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Sirajrock  basic- computer -1
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Sirajrock basic- computer -1

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SirajRock

SirajRock

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    Sirajrock  basic- computer -1 Sirajrock basic- computer -1 Document Transcript

    • dEI;wVj ds dEiksusUV~l ¼?kVd½ dEI;wVj %& dEI;qVj ,d bysDVªkfud e'khu gS] tks buiqV fMokbl ds ek/;e ls vk¡dM+ksa dks izkIr djds fo'kys"k.k vkSj x.kuk dj mUgsa lwpukvksa esa cnyrk gSA vko';drk iM+us ij dEI;wVj esa lwpukvksa dks laxzg dj ldrs gSaA ;s xf.krh; ¼esFksefVdy½ ,oa rkfdZd ¼ykWftdy½ x.kuk dj ldrk gSA blds nks eq[; rRo& gkMZos;j vkSj lkW¶Vos;j dgykrs gSaA dEi;wVj ,d bysDVªksfud e'khu gS tks vk¡dM+ksa dks lwpukvksa esa cnyrh gSA gkMZo;sj dEI;wVj esa og lHkh Hkkx tks HkkSfrd ¼ftUgs Nqvk vkSj ns[kk tk ldrk gS½ gksrs gSa mUgsa gkMZos;j dgrs gSaA bldks eq[; :i ls rhu ¼Rock dEI;wVj ds vuqlkj pkj½ Hkkxksa esa ck¡Vk x;k gSA 1 buiqV fMokbl 2 vkmViqV fMokbl 3 lhñihñ;qñ 4 LVksjst fMokbl buiqV fMokbl %& og midj.k ¼fMokbl½ ftudh lgk;rk ls ;qtj dEI;wVj esa lwpukvksa dks izsf"kr ¼bulVZ½ djrk gS mUgsa buiqV midj.k ¼fMokbl½ dgrs gSaA ekml] dh&cksMZ] tks;ksfLVd] Vªsd ckWy&ikWb.Vj fMokbZl] Ldsuj ¼Qsl jhfMax Ldsuj] FkEc Ldsuj] vkbZ jsfVuk Ldsuj½] ykbZV&isu] ckj dksM jhMj] osc dse ¼fMthVy dSejk½] Vp iSM+] xzkfQd Vscy ¼QksVks 'kkWi o fMtkbfuax lkW¶Vos;j esa Ldspj~l bls mi;ksx djrs gSaA½] ,eñvkbZñlhñvkjñ ¼eSXusfVd bad djsDVj jhMj½] vksñ,eñvkjñ ¼vkWfIVdy ekdZ jhMj½] vksñlhñvkjñ ¼vkWfIVdy dsjsDVj jhMj½] Vp LØhu] ekbZØksQksuA vkmViqV fMokbl %& og midj.k ¼fMokbl½ ftudh lgk;rk ls ;qtj dEI;wVj ls buQksesZ'ku izkIr djrk gS mUgsa vkmViqV midj.k ¼fMokbl½ dgrs gSaA ekWuhVj] fizaVj] izkstsDVj] IyksVj] Lihdj] thjksDl e'khu vkfn vkmViqV fMokbl gSA 1 Bit 4 bit 8 Bits 1024 Byt 1024 KB 1024 MB 1024 GB 1024 TB 1024 PB 1024 EB 1024 ZB 1024 YB 1024 Brontobyte Binary Digit ( 0 , 1 ) Nibble 1 Byte (2 Nibble) 1 KB (Kilo Byte) 1 MB (Mega Byte) 1 GB(Giga Byte) 1 TB(Terra Byte) 1 PB(Peta Byte) 1 EB(Exa Byte) 1 ZB(Zetta Byte) 1 YB (Yotta Byte) 1 (Bronto Byte) 1 (Geop Byte) og midj.k ¼fMokbl½ ftlesa ge lwpuvksa ¼VsDlV] uEcj] MsV] VkbZe] fiDlsy vkfn½ dk laxg.k ¼LVksj½ djrs gSa mUgsa LVksjst midj.k ¼fMokbl½ dgrs gSaA dEI;wVj esa QkbZy dk vkdkj mlds }kjk LVksjst midj.k esa yh x;h txg ds vk/kkj ij gksrk gSA ftldh ekiu bdkbZ ¼esljes.V ;qfuV½ bl izdkj gSA lcls NksVh bdkbZ ^^fcV** dgykrh gSA ftlesa nks funsZ'kksa ¼0 o 1½ dks fu:fir fd;k tk ldrk gS] ijUrq ,d le; esa blesa ,d gh funsZ'k fu:fir fd;k tk ldrk gSA LVksjst fMokblsl esa lwpuk,¡ izdkj ¼MsVk VkbZi½ ds vk/kkj ds vuqlkj txg ysrh gSA SIRAJ SIR
    • LVksjst midj.k ¼fMokbl½ fuEu gS %& Secondary Storage Devices Floppy 5.25-inch Floppy 3.5-inch Compact Disk (CD) DVD-Digital Versatile Disc (Sigle Side Sigle Layer) DVD-Digital Versatile Disc (Sigle Side Double Layer) DVD-Digital Versatile Disc (Double Side Double Layer) Blu Ray Disc (Sigle Side Sigle Layer) Blu Ray Disc (Sigle Side Double Layer) Hard Disc (360 GB, 500 Gb, 1 Tb, 2 Tb) Pen Drive (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 Gb . . .) Memory Card (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 Gb . . .) Magetic Tape 1.20 MB 1.44 MB 700 Mb 4.7 Gb 8.5 Gb 17 Gb 25 Gb 50 Gb - gkMZ fMLd %& ;g IysVksa ¼dysD'ku vkWQ IysV~l½ dk lewg gksrk gS vkSj blesa gj IysV ij xksykdkj esa Øec) VªsDl gksrs gSaA gj Vªsd] lsDVj esa caVk gksrk gSA gj IysV ij nks gSM gksrs gS ,d IysV ds mij dh rjQ vkSj nwljk IysV ds uhps dh rjQA tks fd gkMZ fMLd ij MsVk fy[kus vkSj i<+us ds mi;ksx esa vkrs gSaA gkMZ fMld dh IysV~l ij esXusfVd esVsfyd vkWDlkbZM dk ysi ¼dksfVax½ gksrk gSA Qkby flLVe %& og rjhdk ftlds vuqlkj dEI;wVjksa esa Qkby dk uke j[kk tkrk gS rFkk iqu% mi;ksx ¼fjVªkbZoy½ ds fy;s mudh ,d lwph cuk yh tkrh gS fd QkbZy dks fdl LFkku ij LVksj fd;k x;k gSA mls Qkby flLVe dgrs gSaA Mksl] fo.Mkst] ;qfuDl] esDuVks'k lHkh dk viuk Qkby flLVe gksrk gS ftlesa QkbZysa ,d fuf'fpr Øe esa j[kh tkrh gSA Qkby flLVe ;g fuf'pr djrk gS fd Qkbyksa dk uke fdl izdkj gks] Qkby ds uke esa vf/kdre~ fdrus dSjsDVj dk mi;ksx gks] dkSu&ls dSjsDVj dk mi;ksx gks vkSj dqN txg ij ;s Hkh fuf'pr djrk gS fd Qkby dk ,DlVsU'ku fdruk cM+k gksA Qkby flLVe ds izdkj %& Secondary Storage Devices FAT (File Allocation Table) FAT12, FAT16, FAT32 NTFS (New Technology File System) EXT (Extended File System) Ext, Ext2, Ext3, Ext4 LFkk;h eseksjh %& ROM PROM EPROM ROM Uses Used in Dos & Windows Used in Windows NT Based Operating System Linux Based Operation System bldk iwjk uke jhM vksuyh esesjh gS] ;g ,d fpi ¼vkbZñ lhñ½ gS tks Read Only Memory Programable Read Only Memory Erasable Programable Read Only Memory EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programable Read Only Memory Programeed at the time of Manufacturing Blank at the time of Manufacturing, Once Programable Erasable via strong ultraviolet light source (such as from a mercury light) erased and reprogrammed (written to) repeatedly through the application of higher than normal electrical voltage. enjcksMZ ij yxh gksrh gSA bl fpi esa BIOS izksxzke LVksj jgrk gSA bl BIOS izksxzke dks ;qtj }kjk cnyk ;k feVk;k ugha tk ldrk blfy;s bls jhM vksuyh eseksjh dgrs gSaA blds izdkj fuEu gS %& SIRAJ SIR
    • %& ;g izksxzke ROM esa LVksj jgrk gSA jkse fpi dk fuekZ.k djrs le; bl izksxzke dks bULVky dj fn;k tkrk gSA ck;ksl dEI;wVj ds LVkVZ vi ds le; fuEu dk;Z djrk gS %& BIOS (Basic Input Output System) 1ñ enjcksMZ ls tqM+s lHkh gkMZos;j midjk.kksa dk ijh{k.k dj vius fu;a=.k esa ys ysrk gSA 2ñ Booting Process %& gkMZo;sj midj.kksa dks fu;U=.k esa ysus ds i'pkr~ gkMZfMLd ls vkWijsfVax flLVe dh Qkbyksa dks dkWy dj izkbZejh eseksjh esa yksM+ djrk gSA bl izfØ;k dks cqfVax dgrs gSA cqfVax nks izdkj dh gksrh gS Cool Booting %& cUn dEI;wVj dks LVkVZ djuk dwy cwfVax dgykrk gSA Warm Booting %& pkyw dEI;wVj dks jh&LVkVZ djuk okeZ cwfVax dgykrk gSA izkbZejh eseksjh %& RAM ¼js.Me ,Dlsl eseksjh½ ;g ,d izdkj dh izkbZejh eseksjh gSA bl eseksjh esa j[ks MsVk dks js.Meyh ¼dgha ls Hkh½ ,sDlsl fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;g dEiw;Vj dh oksysVkbZy ¼ifjorZuh;½ eseksjh gSA blesa MsVk rc rd LVksj jgrk gS tc rd ikoj vkWu jgrh gS tSls gh ikoj vkWQ gksrh gS blesa j[kk MsVk u"V gks tkrk gS blfy;s vLFkk;h eseksjh dgk tkrk gSA dEI;wVj esa lHkh izksxzke dks fu"ikfnr djus esa lg;ksx djrh gSA RAM ¼js.Me ,Dlsl eseksjh½ nks izdkj dh gksrh gS 1½ LVsfVd jse 2½ Mk;usfed jse v½ ,lñMhñvkjñ jse ¼flUØksul Mk;usfed js.Me ,sDlsl eseksjh½ c½ MhñMhñvkjñ jse ¼Mcy MsVk jsV flUØksul Mk;usfed js.Me ,sDlsl eseksjh½ opqvZy eseksjh %& dEI;wVj dh gkMZ fMLd dks vLFkk;h :i ls jse ds leku mi;ksx djus dks opqvZy eseksjh dgk tkrk gSA jse lhfer gksrh gS vr% cM+s lkW¶Vos;j dks pykus ds fy;s jse ds lkFk opqZvy eseksjh dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA rock dEI;wVj fVi %& opqvZy eseksjh dks vkWijsfVax flLVe dh lgk;rk ls fn;s x;s ikFk ij tkdj ?kVk;k c<+k;k tk ldrk gSA My Computer --> Properties --> Advance System Settings --> Performance --> Advance --> Change jftLVj eseksjh %& ;g lhih;q dh vkUrfjd eseksjh gSA jftLVj dk mi;ksx rhoz xfr ls MsVk dks ,DlsIV] LVksj vkSj VªkUlQj djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA ;g dEI;wVj dh lcls rst eseksjh gksrh gSA fdlh Hkh dEI;wVj esa jftLVj dh la[;k cgqr lhfer gksrh gSA dEI;wVj esa dbZ rjg ds jftLVj gksrs gSa %& ,D;qeqysVj jftLVj] ,Mªsl jftLVj] eseksjh MkVk jftLVj bR;kfnA dS'k eseksjh %& dS'k eseksjh ,d js.Me ,Dlsl eseksjh gS ftl fd dEI;wVj dk ekbØksizkslslj cgqr rst xfr ls ,Dlsl dj ldrk gSA tc ekbØksizkslslj MsVk izkslsl djrk gS rc ;g lcls igys dS'k eseksjh ls MsVk ysrk gSA ;g lhih;q ds vkUrfjd eseksjh gSA ,lñ,eñihñ,lñ %& bldk iwjk uke fLop eksM+ ikoj lIykbZ gSA ;g ,ñlhñ ¼vYVjusV dj.V½ dks Mhñlhñ ¼Mk;jsDV dj.V½ esa ifjofrZr djds dEI;wVj ds lHkh Hkkxksa dks ikoj lIykbZ djrs gSaA SIRAJ SIR
    • ikVk ¼vkbZñMhñbZñ½ dscy %& bldk iwjk uke ^^iSjsyy ,MokUl VsDuksykWth vVspes.V** gS ftls cl ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA bldk eq[; dk;Z MsVk VªkalQj djuk gSA bldh xfr lkVk dscy ls de FkhA ;g MsVk dks 66@100@133 ,eñchñ izfr lSd.M dh xfr ls VªkUlQj dj ldrh FkhA lkVk %& bldk iwjk uke ^^lhfj;y ,MokUl VsDuksykWth vVspes.V** gSA ;g Hkh ,d izdkj dh MsVk VªkalQj cl gSA tks fd MsVk dks 150@300@600 ,eñ chñ izfr lSd .M dh xfr ls VªkUlQj dj ldrh gSA lhih;q ¼lS.Vªy izkslsflax ;qfuV½ %& b.Vsy dEiuh ds fo'ks"kKksa us bf.VxzsV lfdZV dk vkSj fodkl djds osjh yktZ Ldsy bf.VxzV lfdZV dk fuekZ.k fd;kA ;g ,d ekbØksfpi Fkh ftlesa yk[kksa VªkaflLVj dh 'kfä Fkh blls dEI;wVj dk vkdkj cgqr NksVk gks x;k FkkA b.Vsy dEiuh us uoEcj 1971 esa nqfu;k dk igyk ekbØksizkslslj dEI;wVj b.Vsy 4004 ykUp fd;k FkkA ;g dEI;wVj dk lcls egÙoiw.kZ Hkkx gS ftls dEI;wVj dh cqf) dgrs gSaA ;g ,d bysDVªkWfud lfdZV gS tks fd lkW¶Vo;sj izksxzke dks ,DlhD;wV djrk gSA blds eq[; Hkkx gS %& d.Vªksy ;qfuV %& ;g dEI;wVj esa izkIr lHkh funsZ'kksa dks fu;Uf=r djrk gSA ,ñ,yñ;wñ ¼vFkZesfVd ykWftdy ;qfuV½ %& ;g dEI;wVj esa vFkZesfVd ¼xq.kk] Hkkx] tksM]+ ?kVkuk½ ,oa ykWftdy ¼rkfdZd½ x.kuk,¡ djrk gSA SIRAJ ROCK SIR