge Mouse rFkk Numeric Key pad ls djrs gSaA ge Mouse Pointer dks ftl Hkh vad ij ys tkdj Click djrs gSa rFkk Numeric Keypad ij ftl vad dh Key dks Press djrs gSa og Monitor dh Screen ij iznf’kZr gksus okyh Clculator Windows ds Display Box esa iznf’kZr gksrk gSa vkSj gekjs }kjk fn, x, Input ds Results izkIr dj ldrs gSaA Normal Calculator Scientific Calculator Windows Explorer - ;g ,d csgrj File Management dh Facilities ,d gh txg ij miyC/k djkrk gSaA ;g nks Hkkxksa esa Divide jgrk gSaA Left Pane esa fofHkUu Folder dh List iznf’kZr gksrh gSa rFkk Folder ls igys + rFkk – ds fpUg Hkh Display gksrs gSa ftlls List dks Expand rFkk Collaps fd;k tk ldrk gSaA Left Pane esa fdlh Folder dks Select djus ij Right Pane esa mlds vanj fLFkr fofHkUu Folder rFkk Files display gksrh gSaA Explorer esa fdlh Hkh files dks dgha Hkh flQZ Drag & Drop dj Copy fd;k tk ldrk gSaA ,oa blesa Folder Hkh cukuk vklku gSaA fdlh Hkh Particulare dir esa Right Pane esa Right click djus ij mls New Folder dk Option Open gksrk gSaA ml ij fDyd djus ij Folder Create gks tkrk gSa rFkk mls dksbZ Hkh uke fn;k tk ldrk gSaA mlesa fdlh Hkh File rFkk Folder dk uke cnyk Hkh tk ldrk gSaA fdlh Hkh File ;k Folder ij Right Click dj ,d dialog box Open gksrk gSa mlesa Rename Option ij click djus ij ml Particular File ds uke ij Cursor vk tkrk gSa rFkk mls Delete dj nwljk uke fn;k tk ldrk gSaA vr% Files rFkk Folders dks lgh rjg ls Manage fd;k tk ldrk gSA SIRAJ SIR 15
  • 16. Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) J.C.S COMPUTER Screen Of Windows Explorer Entertainment – Windows ges vU; lqfo/kkvksa ds lkFk&2 euksjatu dh Hkh lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSa blds fy, blesa iz;ksx esa vkus okys vusd Software rFkk Hardware dh t:jr gksrh gSa ftlls gekjk Computer dk;Z ds lkFk&2 euksjatu dh Hkh lqfo/kk iznku djrk jgsaA Windows }kjk nh tkus okyh dqN Entertainment facilities bl izdkj gSaA (1) CD Player – Windows esa nh xbZ bl lqfo/kk dk iz;ksx CD ROM esa Audio CD yxkdj lquus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA bldk iz;ksx ,d lkekU; Audio Cassette Player dh Hkkafr fd;k tkrk gSa ftlesa CD dks Play, Pause, Forward, Reverse, Stop, Eject vkfn ls lacaf/kr lqfo/kk, miyC/k jgrh gSA bles ,d xkus dsk ckj&2 Hkh lquk tk ldrk gSaA vxj gekjs Computer ij CD ROM ugh yxk gS rks CD Player Dialog Box Display ugh gksrk gSA (2) DVD Player :- DVD Player dk mi;ksx DVD (Digital Video Disk) dks Play djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA DVD CD ROM Disk ds tSlh gh gksrh gSa ijUrq bldh Storage Capacity CD ROM ls vf/kd gksrh gSaA DVD Player dks mi;ksx esa ysus ds fy, DVD Drive rFkk DVD Decoder gekjs Computer ij Install gksuk pkfg,A DVD Decoder ,d Hardware rFkk Sfotware Component gksrk gSa tks DVD Drive dks Computer ij Movies Play djuk Allow djrk gSaA (3) Media Player – ;g Program Accessories ds Entertainment Option esa miyC/k jgrk gSaA bl izksxzke dk iz;ksx Audio, Video rFkk Animation Files dks pykus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA blds }kjk ge Internet ls Connect gksdj On-line rjhds ls live news updates, movie clips,music video bR;kfn ns[k rFkk lqu ldrs gSaA bldh Screen ij gh fofHkUu izdkj ds Option tSls Play, Pause, Stop, Forward, Previous, Next Track, Volume bR;kfn miyC/k jgrs gSaA blesa ,d Seek Bar Hkh gksrk gSaA ftls ;g irk pyrk jgrk gSa fd fdrus le; rd dh Movie Complete gks pqdh rFkk fdruh ckdh gSaA SIRAJ SIR 16
  • 17. Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) J.C.S COMPUTER Screen Of Media Player (4) Sound Recorder – bl izksxzke esa ge vPNh viuh vkokt dks Hkh Computer esa Mic ds }kjk cksy dj Store ldrs gSa vkSj bldh File cuk dj mldks Save dj ldrs gSA ckn es ml Recorded File dks Play vdj ldrs gS, mlds Format dks cny ldrs gSa rFkk mles Changes djds mldh Quality dks lq/kkj ldrs gSaA vkSj mlesa ls vupkgsa vkoktksa dks Delete Hkh dj ldrs gSaA bles Seek to Start, Seek To End, Play, Stop rFkk Record Buttons gksrs gSA bles Recording Start djus ij Screen ij ;g fn[krk jgrk gS fd fdrus Second dh Recording gks pqdh gSA bles cuus okyh File dk Extension .WAV gksrk gSA (5) Volume Control – bl Option ds }kjk ge Volume dks de&T;knk] Mute vkSj Left – Right Speakers ds Volumes dks Adjustment rFkk Bass and Trable dks Set dj ldrs gSaA Volume Control SIRAJ SIR 17
  • 18. Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) J.C.S COMPUTER UNIT – III Advanced Features of Windows Managing Hardware & Software: - Windows esa fdlh Hkh Hardware dks mi;ksx esa ysus ds fy;s ;g vko’;d gSa fd igys mldk Driver Software Install fd;k tk;sA dqN Hardware Devices tSls Mouse, Keyboard, Monitor bR;kfn Plug & Play devices gksrs gSa ftUgas CPU ls Attach djds System dks okil Restart djus ij Windows }kjk mUgsa Automatically detect dj fy;k tkrk gSaA vc ge bu Devices dks Directly Use esa ysuk Start esa dj ldrs gSaA dqN Hardware Devices ,sls gksrs gSaA ftUgsa Use esa ysus ds fy;s muds Drivers Install djus iM+rs gSaA Drivers ,sls Softwares gksrs gSa tks Hardware Devices dks Run djus esa Operating System dh Help djrs gSa vFkkZr~ fdlh Driver dks Install djus ij og Operating System dk gh Part cu tkrk gSaA tSls Printer dks mi;ksx esa ysus ds fy, mldk Driver Install fd;k tkuk vko’;d gksrk gSaA blh izdkj ls fdlh Hkh Software dks Computer ij Run djus ds fy, mls igys Install fd;k tkuk vko’;d gksrk gSa tSls MS-Office, Tally, Games bR;kfnA Hardware rFkk Sfotware dks Install rFkk Remove djus ds fy, Windows ds Control Pannel esa “Add Remove Programs” rFkk “Add New Hardware” uke ls Options miyC/k gksrs gSaA Control Pnel Using Scanner :- Scanner Hkh ,d Hardware Device ftldk iz;ksx Text rFkk Graphics dks Scan djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA Scanner dks mi;ksx esa ysus ds fy, ;g vko’;d gSa fd igys mldk Driver Install fd;k tk;s ;g Driver Scanner ds lkFk miyC/k gksus okyh CD esa gksrk gSaA fdlh Hkh Printed Material dks Scan djus ds fy, mls Scanner ds Glass ij j[kk tkrk gSa rFkk Scanning ds fy, miyC/k Options dks Select dj fy;k tkrk gSa ftlls Scanner, Scanning djuk Start dj nsrk gSaA SIRAJ SIR 18
  • 19. Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) J.C.S COMPUTER System Tools Start – Programme – System Tools Clip Board Viewer Disk Defragmenter Scan Disk Drive Space System Information System Monitor Drive Convertor Backup (1) Clipboard – ;g ,d Windows dk Utility Program gSaA blesa fdlh izdkj dh Formating rFkk Editing ugha dh tk ldrh gSaA bldk iz;ksx dksbZ Hkh Type fd;s x;s Metter dh Copy dj dgha vkSj Paste djuk gks rks bldk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSaA tc ,d ckj fdlh Metter dks Copy dj Paste fd;k tkrk gS rks nwljs Metter dh Copy djus ij igyk Metter Lor% gh Overwrite gks tkrk gSa ,oa vc og nwljk Copy fd;k x;k Object ;k Metter dgha Hkh Paste fd;k tk ldrk gSaA ,d izdkj ls ;g izksxzke Copy rFkk Paste ds chp ,d Mediater dk dke djrk gSaA bl Clipboard esa tks Copy fd;k x;k gSa mls ns[kk tk ldrk gSa ,oa mls Save djus ij cuus okyh File dk Extention .CLP gksrk gSa vkSj ;g File blh Program esa Open gksrh gSa vkSj dgha ij Hkh ughaA (2) Disk Defragmenter - bl lqfo/kk dk iz;ksx Hard disk esa lafpr Files ,oa Hard disk ds dqN fjDr Lfkku dks ftldk fd dksbZ iz;ksx ugha fd;k tk jgk gSa dks O;ofLFkr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA tc ge dk;Z djrs le; vuqi;ksxh Files dks feVk nsrs gSaA rks Hard disk esa File dk og Lfkku fjDr gks tkrk gSa ,oa ubZ QkbZu cukus ij tc og Hard disk esa Lfkku ?ksjrh gSa] rks dHkh&dHkh ,slk gksrk gS fd File dk dqN Hkkx rks Hard disk esa ,d LFkku ij fLFkr gksrk dqN Hkkx fdlh vU; LFkku ij vkSj dqN Hkkx fdlh vU; LFkku ijA ;g fLFkfr dksbZ leL;k rks mRiUu ugha djrh D;ksafd Windowss File ds izR;sd Hkkx dh hard disk esa fLFkfr ds ifjfpr gksrk gSa vkSj File dk iz;ksx djrs le; og Hard disk ds mu lHkh Lfkkuksa ij File ds Hkkxksa dks i<+dj File dks izLrqr djrk gSa rks Windows bl File dks de le; esa izLrqr dj ldrk gSaA tc fdlh File ds Hkkx hard disk esa vusd LFkku ij fLFkr gksrs gSa rks ;g File [kf.Mr File vFkok Fragmented File dgykrh gSaA Hard disk ij [kf.Mr File dh la[;k vf/kd gksus ij hard disk dk dk;Z djus dh xfr dks de dj nsrh gSaA Disk Dafragmenter Programme dks pykus ij ;g izksxzke Hard disk esa vusd Lfkkuksa ij fc[kjs fofHkUu File ds Hkkxksa dks c<dj File dks ,d LFkku ij O;ofLFkr dj nsrk gSA SIRAJ SIR 19
  • 20. Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) J.C.S COMPUTER (3) Scan Disk – bl lqfo/kk dk iz;ksx Hard Disk rFkk Floppy Disk ds Logical ,oa Physical Problems nksuksa dks nwj djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA ;g Option Accessories ds System Tools esa miyC/k jgrk gSaA Scan Disk bl Dialog Box esa lcls mij dEiw;Vj esa fLFkr fofHkUu Drives dh lwph iznf’kZr gksrh gSaA bl List esa ls ftl Drive dks Scan djuk gSa mls Mouse dh lgk;rk ls Select dj fy;k tkrk gSaA ge Shift Key dh lgk;rk ls lHkh Drives dks ,d lkFk Select dj ldrs gSaA bl Display Box esa Drive ds uhps Type of Text esa nks fodYi fn;s x;s gksrs gSa igys fodYi (Attermate) dks Select djus ij Scan Disk Programme Select dh xbZ Drive esa fLFkr Files ,oa Folders esa Error dks pSd djrk gSa rFkk nwljs fodYi dks Select djus ij Scan Disk Programme Files o Folder dh Checking ds lkFk&2 Disk dh HkkSfrd xq.koÙkk dh tkap Hkh djrk gSaA Scan Disk Dialog Box esa uhps dh vksj ,d Check Box Hkh iznf’kZr gksrk gSaA bls Check Box dks Select djus ls Scan Disk Program Lor% gh Errors dks nwj dk nsrk gSaA Scan Disk pykus ij ges’kk Scandisk.log uke dh ,d LOG File curh gSaA ftlls Scan Disk ls lacaf/kr iwjh izfØ;k dh foLr`r tkudkjh gksrh gSaA Scan Disk Dialog Box esa fofHkUu fodYi Select djus ds i'pkr~ Start button ij Click djds Scan Disk izfØ;k dks izkjEHk fd;k tk ldrk gSaA (4) System Information – bl lqfo/kk dk iz;ksx Computer System ds Configuration ls lacaf/kr lwpuk,a izkIr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA bl Option ij Click djus ls Windows Explore dh rjg ,d Screen iznf’kZr gksrh gSa tks nks Hkkxksa esa Left Pane rFkk Right Pane esa foHkkftr gksrh gSaA Left Pane esa fofHkUu Options dh List iznf’kZr gksrh gSaA rFkk Computer ls igys + rFkk – ds fpUg Hkh display gksrs gSaA Left Pane esa fdlh Option dks Select djus ij Right Pane esa mlls lacaf/kr fofHkUu Technical Information Display gksrh gSaA ;s lwpuk (Information) rduhdh fo’ks"kK ds fy;s lgk;d gksrh gSa tc gekjk Computer dksbZ ijs’kkuh dj jgk gksA SIRAJ SIR 20
  • 21. Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) J.C.S COMPUTER Screen Of System Information (5) System Monitor – bl lqfo/kk dk iz;ksx Computer CPU current utilizaton ds ckjs esa Monitor Screen ij Graph ds :i es tkudkjh izkIr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA CPU dh izR;sd Activity 5 Seconds ds varjky ij Update gksrh jgrh gSa bl Windows esa iznf’kZr gksus okys Chart dks mldh Tool Bar ij fn;s x, Icon Bar Chart vFkok Numeric Chart dks Select dj cny ldrs gSaA By Default Activity Updation 5 Second ds varjky ls gksrk gSa ijUrq mls de ;k vf/kd fd;k tk ldrk gSaA blds fy, Option Menu dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSaA System Monitor SIRAJ SIR 21
  • 22. J.C.S COMPUTER Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) (6) Drive Space – bl lqfo/kk dk iz;ksx Harddisk, Floppy Disk nksuksa dks Compress djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA Drive Space Program dks mu Disks ij Hkh pyk;k tk ldrk gSa ftudks Double Space vFkok Drive Space 3 }kjk igys Compress fd;k tk pqdk gksA Disk dks Compress djds ge mldh Storage Capacity dks c<+k ldrs gSaA bl izksxzke dks pykus ij Monitor Screen ij Drive Space 3 Window iznf’kZr gksrh gSaA (7) Drive Convertor FAT (32) - bl lqfo/kk dk iz;ksx Harddisk esa File Allocation Table System dks FAT 32 File System esa cnyus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA ;g File System FAT vFkok FAT 16 dk mUur File System gSaA bl File System esa MkVk dk lapkyu vf/kd l{kerk ls fd;k tk ldrk gSaA Hard disk esa vfrfjDr LFkku cuk;k tk ldrk gSaA lkFk gh Computer ds izksxzke dh Loading Hkh vis{kkd`r vf/kd rhoz xfr ls dh tk ldrh gSaA ;g vo’; /;ku j[kus dh ckr gS fd ge ftl Drive dks FAT 32 esa cny ysrs gSa ml drive dks iqu% FAT 16 esa cny ikuk lEHko ugha gSaA ;fn geus ml drive ftl ij fd Windows 98 Installed gS dks FAT 32 esa cny fy;k gS rks Hard disk dk iqu% Partition djds mlesa Windows98 dks Install djuk gksxkA (8) Backup - ;g Windows dk ,d Powerful tool gSaA bl Tool dk iz;ksx djds Hard disk esa Stored Files dk Backup Floppy Disk, Zip Drive, Tape Drive vFkok Computer ls tqM+h gqbZ vfrfjDr Storing Devices ij izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSaA Dos esa vko’;d Files dk Backup izkIr djus ,oa Backup dks Computer esa iqu% izkIr djus ds fy, nks fHkUu&2 Commands Backup ,oa Restore gksrh gSa] tcfd Windows esa bl Tool ds iz;ksx }kjk gh nksuksa dk;ksZ dks fd;k tk ldrk gSaA System Tools essa bl Option ij Click djus ls fuEu Dialog Box Display gksrk gSaA ftlesa Backup rFkk Restore nksuks ls lEcfU/kr Options miyC/k jgrs gSaA bl Dialog Box esa Display gksus okys fofHkUu Drives ds igys fn[kus okys Check Box dks Select djds mudk Backup izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSaA ftl laLFkk esa MkVk vf/kd egRoiw.kZ gksrk gSa muds fy, ;g Tool dkQh mi;ksxh jgrk gSaA Backup ds :i esa izkIr fd, x;s MkVk dks okil izkIr djus ds fy, blh Dialog Box esa Restore Option dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSaA D;ksafd Backup File ges’kk Compress Form esa gksrh gSa vr% bls Directly iz;ksx ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSaA Backup File dk Extension .bak gksrk gSaA SIRAJ SIR Communication – (1) Dial up Networking (2) Hyper Herminal (3) Phone Dialer (4) Direct Cable Conniction (I) Dial Up Networking – bl Option dk mi;ksx Telephone Line }kjk fdlh Network ls Connect gksus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA blds fy, gekjs ikl Modem rFkk Telephone Line gksuk vko’;d gSaA ;g Option, Communication Menu esa vFkok My Computer ds Control Panel Program esa myC/k jgrk gSaA bl ij Double Click djus ls ,d Connection Wizard Open gksrk gSaA ftlesa User }kjk Information Fill dh tkrh gSaA ml SIRAJ SIR 22
  • 23. J.C.S COMPUTER Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) Information ds vuqlkj Computer ,d u;k Connection icon Create dj nsrk gSaA bl Icon ij Double Click djus ls ,d dialog Box Display gksrk gSaA ftlesa User }kjk User Name rFkk Password fn;s tkrs gSa rFkk ISP }kjk fn, x, Number Type djds ge Connection Create dj ldrs gSaA Connection gksrs gh ge Network ij miyC/k fdlh Hkh Computer ls dksbZ Hkh Data Receive Hkh dj ldrs gSa o Hkst Hkh ldrs gSaA J.C.S COMPUTER (II) Hyper Terminal – bl lqfo/kk dk iz;ksx fdlh Remote Computer ls Directly Connect gksus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA Remote Computer ls Connect gksus ds fy, Modem rFkk ml Computer dh Location irk gksuk vko’;d gSaA Hyper Terminal Option ij Click djus ls blds }kjk ,d izksxzke ju fd;k tkrk gSa ftls HyperTerminal.exe dgrs gSa tks User dks Remote Computer ls Connect djrk gSaA ,d ckj Connection Establish gks tkus ds i'pkr~ User ml Remote Computer ds fofHkUu Resources (Hardware & Software) dk mi;ksx dj ldrk gSa rFkk fofHkUu izdkj Files send rFkk Receive dj ldrk gSaA Hyperterminal es dke djus ds fy, commands dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA dk;Z iwjk gks tkus ds i'pkr~ Connection dks disconnect dj fn;k tkrk gSaA SIRAJ SIR (3) Direct Cable Connection – bl lqfo/kk ds }kjk ge fdlh Local Computer ls directly fdlh Cable ds }kjk gekjs Computers dks Connect dj ldrs gSaA ftlls Data Transmission fd;k tk ldsA tSls fdlh Laptop Computer dks fdlh Desktop Computer ls directly Connect djds nksuksa ds Resources dk mi;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSa ;fn Desktop Computer fdlh Network ls Connected gS rks mlls Connect fd;s tkus okys Computer }kjk Network ds lHkh Computer ds Resources dk mi;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSaA Direct Cable Connection djus ds fy, nksuks Computers esa Network Card dk gksuk vko’;d gSa ftuds }kjk Cable ds nksuks fljksa dks nksuks Computers esa Attach fd;k tk,xk SIRAJ SIR 23
  • 24. Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) J.C.S COMPUTER (4) Phone Dialer – bl lqfo/kk dk mi;ksx djds ge fdlh nwj fLFkr O;fDr ls Computer to Telephone ckrphr dj ldrs gSaA blds fy, gekjs ikl ,d Modem, Telephone Dialer Program rFkk Telephony Devices dh vko’;drk gksrh gSaA blesa ISD Call Hkh Local Call ds Charges esa gh gksrk gSaA Phone Dioaler Option dks Click djus ij fuEu Dial up Box Display gksrk gSa ftlesa Phone Dial djus Redial djus Speed Dialing djus rFkk Confrensing dh Facility miyC/k jgrh gSaA Dial Option ij Click djus ls ,d Dialup Box Display gksrk gSa ftlesa Number Type djus ds fy, dgk tkrk gSa rFkk nks Option Hkh miyC/k gksrs gSa %& Phone Call rFkk Internet Call bl Program esa fd, tkus okys gj Phone Call dh Detail ,d Log File ds :i esa Maintain jgrh gSaA Multiple User Feature of windows :- Control Pannel esa miyC/k User & Password Option dk iz;ksx djds ge u;s Users dks Create dj ldrs gSaA dksbZ Hkh User ges’kk fdlh ,d Group dk Member gksrk gSa rFkk ml Group dks nh xbZ Permissions ml Group ls Related lHkh Users ij Apply gks tkrh gSaA fdlh Hkh Group ls Related Members mu lHkh vko’;d Task dks dj ldrs gSa tks muds dk;ksZ ls lEcfU/kr gSa tSls Computer esa Login djuk] Files rFkk Folder cukuk] Programs dks Run djuk rFkk Files esa fd;s x;s Changes dks Run djuk bR;kfn tcfd Administrator Group ds Members Group esa u;k User Add dj ldrs gSa] User Password dks Change dj ldrs gSa rFkk vf/kdrj System Settings dks Modify dj ldrs gSaA Control Pannel esa miyC/k Users and Passwords Option dk iz;ksx Local User Accounts ds fy, Password Create ;k Change djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA tks ml le; Useful jgrk gSa tc dksbZ u;k User Account cuk;k tkrk gSa ;k vxj dksbZ User viuk Password Hkwy tkrk gSaA ,d Local User Account og Account gksrk gSa tks ml Computer ij cuk;k x;k gSa ftl ij User Work djrk gSaA bl izdkj ge fdlh Local Computer ds fy, vyx&vyx Users rFkk Password Create dj ldrs gSa ftlls vyx&vyx Users vius vius Account ls Login gksdj vius Environment esa work dj ldrs gSaA Notes • • • • • You must be logged on as an administrator or a member of the Administrators group to use Users and Passwords. Users and Passwords is located in Control Panel. To open a Control Panel item, click Start, point to Settings, click Control Panel, and then double-click the appropriate icon. You cannot create groups using Users and Passwords. Use Local Users and Groups for that purpose. In Users and Passwords, you can place a user in only one group. Usually you can find a group with the combination of permissions needed by any user. If you need to add a user to more than one group, use Local Users and Groups. To improve the security of a password, it should contain at least two of these elements: uppercase letters, lowercase letters, and numbers. The more random the sequence of characters, the more secures the password. SIRAJ SIR 24
  • 25. Operating System (Dos, Windows, ) • J.C.S COMPUTER If you want to set up other password requirements such as minimum length, expiration time, or uniqueness, open Group Policy and go to Password Policy. For more information about changing password requirements, see Related Topics. Accessibility Features of Windows: Windows dh bl lqfo/kk dk iz;ksx mu yksxksa ds fy, Useful gSa ftUgsa lkQ fn[kkbZ ugha nsrk] lqukbZ ugha nsrkA blds fy, vU; Software ;k Hardware dh Requirement ugha gksrh gSaA Windows esa Accessibility dks c<+kus ls lEcfU/kr fuEu Programs miyc/k jgrs gSaA • • • • Magnifier enlarges a portion of the screen for easier viewing. Narrator uses text-to-speech technology to read the contents of the screen This is useful for people who are blind or who have low vision. On-Screen Keyboard provides users with limited mobility the ability to type on-screen using a pointing device. Utility Manager enables users with administrator-level access to check an Accessibility program's status, start or stop an Accessibility program, and designate to have the program start when Windows 2000 starts. Accessibility Options dk iz;ksx djds ge Keyboard Display rFkk Mouse Function dks Easily Set dj ldrs gSaA Accessibility Wizard dh lgk;rk ls ge gekjh vko’;drkvksa ds vuqlkj Options rFkk Program dks set dj ldrs gSaA SIRAJ SIR 25