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Dos notes,disk operating system hindi notes

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  • 1. UNIT–I DISK OPERATING SYSTEM (DOS): Introduction, History & Versions of DOS, DOS Basics - Physical Structure of Disk, Drive Name, FAT, File and Directory Structure and Naming Rules, Booting Process, DOS System Files. DOS Commands: Internal - DIR, MD, CD, RD, COPY, COPY CON, DEL,REN VOL, DATE, TIME, CLS, PATH, TYPE, VER etc. External - CHKDSK, XCOPY, PRINT, DISKCOPY, DOSKEY, TREE, MOVE, LABEL, FORMAT, SORT, FDISK, BACKUP, EDIT, MODE, ATTIRIB, HELP, SYS etc, Executable V/s Non Executable Files in DOS. Introduction: - MS DOS dk iwjk uke Microsoft Disk Operating System gSA MS- DOS ,d Character User Interface Operating System (CUI) gSA tks yxkrkj viuh dqN fo’"krkvksa ds lkFk ;wtj dks ubZ lqfo/kk;sa miyC/k djkrk gSA ;g lcls yksdfiz; operating system Fkk A ekbZdzks dEI;wVj esa ;g iz;ksx gksrk Fkk A lu 1984 esa buVsy 80286 izkslslj ;qDr ekbZdzks dEI;wVj fodflr fd;s x;s rc buesa MSDOS 3.0 vkSj msdos 4.0 version dk fodkl fd;k x;k A Microsofts bl vkijsfVax flLVe dks fMLd vkijsfVaax flLVe dgk x;k D;ksafd ;g vf/kdrj fMDl ls lacaf/kr buiqV vkmViqV dk;Z djrs FksA Ms dos ,d vkijsfVax flLVe ;wtj vkSj gkMZos;j ds chp e/;LFkrk dk dk;Z djrk gSA vkijsfVax flLVe dkEI;wVj esa gkMZos;j ,oa software dks control gh ugha djrk gSA muds chp ijLij laca/k LFkkfir djrk gS A ftlls ;wtj dks computer Operate djus esa dkssbZ leL;k ugha gskrh gSA ms dos esa dhoksMZ dh lgk;rk ls dkeaM fn;s tkrs gSA dos bu commands dks le> dj ml dk;Z dks leiUu djrk gSAvkSj vkmViqV dks iznf’kZr djrk gSA Version of MS DOS :- MS DOS Operating System x86 based personal compter ds fy;s cuk;k x;k gS ;g IBM dk eq[; vkijsfVax flzLVe gS A IBM us blds dbZ otZu fudkys ftlesa ls dqN izeq[k fuEu gSA MS DOS Versoion 1.12 MS DOS 2.0 – support for 10 MB Harddisk drive and tree structure fileing System dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k A rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 2. MS DOS 3.0 support for lagrge hard disk drive MS DOS 3.1 Support for Microsoft Network MS DOS 3.3 Support FAT16 and large Drive MS DOS 4.0 Support Graphical Mouse Interface MS DOS 4.01 blesa volume Serial Number Formatting Hardisk dk use fd;k x;kA MS DOS 5.0 full screen Editor dk iz;ksx fd;k x;kA MS DOS 5.5 (window NT) all windows nt 32 bit MS DOS 7.0 Support for FAT 32 File System MS DOS 8.0 Dos Boot Disk Create By Windows XP File (QkbZy) Computer esa data vkSj Information dks ,df=r djds LVksj djus ds fy;s ,d ;wfuV dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS A ;g MkVk electronic fof/k ls lso fd;k tkrk gS A blfy;s bls electronic File Hkh dgrs gSA dEI;wVj es nks izdkj dh QkbZy gksrh gSA MkVk QkbZy izksxzke QkbZy MkVk QkbZy %& ftl QkbZy esa ;wtj MkVk ds lso djrk gS A MkVk QkbZy dgykrh bl QkbZy dk fuek.kZ fdlh application Software or Editor esa fd;k tkrk gSA tSls nqdku ds leku dh tkudkjh ;k tux.kuk dh tkudkjh vkfnA izksxzke QkbZy%& dEI;wVj esa fdlh application program ;k vU; software dks pykus okyh tks QkbZy gksrh gS og izksxzke QkbZy gksrh bl QkbZy esa lk/kkj.k MkVk ugha gksrk gSA bl esa dekMksa dk lsV gksrk gSA ftudk ,d ykftdy dze gksrk gSA bl QkbZy ij fDyd djds bls pyk;k tk ldrk gSA bl dk fuek.kZ dEI;wVj dh fdlh Hkk"kk esa fd;k tkrk gS fdlh fo’ks"k dk;Z djus ds fy;s tkrk gSA tSls %& MkVk QkbZy Ram.txt , Micro.doc, Hello.jpg vkfn izksxzke QkbZy%& mark.bat, edit.com, label.exe QkbZy ds ukedj.k ds fu;e %& dEI;wVj dh eseksjh esa QkbZy lso djus ds fy;s mldk ,d uke fn;k tkrk gSA ftls QkbZy use dgrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 3. blh uke ls ml QkbZy dks Hkfo"; es i<k tk ldrk gS feVk;k tk ldrk ;k lq/kkjk tk ldrk gSA dEI;wVj dh eseksjh es QkbZy dk dgha ij Hkh lso fd;k tk ldrk gSA dEI;wVj esa Mk;jsDVjh dk dsoy ,d uke gksrk gS vFkkZr bldk dksbZ f}rh;d uke ugha gksrk gSA tcfd QkbZy ds dEI;wVj ds nks uke gksrs gSA izFkkfed uke(primary Name ) vkSj f}rh;d use (Secondary Name) Primary Name:-  file dk primary use ;wtj ds }kjk fn;k tkrk gS  ;g uke vkB v{kj ls T;knk dk ugh gksuk pkfg,A  bl uke esa Lisl ugh gksuk pkfg;s A  QkbZy dk uke Lisly v{kj ls izkjaHk ugh fd;k tk ldrk gS  QkbZy ds izFkkfed uke vkSj f}rh;d uke dks MkV(.) ds }kjk tksMk tkrk gSA Secondary Name:-  QkbZy dk f}rh;d use rhu v{kj dk gksrk gSA  ;g uke QkbZy dh fo’ks"krkvksa dks iznf’kZr djrk gSA vFkkZr bl uke dks ns[kdj QkbZy ds uspj ds ckjs esa tkudkjh izkIr gks tkrh gSA  tgkW ij QkbZy dk fuek.kZ fd;k tkrk ml ds }kjk ;g uke vius vki fey tkrk gSA vFkkZr~ ;g uke ;wtj ds }kjk ugh fn;k tkrk gSA Computer File Directory Data file Program File rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 4. MS DOS dks (Open) pkyw djuk %& MS DOS dks start djus ds nks rjhds gksrs gSaA 1. click on Start Button all Program Accessoriess Command Prompt ij fDyd djus ls Command Prompt window Open gks tkrh gS 2. click on start button run type CMD and click on ok button ls command prompt window open gks tkrh gSA tks fuEu gSA Drive Name Prompt and cursor Root Directory current directory name bl izkWEWV ls MkWl ds dekaMvksa dks pykrs gSA bUVj dj us ij dekM py tkrk gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 5. Internal Command (vkfUrfjd funsZ’k) Internal Command os command gksrs gSA ftUgsa pykus ds fy;s fdlh fo"ks’k QkbZy dh vko’;drk ugh gksrh gSA ;g command command.com es ifjHkkf"kr gksrs gSaA internal command dos ds lkFk lnSo miyC/k gksrs gSaA vr% bUgsa ge dHkh Hkh ju dj ldrs gSaA mnkgj.k% MD, CD, DATE, TIME, CLS, VOL, REN, COPY, DEL vkfnA DIR COMMAND bl dekWM dk iwjk uke directory information report gSA bldh lgk;rk ls ge Directory ,oa file dh Detail information dks ns[k ldrs gSaA ;g MkWl dk lcls T;knk mi;ksx gksus okyk dekWM gSA Syntax :- Example:- c:>dir  bl example esa C drive dh Mk;jsDVjh ,oa QkbZy dh fMVsy fyLV vk;sxh A DIR Command’s Switches DIR/AD :- bl dekWM ls dsoy Mk;jsDVjh dh fyLV vkrh gSA DIR/AH: bl dekWM ls dsoy fNih gqbZ Mk;jsDVjh ,oa QkbZy dh fyLV vkrh gSA DIR/AS: bl dekWM ls dsoy flLVe QkbZy ,oa Mk;jsDVjh dh fyLV vkrh gSA DIR/AR: bl dekWM ls dsoy Read only QkbZy ,oa Mk;jsDVjh dh fyLV vkrh gSA DIR/P: bl dekWM ls QkbZy ,oa Mk;jsDVjh dh fyLV dks (Page by Page) ns[k ldrs gSA DIR/S: bl dekWM ls QkbZy ,oa Mk;jsDVjh ,oa lc Mk;jsDVjh dh fyLV dks Hkh ns[k ldrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 6. DIR/B: bl dekWM ls dsoy QkbZy ,oa Mk;jsDVjh dh fyLV vkrh gSA mldh Detail Information ugha vkrh gSA DIR/ON: bl dekWM ls Mk;jsDVjh ,oa QkbZy dh fyLV Alfa bate (A to Z)dze esa vkrh gSA DIR/OS: bl dekWM ls Mk;jsDVjh ,oa QkbZy dh fyLV lkbZt ds vk/kkj ij vkrh gS lcls NksVh QkbZy lcls igys ,oa lcls cMh lcls ckn esa vkrh gSA DIR/OG: bl dekWM ls Mk;jsDVjh ,oa QkbZy dh fyLV lewg (Group) esa vkrh gS A DIR/OD: bl dekWM ls Mk;jsDVjh ,oa QkbZy dh fyLV Date ds vk/kkj ij vkrh gS lcls iwjkuh QkbZy lcls igys vkrh gS A DIR/W: bl dekWM ls Mk;jsDVjh ,oa QkbZy dh fyLV pkSMkbZ esa vkrh gS A Mk;jsDVjh dks"Vd esa vkrh gS Note :- 1.Hyphen dk iz;ksx djus ls blds Opposite result vkrs gSaA Example %& DIR/A-D blls Mk;jsDVjh dks NksMdj dsoy QkbZy dh fyLV vkrh gSA 2. ,d lkFk ,d ls vf/kd switches dk iz;ksx dj ldrs gSaA Example :- DIR/S/P  MD Command bl dekWM dk iwjk uke Make Directory gSA bldh lgk;rk ls ge ubZ Mk;jsDVjh dk fuekZ.k djrs gSaA Syntax:- Example:- C:>MD micro C:>_ bl mnkgj.k esa micro uke dh Mk;jsDVjh dk fuekZ.k gks tk;sxkA CD Command bl dekWM dk iwjk uke Change Directory gSA blls ge ,d Mk;jsDVjh dks nwljh Mk;jsDVjh esa cny ldrs gSA Syntax:- Example: - C:>CD MICRO C:MICRO> CD < Directory Name>  MD <New Directory Name>  rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 7. CD.. Command bl dekWM dk iwjk uke Change Directory gSA blls ge orZeku Mk;jsDVjh ls ckgj vkrs gSA Syntax:- Example: - C:MICRO>CD.. C:> CD Command bl dekWM dk iwjk uke Change Directory gSA blls ge orZeku Mk;jsDVjh ls orZeku Drive okfil vk tkrs gSA Syntax:- Example: - C:MICROSAGAR>CD C:> RD Command bl dekWM dk iwjk uke Remove Directory gSA bldh lgk;rk ls ge [kkyh (Empty)Mk;jsDVjh dks gVk((Delete) ldrs gSaA blls QkbZy dks ugh Delete tk ldrk gSA uksV%& Mk;jsDVjh [kkyh gksuk pkfg;sA Mk;jsDVjh ftls gesa gVkuk gS og orZeku(current) Mk;jsDVjh ugh gksuk pkfg;sA Syntax:- Example:- C:>MD PGDCA C:>RD PGDCA blls PGDCA uke dh Mk;jsDVjh Delete gks tk;sxhA Directorysub Directory>CD..  Directorysub Directory>CD  RD < Directory Name>  rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 8. COPY CON Command bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls ge ubZ QkbZy dk fuekZ.k dj ldrs gSaA QkbZy dks lso djus ds fy;s F6 ;k ctrl+Z dk iz;ksx djrs gSA QkbZy lso gksus ds ckn 1file copied massage vkrk gSA Syntax:- Example:- TYPE Command bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls QkbZy ds vUnj ds contains dks ns[k ldrs gSaA Syntax:- Example:- TYPE CON>> Command bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls igys ls cuh QkbZy esa u;s esVj dks tksM ldrs gSsA esVj dks tksMus ds ckn QkbZy dks lso djus ds fy;s F6 or ctrl +Z dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA COPY CON <New File Name> Write matter here z^ Ctrl+Z or F6 1 file(s) copied TYPE <[path]file Name> rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 9. Syntax:- Example:- DEL Command bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls QkbZy dks delete fd;k tkrk gSA Syntax:- Example:- REN or RENAME Command bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls ge Mk;jsDVjh ;k QkbZYk dks jhuse(Rename) fd;k tkrk gSA Syntax:- Example:- TYPE CON>> <[path]file Name> DEL <[path]file Name> REN <[path]file Name> <New File Name> rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 10. 11 VER Command bl dekWM ls ge orZeku Windows Operating System dk otZu ns[k ldrs gSaA Syntax:- Example:- VOL Command bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls fdlh Hkh Drive dk vol label or drive dk serial number ns[k ldrs gSaA Syntax:- Example :- Date Command bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls dEI;wVj dh orZeku rkjh[k dks ns[k ldrs gSaA vkSj cny Hkh ldrs gSaA Example:- Time Command bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls dEI;wVj dh orZeku le; dks ns[k ldrs gSaA vkSj cny Hkh ldrs gSaA Example:- Note:- ;fn rkjh[k (DATE) ;k le;(TIME) dks ugha cnyuk gS rks [kkyh  djrs gSA VER VOL <Drive Name> rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 11. CLS Command bl dekWM dk iwjk uke Clear Screen gSA dh lgk;rk ls DOS screen dks lkQ fd;k tkrk gSA Example:- C:>CLS COPY Command bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls fdlh Hkh QkbZy dks LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij dkWih dj ldrs gSaA Syntax:- Example:- Path Command bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls executive file ds ikFk dh setting change dj ldrs gSaA bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls rhu izeqw[k dk;Z fd;s tkrs gSaA executive file dk ikFk ns[k ldrs gSaaA ikFk rksM ldrs gSaaA ikFk dks lsV dj ldrs gSaA ikFk ns[kuk c:>Path c:windowssystem32 path rksM+uk ds fy;s c:>Path; No Path Path set djuk Syntax: - path=execute file dk irk; other execute file address c:>Path=c:windowssystem32;d:mukesh COPY <Source addressFile Name > <Destination Address> COPY <dgkW lsfdldks > <dgkW ij > rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 12. MEM Command bl dekWM dk iwjk uke eseksjh gSA bl ls izFkkfed eseksjh ds ckjs esa iwjh tkudkjh izkIr dj ldrs gSaA External Command (ckgjh dekWM) External Command os dekWM gksrs gSaA ftUgsa pykus ds fy;s fo’ks"k QkbZy dh vko’;drk gksrh gSA ml QkbZy dk izFkkfed(Primary) uke ogh uke gksrk gSA tks uke dekWM dk uke gksrk gSA ysfdu f}rh;d (Secondary or External)uke EXE, COM, BAT gks ldrk gSA Example:- chkdsk, label, edit, sys, diskcomp, diskcopy , append vkfnA LABEL Command bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls Drive ds label and serial number dks ns[k ldrs gSA vkSj cny Hkh ldrs gSaA label dh lkbZt windows xp 11( X;kjg) v{kj and windows 7 esa 32 v{kj dk gks ldrk gSA vkSj bl ls ysoy dks delete Hkh dj ldrs gSaA Syntax:- Example:- Tree Command bl dh lgk;rk ls Mk;jsDVjh ,oa QkbZy dks Tree Format esa ns[k ldrs gSA QkbZy dks ns[kus ds fy;s fLop /F dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA Syntax:- LABEL <Drive Name> TREE / [Switch] [path] rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 13. Example:- CHKDSK Command CHKDSK dk iwjk uke Check Disk gSA bldh lgk;rk ls f}rh;d eseksjh dsk psd fd;k tkrk gS Syntax:- Example:- c:> chkdsk d: Append Command ;g dekWM MkVk QkbZy dks ikFk iznku djrk gSA ;g dekWM ikFk dekWM ds leku dk;Z djrk gSA bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls rhu izeqw[k dk;Z fd;s tkrs gSaA Data File dk ikFk ns[k ldrs gSaaA ikFk rksM ldrs gSaaA ikFk dks lsV dj ldrs gSaA ikFk ns[kuk c:>append path rksM+uk ds fy;s c:>Append; No Path Path set djuk Syntax: - Append=data file dk irk; other data file address c:>Append=c:micro;d:mukesh DiskCopy Command bl dekWM dk iz;ksx Floppy Disk dh dkWih djus dsss fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA D;ska fd vf/kdka’k Floppy ckj ckj iz;ksx djus ij [kjkc gks tkrh gSaA blfy;s ,d ls vf/kd Floppy dh dkWih gksuk t:jh gksrk gSA uksV%& nksuksa Floppy dh lkbZt ,d leku gksuk pkfg;s A CHKDSK <Drive Name> rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 14. ftl Floppy esa dkWih djuk gS og Format gksuk pkfg;s A dkWih ds ckn Diskcomp command run djuk pkfg;s A Syntax:- Example:- c:>DiskCopy A: A: Enter Source Disk in drive A: And press any key Enter target Disk in Drive A : And press any key DiskComp Command bl dekWM dk iz;ksx nks Floppy Disk dh vkil esa rqyuk djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA bl dekWM dk iz;ksx diskcopy ds ckn fd;k tkrk gSA bl ls ;g psd fd;k tkrk gS fd dksbZ QkbZy dkWih djrs leNwVh rks ugh gSA ;fn nksuksa fd lkbZt cjkcj gS rks lgh dkWih gqbZ ;fn nksuksa fMLdksa dh lkbzZl cjkoj ugh gS rks lgh dkWih ugh gqbZ gSA Syntax:- Example :- c:>diskcomp A: A: SYS Command bl dekWM dk iwjk uke system gSA bl dekWM dk iz;ksx bootable disk dk fuekZ.k djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA blls bootable file disk esa dkWih gks tkrh gSaA process complete gksus ds ckn system transferred message vkrk gS tks ;g n’kZrk gS fd disk bootable cu pqdh gSA bootable disk ls computer dks pkyw fd;k tk ldrk gSA Example:- C:>SYS A: Help Command bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls ,e ,l MkWl dh dekWM dh Help ns[k ldrs gSsA Syntax:- Diskcopy <First Drive Name> <Second Drive Name> DiskComp<First Drive Name> <Second Drive Name> HELP <command Name> Or Command Name /? rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 15. Example:- Print Command bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd QkbZyvksa dk print out ,d lkFk fudky ldrs gSA ;g dekWM MkWl ds otZu 2.0 ds ckn ds otZu es miyzzzzzzzzC/k gS Syntax:- Example:- C:>Print micro.txt DOSKEY Command bl dekWM ,d dSejs dh rjg gksrk gSA ;g dekWM MkWl ds otZu 5.0 ls izkjaHk gksrk gS bl dekWM ds ckn tks dekWM ju djrs gSA og fjdkMZ gksrs tkrs gSaA vkSj mls ckn esa ns[kk tk ldrk gSA vkSj mi;ksx dj ldrs gSaA fjdkMZ dekWM dks ns[kus ds fy;s F7 dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS A vkSj command history clear djus ds fy;s alt+F7 dk iz;ksx djrs gSA UP and Down Arrow dh lgk;rk ls dekWM dks ns[kk tk ldrk gSA Print <file Name>  rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 16. Attrib Command bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls QkbZy vkSj QksYMj ds attribute dks ns[k ldrs gSaA vkSj cny Hkh ldrs gSaA QkbZy vkSj QksYMj esa pkj izdkj ds attribute gksrs gSaA 1. READ:- bl attribute ls QkbZy vkSj Mk;jsDVjh dks dsoy jhM dj ldrs gSaA 2. Hidden:- bl attribute ls QkbZy vkSj Mk;jsDVjh dks fNik;k tk ldrk gSaA 3. System:- bl attribute ls QkbZy vkSj Mk;jsDVjh dks flLVe QkbZy vkSj Mk;jsDVjh esa cnyk tk ldrk gSaA 4. Archive:- bl attribute ls QkbZy vkSj Mk;jsDVjh es Archive attribute yxk;k tk ldrk gSaA uksV%& + bl ls Attribute set dj ldrs gSaaA - bl ls Attribute dks gVk rs gSaA Syntax:- Attribute gVkuk %& ATTRIB +/- ATTRIBUTES [PATHFILE OR DIRECTORY NAME ] Example: - Attribute yxkuk% Type of Attribute Set djus ds fy;s Remove djus ds fy;s Read +R -R Hidden +H -H System +S -S Archive +A -A rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 17. Backup Command bl dekWM ls fdlh Hkh Mk;jsDVjh ,oa QkbZy dk csdi fdlh nwljh fMLd ess fy;k tk ldrk gS csdi ysuk blfy;s t:jh gksrk gSAD;ksafd dEI;wVj esa cuh QkbZy dbZ dj.kksa ls [kjkc Hkh gks ldrh gS ;fn ml QkbZy dk csdi fy;k gS rks mls iqu% izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA QkbZy dks iqUk% izkIr djus ds fy;s restore command dk iz;ksx djuk iMrk gSA Syntax:- Example :- backup c:micro A: Edit Command bl dekWM ls igys ls cuh QkbZy es lq/kkj dj ldrs gSA,oa ubZ QkbZy dk fuekZ.k Hkh dj ldrs gSA ;g MkWl dk editor gSA blesa ehuw flLVe gksrk gSA ftlls ge vius dk;Z dks vkSj vlkuh ls iwjk dj ldrs gSaA blesa ekml dk Hkh iz;ksx dj ldrs gSaA editor ls ckgj fudyus ds fy;s QkbZy ehuw ds lc dekWM Exit dk iz;ksx djrs gSaA Syntax:- c:micro>edit student Example:- Mode Command bl dekWM ls MkWl Ldhu dk eksM cny ldrs gSaA ,oa flLVe device configure dj ldrs gSaA ,e ,l MkWl esa nks eksM izeq[k gksrs gSaA 40 and 80 Syntax:- Example:- c:> Mode 40 Backup <source address> < destination disk or address> Edit [pathfile name or new file name] Mode /[switch] Colum no rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 18. Prompt Command bl dekWM ls MkWl izekWV dks cnyk (change)fd;k tk ldrk gSA vFkkZr~ u;k prompt lsV dj ldrs gSaA blds dbZ fLop gksrs gSaA ftl dh lgk;rk ls izekWV dks cnyk tkrk gSA Syntax:- Example c:> prompt micro Micro_ XCOPY Command bl dekWM dk iz;ksx QkbZy ;k Mk;jsDVjh dks dkWih djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA;fn dsoy xcopy dk iz;ksx djrs gSaA rks dsoy QkbZy dkWih gksrh gSaA ;fn blds fLop (S, E)iz;ksx djrs gSaA rks Mk;jsDVjh dks Hkh dkWih fd;k tk ldrk gSA 1. XCOPY = only file copy 2. XCOPY/S = File or fill directory not a empty directory 3. XCOPY/E = Fill and all directory copy Syntax:- Prompt <text or option> Xcopy/[Switch] <source address> <destination address> rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 19. Example : c:>xcopy c:micro d:test c:>xcopy/s c:micro d:test1 c:>xcopy/e c:micro d:test2 Move Command bl dekWM dh lgk;rk ls fdlh Hkh QkbZy dks LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij move dj ldrs gSaA ewo gksus ds ckn 1file moved massage vkrk gSA Syntax:- Example:- FORMAT Command bl dekWM dk iz;ksx fMLd dks Format djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA bl dekWM dks pykrs le; lko/kkuh j[kuh pkfg;s A blds lkFk blds fLop dk Hkh iz;ksx dj ldrs gSaA ftlls vyx vyx rjhds ls Formatting dj ldrs gSA bl dekWM dk iz;ksx rc fd;k tkrk gS tc iwjh fMLd ds MkVk dks ,d LkkFk gVkuk gksrk gSA /Q bl fLop dk iz;ksx quick Format djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA Syntax:- Note:- ;fn drive dk ysoy gS rsk og nsuk iMrk gSA Example:- FORMAT /Q d: Warning all data on non – removable disk Drive d: will be Lost! Proceed with format (Y/N)? _Y Volume label (Enter for none)? _ FORMAT/ [SWITCH] Drive Name: move <Source addressFile Name > <Destination Address> move <dgkW lsfdldks > <dgkW ij > rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 20. FDISK Command bl dekWM ls fMLd ds ikfVZ’ku dks fMfyV fd;k tkrk gS vkSj u;s ikfVZ’ku dks cuk;k Hkh tk ldrk gSA bl dekWM dks cgqr lko/kkuh ,oa /;ku iwZod pykuk pkfg;sA fMLd esa rhu izdkj ds ikfVZ’ku gksrs gSA 1. primary partition 2. Extend partition 3. . logical partition Partition Delete djuk%& ikfVZ’ku dks fMfyV djus ds fy;s lcls igys ykWftdy ikfVZ’ku fMfyV djrs gSaA blds ckn extended partition fMfyV djrs gSaA vkSj var esa Primary Partition Delete djrs gSaA Logical>Extend Partition>primary Partition Partition Create djuk%& ikfVZ’ku dks cukus ds fy;ss lcls igys Primary Partition create djrs gSaA blds ckn extended partition cukrs gSaA vkSj var esa ykWftdy ikfVZ’ku cukrs gSaA Primary>extend>logical C:>Fdsisk yes 1.Create Partition 2.Delete Partition 3.Display Partition Choose any - rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 21. Sort Command bl dh lgk;rk ls QkbZy ds esVj dks dkWye ds vk/kkj ij sort dj ldrs gSaA ,oa sorted contains dks ns[k ldrs ,oa ubZ QkbZy esa lso dj ldrs gSaA Syntax:- Example:- Executable or Non Executable Files:- dEI;wVj esa dbZ izdkj dh QkbZy gksrh gSaA ftlesa ,d izdkj dh QkbZy executable file bu QkbZy ds vzUnj dekaM gksrs gSaA tks ,d fo’ks"k dk;Z dks djus ds fy;s rS;kj dh tkrh gS ,e,l MkWl esa fdlh dk;Z dks djus ds fy;s ,d fo’ks"k QkbZy rS;kj dh tkrh gSA bls cSp QkbZy dgk tkrk gS ;g QkbZy ,e,lMkWl dh Executable File dgykrh gSA os QkbZy ftudk f}rh;d uke EXE, COM or BAT gksrk gSA Executable File dgykrh gSaA bu QkbZyksa dk primary Name fy[kdj ,UVj djus ij ;g QkbZy ju gks tkrh gSA blds foijhr os QkbZYk ftuds vUnj MkVk gksrk gSA bUgsa MkWl IkzekV ij ju ugha fd;k tk ldrk gS ;g QkbZy Executable QkbZy dh lgk;rk ls ju gksrh gSaA bu QkbZyksa dk f}rh;d uke txt, doc, dat gksrk gSA Booting Process:- Computer dks Start gksus fd izfdz;k dks Booting process dgrs gSaA bl izksfll ds nkSjku dEI;wVj ls tqMs gq;s lHkh gkMZos;j ,oa lkQVos;j dks pSd fd;k tkrk gS tc ge dEI;wVj dks Start djrs gSaA ml le; lcls igys jkse ls izkjafHkd izksxke ,oa dEI;wVj dh lsfVax yksM gksrh gSA blds ckn POST fdz;k gksrh gS bl dk iwjk uke Power on self test gSA bl izfdz;k esa dEI;wVj ls tqMs gqw;s lHkh gkMZos;j dks pSd fd;k tkrk gSA ;fn Sort File Name or Sort filename>>new file Name rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 22. dksbZ =VqfV gksrh gS rks mls og izfnf’kZr djrk gS A bl fd okn MBR ls vkijsfVsx flLVe dks yksM fd;k tkrk gS bl nkSjku flLVe QkbZy gkMZfMLd ls jse esa yksM gks tkrh gSaA vkSj viuk dk;Z djrh gS ,e,l MkWl dh flLVe QkbZy fuEu gSaA  Command.com  config.sys  IO.sys  MSDOS.sys  Autoexec.bat bu QkbZy dks flLVe QkbZy dgk tkrk gSA bu QkbZy ds fuEufyf[kr dk;Z gSA  Command.com:- ;g QkbZy ,e,l MkWl dh ,d lcls egRoiw.kZ QkbZy gS ;g QkbZy ;wtj dks bUVjQsl iznku djrh gSA bl QkbZy esa all Internal Command ifjHkkf"kr gksrs gSA ftls ge MkWl izekWV ij pyk ldrs gSA  Config.sys:- bl QkbZy ds vUnj system dh Configuration gksrh gS  IO.sys:- bldk iwjk uke input out system file gS A ;g buiqV ,oa vkmViqV dks control djrh gSA  MSDOS.sys:- io.sys and msdos.sys QkbzZy dks MkWl dk duZy dgk tkrk gS tks ;wtj ,oa dEI;wVj ds chp bUVjQsl dk dk;Z djrh gSA  Autoexec.bat:- ;g QkbZy lcls ckn esa ju gksrh gS ;g gkMZfMLd esa vkijsfVssx flLVe dks <w<rh gS vkSj mls ju djrh gS A blh ds lkFk cqfVax izfd;k iwjh gks tkrh gSA cqfVax izksfll nks izdkj dh gksrh gSA 1. Cold Booting :- tc ge dEI;wVj dks ikoj cVu ls LVkZV djrs gSaA ml nkSjku tsk izksfll gksrh gS mls dksYM cqfVax dgk tkrk gSA 2. Worm Booting:- tc ge dEI;wVj dks fjLVkZV djrs gS ml le; okEkZ cqfVax gksrh gS bls soft booting Hkh dgk tkrk gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 23. UNIT–II WINDOWS XP: Introduction to Windows XP and its Features, Hardware Requirements of Windows. Windows Concepts, Windows Structure, Desktop,Taskbar, Start Menu, My Pictures, My Music, My Documents, Working with Recycle Bin - Restoring a deleted file, Emptying the Recycle Bin. Managing Files, Folders and Disk - Navigating between Folders, Manipulating Files and Folders, Creating New Folder, Searching Files and Folders. My Computer – Exploring Hard Disk, Copying and Moving Files and Folder from One Drive to Another, Formatting Floppy Drive, Windows Explorer and its Facilities, Using Floppy, CD, DVD, Pen Drive, Burning CD. Windows Accessories - Calculator, Notepad, Paint, WordPad, Command Prompt. Entertainment- Media Players, Sound Recorder, Volume Control, Movie Maker. Introduction:- Microsoft us MkWl ds ckn dbZ GUI Interface Windows Operating System design fd;s A fo.Mkst ‘’kCn bldh vkd`fr ,oa dk;Z djus ds rjhds ls cuk gSA blesa izksxke fo.Mkst ds vkdkj esa [kqyrs gSA blesa izR;sd option fo.Mks esa [kqys bl izdkj bldk uke fo.Mks j[kk x;k A MkWl esa tks dk;Z dekaM dh lgk;rk ls fd;s tkrs gS og blesa ekml ls vklkuh ls dj ldrs gSaA bldks pykuk vklku gksrk gSA fo.Mkst esa izO;sd vki’ku vkbdu ,o ehuw esa gksrs gSA ekbdzkslkWQV ges’kk lkQVos;j m|ksx esa ges’kk izFke LFkku ij jgk gS D;ksafd ;wtj dh vko’;drk vuqlkj lkQVos;j rS;kj djrs gSA fo.Mkst 95 ds ckn Microsoft us izR;sd c"kZ dqN uk dqN u;k cktkj esa ykrh jgh gSA windows XP ,d vR;ar le`} ,oa 'kfDr’kkyh Operating System gSA bldks ;wtj dks vkijsV djus esa vklkuh gksrh gSA fo.Mkst ,sDlih ds ikWp ,sfMlu gSA ftudk iz;ksx vyx vyx dk;Z ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA tks fuEu gSA Available Windows XP Edition:- 1. Windows XP Professional Edition 2. Windows XP Media Edition 3. Windows XP Home Edition 4. Windows XP Tablet Edition 5. Windows XP 64- Bit Edition rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 24. Windows XP Professional Hardware Requirements Component Requirements CPU Pentium 233 Megahertz (MHz) or above Memory 64 MB RAM Minimum 128 Recommended 4 GB Maximum Hard disk Space 1.5 GB Free Space Display VGA (Video Graphics Adapter) Accessories Keyboard , Mouse Windows XP features:- Windows XP dh viuh dqN fo’ks"krk,sa gSA ftl dh otg ls ;g cgqr popular gSA 1. GUI Interface:- windows XP Graphical User Interface Operating system gSA blesa picture , icon, symbol vkfn dh lgk;rk ls bldks vklkuh ls pkyk;k tk ldrk gSA 2. Plug & Play :- blesa plug &play {kerk bls vkSj vf/kd ljy cukrk gS blls vki dksbZ Hkh ubZ fMokbl dEI;wVj esa vklkuh ls tksMdj pyk ldrs gSA bles MkbZoj lhMh dh vko’;drk ugh gksrh gSA 3. Help & Support:- windows xp dh lcls vPNh fc’ks"krk help &Support gS bl ls blls ge windows xp dh gsYi ys ldrs gSaA vkSj vius dk;Z dks lQyrk iwoZd dj ldrs gSA bldh shortcut key F1 gSA Starthelp & support 4. File and setting transfer wizard:- bl ls ge ,d dEI;wVj dh foMks.t setting nwljs computer esa transfer dj ldrs gSA Start all program accessories  system tool File and setting transfer wizard 5. Clear Type:- blls text clarity dks cMk;k tk ldrk gSA Right click on desktop appearance effect  select clear type 6. Tour windows xp :- windows xp ds lkFk lcls cMh fo’ks"krk Tour windows xp gS ftlls ge basic windows xp pykuk lh[k ldrs gSA Start all program accessories tour windows xp 7. Remote Desktop Connection:- blls ge vius nwj cSBs nksLRk ;k cksl ls fjeksVyh tqMdj gsYi ys ldrs gSA vFkkZr~ nwj cSBk nksLr gekjs dEI;wVj dks vkijsV dj ldrs gSA Start all program accessories Communication Remote desktop rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 25. 8. Write to CD:- windows xp esa CD Write djus okys software dh vko’;drk ugh gksrh lh/ks CD dks jkbZV dj ldrs gSaA 9. Clean Desktop:- windows XP esa fDyhu MsDlVkWi lqfo/kk gksrh gSA blls ,sls vkbZdkWu ftudk iz;ksx lkB fnu rd ugha djrs gSA mu vkbZdku dks fDyhu MsDlVkWi QksYMj esa Transfer dj fn;k tkrk gSA ftlls MsDlVkWi fDyhu fn[kus yxrk gSA Right click on desktop Desktop custom desktop  cleanup desktop 10.Easy to connect Network:- windows xp esa network dks tksMuk vklku gksrk gSA D;ksafd blesa wizard method dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA 11.Search:- windows xp esa searching djuk vklku gksrk gSA blesa vyx vyx izdkj ls Hkh searching dj ldrs gSaA tSls ;wtj dks QkbZy QksYMj contract vkfnA Start Search or windows+ F 12.Easy to installation:- blesa fdlh Hkh izksxzke dks fLFkkfir djuk vklku gksrk gSA D;ksafd blesa fotkMZ ls installation gksrk gSA 13.Accessibility:- blesa Accessibility gksrh gSaA ftlls bldks va/ks ,oa cgjs vkfn ds lkFk lkFk vkuLdzhu fdcksMZ gksrk gSA ftlls bldks ekkml ls pkyk;k ldrs gSA Start all program accessories accessibility Desktop:-dEI;wVj LVkZV gksus ds ckn tks fLdzhu fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA og MsDlVki gksrk gSA bl ij flLVe vkbZdku, izksxzke ds vkbZdku ,oa QkbZy ,oa QksYMj gksrs gSA blls ge fdlh Hkh vkbZVe dks vklkuh ls iz;ksx dj ldrs gSA bl ij tks QkbZy QksYMj ;k izksxzke lcls T;knk iz;ksx gksrs gSA mudks j[kuk pkfg;sA vuko’;d QkbZy QksYMj ij bl ij ugha j[kuk pkfg;sA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 26. Taskbar:- Windows dk Taskbar cgqr egRoiw.kZ fgLlk gksrk gS bl ij mi;ksx fd;s tkus okys izksxzke fn[kkbZ nsrs gSA ;gkW ls ge iz;ksx fd;s tkus okys izksxzke dks can ,minimize or maximize dj ldrs gSaA Windows XP esa Taskbar Improve fd;k x;k gSA blesa VkLd ckj dks ykWd fd;k tk ldrk gSA blesa VkLdckj dks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij ewo dj ldrs gSA ;fn vf/kd izksxzke [kqy tkrs gSA rks mudh xzqfisx Hkh dj ldrs gSA blesa nk;sa rjQ uksfVfQds’ku ,fj;k gksrk gS ftlesa le; usVodZ ;k dqN egRriw.kZ izksxzke dks tksM ldrs gSA;fn vf/kd izksxzke [kqy tkrs gSA rks blesa LdzkWfyax Hkh dj ldrs gSa Start Button:- tc windows xp dks igyh ckj pykrs gS rks LVkVZ ehuw Lor% fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA blds vUnj foaMkst ds lHkh izksxzke ,oa tks izksxzke ge LFkkfir djrs gS os lc blesa vius vki tqM tkrs gSA vkSj mudks LVkZV ehuw ls ckn esa mudks iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA blesa control panel search network vkfn vki’ku gksrs gSA ftlls dEI;wVj dh setting dks change fd;k tk ldrk gS windows xp esa start button dks customize fd;k tk ldrk gSA LVkVZ cVu foaMks dk vk/kkj gksrk gS A dEI;wVj dks LVkVZ djds izksxzke dks LVkVZ cVu ls gh [kksyk tkrk gSA ehuw ds vUnj lc ehuw gksrs tks rhj ds fu’kku ls iznf’kZr gksrs gS rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 27. s s MY Picture:- My Picture windows xp dk flLVe QksYMj gksrk gSA tc ge dEI;wVj esa dksbZ QksVks cukrs gS rks og picture default :Ik ls blh esa lsc gksrh gSA blesa windows xp dh default :i ls lsc QksVks blh esa jgrh gSA ;g QksYMj my documents ds vUnj gksrk gSA ,oa LVkVZ ehuw esa Hkh jgrk gSA MY MUSIC :- MY Music windows xp dk flLVe QksYMj gksrk gSA tc ge dEI;wVj esa dksbZ music record djrs gS rks og My music esa default :Ik ls lsc gksrk gSA blesa windows xp ds default :i ls lsc music blh esa jgrs gSA ;g QksYMj my documents ds vUnj gksrk gSA ,oa LVkVZ ehuw esa Hkh jgrk gSA MY Document :- ;g dEI;wVj dk flLVe QksYMj gksrk gS tc ge dksbZ QkbZy dk fuek.kZ djrs gSaA vkSj mls lh/ks lsc dj nsrs gSaA rks og my documents esa lsc gks tkrh gS bles my music my picture , my videos vkfn QksYMj default :i ls blh esa jgrs gSaA ;g QksYMj desktop ij ,oa LVkVZ ehuw jgrk gSA bldk iz;ksx ge nksuks txg ls dj ldrs gSaA Accessories: windows accessories windows xp ds lkFk gksrs buesa vko’;d lkQVos;j gksrs gSaA ftudk ge iz;ksx dj ldrs gSA dqN egRoiw.kZ accessores fuEu gSA 1. Calculator:- Calculator windows xp dh accessories gSA blls ge eSFkl~ dh x.kuk;sa adj ldrs gSA blesa nks izdkj ds dsYdqysVj gksrs gSaA ftldks fdckMZ ;k ekml nksuksa ls pkyk;k tk ldrk gSA bldks pykus ckyh dk uke calc.exe gksrk gSA dsYdqysVj LVkVZ djuk%& bldks nks izdkj ls LVkVZ fd;k tk ldrk gS  Start Run calc ok  Start  all programs accessories  calculator A. Standard :- ;g ,d lk/kkj.k dsYdqysVj gksrk gS ftlls lk/kkj.k dsYdqys’ku dh tk ldrh gSaA B. Scientific:- ;g dsYdqysVj ,Mokal gksrk gS bls Engineering and advance math dh calculation dh tk ldrh gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 28. 2. Notepad :-  ;g windows xp dk basic text editor gSA  blesa tks QkbZy curh gS mldk f}rh;d uke .TXT gksrk gSA  bles vf/kdre 64 lines and 1024 Colum gksrs gSA  bleas VsDl dh QkWeZfVzx ugha fd tk ldrh gSA  blesa HTML documents dk fuek.kZ fd;k tkrk gSAvFkkZr~ cso ist dk fuek.kZ Hkh bl esa dj ldrs gSA  blesa ikWp ehuw gksrs gS ftldh lgk;rk ls bles dk;Z fd;k tkrk gSA tks gSA  bldks pykus okyh QkbZy dk uke notepad.exe gSA  File:- bl ehuw ls QkbZy ls lacaf/kr dk;Z fd;s tkrs gSaA tSls QkbZy dks lsc djuk QkbZy dks [kksyuk ubZ QkbZy ckukuk fizUV fudkykuk vkfnA  Edit :- blls QkbZy esa Editing lacaf/kr dk;Z fd;s tkrs gSaA  Format:- blesa word wrap fd;k tkrk gS ,oa Font dks cnyk tk ldrk gSA  View- blls Status bar dks ‘’kks dj ldrs gSaA  Help:- blls uksVisM ds ckjs esa gsYi ys ldrs gSA Start all program accessories notepad Or Start Run Notepad rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 29. 3. WordPad :-  blls simple text documents dk fuek.kZ fd;k tkrk gS A  blesa VSDl dh Formatting dh tk ldrh gSA blesa bullet Style and tab dk iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA  blesa tks QkbZy curh gS mldk f}rh;d uke .DOC gksrk gSA  blesa ehuw ckj ds vykok Standard bar and formatting bar gksrh gSS ftlls dk;Z dks vklkuh ls ,oa TkYnh fd;k tk ldrk gSA  blesa N% ehuw gksrs gSA  File Edit View Insert Format Help  blesa Insert ehuw ls object dks tksMk tk ldrk gSA  bldks pykus ckyh QkbZy dk uke wordpad.exe gksrk gSA  Start all program accessories WordPad  Or  Start Run WordPad rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 30. 4. Paint :-  MS Paint esa painting dk dk;Z fd;k tkrk gSA  blesa isafVax djus ds fy;s isafVax Vwy vkSj dyj gksrs gSa ftldh lgk;rk ls isafVax dh tkrh gSA  blesa ehuw ckj gksrh gSaA ftlls ge isafVax esa editing dk dk;Z fd;k tkrk gSA blesa dqy N% ehuw gksrs gSA  blesa tks QkbZy curh gS mldk f}rh;d uke .BMP gksrk gSA nwljs QkeZV esa Hkh lso dj ldrs gSA  bldks pykus ckyh QkbZy dk uke MSPAINT.EXE gksrk gSA  bldks nks rjhds ls [kksyk tk ldrk gSA Start all program accessories paint Start Run mspaint ok rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 31. 5. Command Prompt :-;g MkWl dk dalksy console gksrk gSaA blesa ,e,l MkWl ds dekaMl pyk;s tkrs gSaA bldks pykus ckyh QkbZy dk uke CMD.EXE gksrk gSA Entertainment: windows xp esa euksjatu djus ds fy;s Entertaiment option gksrk gS blds vUnj sub menu gksrs gSAtks fuEu gSA  Sound Recorder  Volue Control  Windows media player rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 32. Sound Recorder:- blls ge viuh vkokt dks dEI;wVj esa fjdkMZ djds ds lso dj ldrs gSA bldk iz;ksx djus ds fy;s gekjs ikl ekbdzks Qksu gksuk pkfg;s A blds fcuk ge vkokt dks fjdkMZ ugh dj ldrs gSaA ,oa dEI;wVj esa sound driver gksuk pkfg;sA blesa cuus ckyh QkbZy dk f}rh;d uke .wav gksrk gSA blesa pkj ehuw gksrs gSaA ftudk iz;ksx ge fjdkfMZx djrs le; djrs gSaA blesa ge Sound esa editing dj ldrs gSaA blesa ge Sound esa effect yxk ldrs gSA blesa ge Sound dks MIX dj ldrs gSA Sound Record djuk%& Sound recorder open djus ds ckn fjdkMZ cVu ij fDyd djrs gSaA vkSj cksyuk LVkVZ djrs gSaA fjdkMZ djus ds ckn stop button ij fDyd djrs gSaA blds ckn play button ij fDyd djds ml fjdkfMZxa dks lqurs gSaA vkSj ckn esa mls lso djrs gSaA Volume Control:- blls ge dEI;wVj ds volume dks control dj ldrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 33. s Media Player:- bldh lgk;rk ls ge audio and video nksuksa izdkj ds xkus lqu ldrs gSA ,oa fQYe Hkh ns[k ldrs gSaA blesa play, pause, next, pervious stop vkfn cVu gksrs gSaA ftlls ge xkus ;k fQYe dks daVksy dj ldrs gSaA Windows Movie Maker:- blls ge fQYe dk fuek.kZ dj ldrs gSaA blesa fofM;ks vkfM;ks ,oa QksVks dks vkil esa feDl dj djds mldh fQYe dk fuekZ.k djrs gSaA bldh lgk;rk ls ge blesa effect Hkh yxk ldrs ftlls bldks vkSj vf/kd izHkkoh cuk ldrs gSA blesa movie cukus ds rhu fLVsi gksrs gks gSaA 1. Capture video:- blls fofM;ks] fiDpj ,oa vkfM;ks dks import djrs gSA 2. Edit movie:- bl LVsi esa fofM;ks fiDpj ,oa vkfM;ks dks lsV djrs gSA ,oa mles ,sfues’ku dks lsV djrs gSA 3. Finish Movie:- bl LVsi esa fQYe dks lso djrs gSA bu rhuks LVsi dks ehuw okj ,oa Vwy okj dh lgk;rk ls Hkh djr ldrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 34. Recycle Bin :-  Recycle Bin ,d flLVe QksYMj gSA blesa tks QkbZy ;k QksYMj ;k izksxzke delete fd;s tkrs gSaA og blesa ewo gks tkrs gSA  Reclycle Bin ,d ,slk QksYMj gksrk gSA ftls ge fMfyV ugh dj ldrs gSA  blls fMfyV fd;s x;s vkbVe dks fjLVksj fd;k tk ldrk gSA  blds fy;s izR;sd drive esa ,d fuf’pr txg reserve jgrh gSA ftls ge de ;k T;knk dj ldrs gSA  blds fjuse ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA  bles ge vkbVel dks fofHkUu rjhdksa ls tek ldrs gSA ,o ns[k ldrs gSA  bl ij jkbV fDyd djds bldh properties dks cnyk tk ldrk gSA  bldks jkbZV fDyd djds empty fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;k mldks [kksydj empty ij fDyd djds empty fd;k tk ldrk gS ;k ehuw ls Hkh bldks Empty fd;k tk ldrk gSA My Computer and Window Explorer:-  My Computer ,d flLVe QksYMj gSA bldh lgk;rk ls ge lHkh drive dks ns[k ldrs gSA ,oa mu ds lkFk dk;Z Hkh dj ldrs gSA  bles ge QkbZy ,oa QksYMj dks fofHkUu viewls ns[k ldrs ,oa tek ldrs gSaA  bles ehuw ,oa LVassMZ ckj gksrh gS ftldk iz;ksx djds ge vius dk;Z dks vklkuh ls dj ldrs gSA  blesa ge QkbZy vkSj QksYMj dks cuk ldrs gSA  blesa ge QkbZy vkSj QksYMj dks fMfyV dj ldrs gSA  blesa ge QkbZy vkSj QksYMj dks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij ewo dj ldrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 35.  blls ge drive dks format dj ldrs gSa ,oa eSust dj ldrs gSA tSls defragment ,disk cleanup and backup vkfn fy;k tk ldrk gSA  blls ge drive dk label change dj ldrs gSaA  blls ge QkbZy ,oa QksYMj dks fjuse fd;k tk ldrk gS  ;gkW ls ge drive dh properties ns[kk tk ldrk gS  ;gkW ls drive and folder dks share and unshared fd;k tk ldrk gSA  vykok ;gkW ls drive ,File and Folder ls lacaf/kr NksVs cMs dk;Z fd;k fd;s tk ldrs gSA  blls ge searching Hkh dj dlrs gSA Copying and Moving File and Folder:- File or folder dks dkWih djrs gS rks tgkW ls dkWih djrs gSaA ogkW ij Hkh jgrh gS vkSj tgkW isLV djrs gS ogkW ij Hkh igqp tkrh gSA  QkbZy ,oa QksYMj dks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij dkWih djus ds fy;s mls lhysDV djds mlij jkbZV fDyd djs dkWih djrs gSA vkSj tgkW ij paste djuk gksrk gS ogkW tk dj jkbZV fDyd djds paste djrs gSaA  fdcksMZ ls select djds shortcut key ctrl+C ls dkWih djds tgkW paste djuk gksrk gS ogkW tkdj ctrl+V djrs gSA  blh dke dks my computer ds edit ehuw ls Hkh dkWih djds isLV dj ldrs gSaA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 36. ewo djus ij QkbZy ;k QksYMj vius LFkku ls gV dj nwljs LFkku ij igqp tkrk gS  bldks djus dh fdz;k dkWih dh rjg gh gksrh gSA blesa dV djuk iMrk gS  dhoksMZ ls ewo dh Shortcut key ctrl+X djuk gksrk gS tgkW paste djuk gksrk gS ogkW tkdj ctrl+V djrs gSA  drag djds Hkh bldks ewo fd;k tk ldrk gSA Deleting File and Folder:-  file and folder ij fDyd djds mldks fMyhV fd;k tk ldrk gSA  Select djds delete key press djds fMyhV fd;k tk ldrk gSA  Select djds File Menu ls Delete fd;k tk ldrk gSA Manipulation of File and Folder:- blls QkbZy ,oa QksYMj dks eSust djrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 37. UNIT–III ADVANCED FEATURES OF WINDOWS XP: Managing Hardware & Software - Installation of Hardware & Software, Using Scanner Web Camera, Printers. System Tools - Backup, Character Map, Clipboard Viewer, Disk Defragmenter, Drive Space, Scandisk, System Information, System Monitor, Disk Cleanup, Using Windows Update. Browsing the Web with Internet Explorer, Multiple User Features of Windows, Creating and Deleting User, Changing User Password, etc. Accessibility Features of Windows - Sharing Folders and Drives, Browsing the Entire Network, Using Shared Printers. OLE - Embed/Link Using Cut and Paste an Embed/ Link, Using Insert Object Manage Embedded/Linked Object. ADVANCED FEATURES OF WINDOWS XP Managing & Installation Hardware & Software:- dEI;wVj esa fdlh Hkh u;s gkMZos;j dk iz;ksx djus ds igys mldks dEI;wVj esa tksMdj fLFkkfir (Installation)djuk iMrk gSA foaMkst ,Dlih esa dbZ gkMZos;j ds drivers miYkC/k gksrs gSA ftldk iz;ksx djds ml gkMZos;j dk iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;k izR;sd gkMZos;j ds LkkFk ,d lhMh vkrh gSA ftldh lgk;rk ls mlds Driver dks fLFkkfir fd;k tk ldrk gSA fizaVj dks fLFkkfir(Install) djuk%& LoZ izFke fizaVj dks dEI;wVj ls tksMrs gSA blds ckn mlds Driver dks dEI;wVj esa install djrs gSA mlds fy;s mlds LkkFk vkbZ lhMh dk iz;ksx djrs gSA ;k printer & Fax Wizard dh lgk;rk ls install djrs gSA Step 1:- start printer & fax or Start control panel  printer & fax ij fDyd djus ij fizaVj ,oa QSDl uke dk Mk;ykWx ckDl vkrk gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 38. Setp 2:- bl Mk;ykWx ckDl esa add a printer ij fDyd djrs gSA rks printer & Fax wizard start gks tkrk gSA bl Mk;yWkx ckDl esa next Button ij fDyd djrs gSA Setp 3:- bl ckDl esa ;g pqurs gSA fd fizaVj fdl izdkj dk gSA yksdy ;k usVodZ vkSj D;k fizaVj dks automatically detect djuk gS fd ugh bldk flysD’ku Hkh blh Mk;YkWkx ckDl es fd;k tkrk gSA ;s lc flysDV djus ds ckn Next Button ij fDyd djrs gSA Setp 4:- rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 39. bl ckDl esa fizaVj dk iksVZ (Port) dk pquko djrs gS vkSj Next Button ij fDyd djrs gSA Setp 5:- bl Mk;ykWx ckDl esa fizaVj dh daiuh ,oa ekWMy dks flYksDV djrs gSA ;fn blesa daiuh ,oa ekWMy ugha feyrs gSA rks mlds lkFk vkbZ lhMh dks lhMh dh drive esa yxkdj have disk ij fDyd djrs gSA vkSj drive and folder dks flysDV djds next Button ij fDyd djrs gSA Setp 6:- bl Mk;ykWx ckDl esa fizaVj dk uke nsrs gSA vkSj Next Button ij fDyd djrs gSA Step 7:- rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 40. bl Mk;ykWx ckDl esa fizaVj ls VsLV ist fudkyuk gS ;k ugh bldk flYksD’ku djrs gSA vkSj Next Button ij fDyd djrs gSA Setp 8:- Finish Button ij fDyd djrs gh dEI;wVj esa fizaVj installation dh izfdz;k iwjh gks tkrh gSA Web Camera :- Computer esa bldk iz;ksx QksVks fudkyus ,oa fofM;ks fjdkfMZx djus esa fd;k tkrk gSA bldk installation fuEu LVsi esa gksrk gSA Step 1:- Start  Control Panel Scanner & Camera icon ij fDyd djus ij fotkMZ LVkZV gks tkrk gSS blesa add image device ij fDyd djrs gSA blesa daiuh dk uke ,oa dSejk dk ekWMy flysDV djrs gSA vkSj Next Button ij fDyd djrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 41. Step 3:- bl ckDl esa mldks dEI;wVj ls fdl iksVZ ls tksMk gSA mldk flYksD’ku djrs gSA vkSj Next Button ij fDyd djrs gSA Setp 4:- bl ckDl esa dSejs dk uke nsrs gS vkSj Next Button ij fDyd djrs gSA Step 5:- bl ckDl esa Finish Button ij fDyd djrs gSA vkSj oso dsejk installation process complete gks tkrh gSA bl ds ckn dEI;wVj esa dSejs dk iz;ksx dj ldrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 42. Backup (cSdi) Backup ls fMDl ds MkVk dk cSdi fy;k tkrk gSA ftlls ;fn fMDl dk MkVk [kjkc ;k fMfyV gksrk gSA rks mldks cSdi ls fjLVksj djds fMDl ds MkVk dks iqUk% izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA bles tks QkbZy curh gS mldk f}rh;d uke .bkf gksrk gSA igys cSdi blds ckn ges’kk fjLVksj fd;k tkrk gSA cSdi dks ges’kk vkWQ ykbZu j[kuk pkfg;sA vFkkZr~ nwljh fMDl esa cSdi ysuk pkfg;sA bldh izksxzke QkbZy dk uke ntbackup.exe gksrk gS Backup ysus dh process fuEu gSA Step 1:- Start  all Program  Accessories System Tool  Backup Or Start - Run ntbackup  ok ij fDyd djus ij fuEu Mk;YkkWx ckDl vkrk gSA bl ds cVu Next ij fDyd djrs gSA Step 2:- bl Mk;ykWx ckDl esa ;g flYksDV djrs gSA fd djuk D;k gSA Backup ysuk gSA ;k Restore djuk gS cSdi dk flysD’ku djus ds ckn Next Button ij fDyd djrs gS rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 43. Step 3:- bl Mk;YkkWx ckDl esa ;g flysDV djrs gS fd fdl dk cSdi ysuk gSA blesa vko’;drk ds vuqlkj vki’ku dks flysDV djrs gSA ;fn dksbZ fo’ks"k QkbZy dk cSdi ysuk gSA rks let me choose what to backup dks flysDV djrs gSA vkSj Next Button ij fDyd djrs gSA Step 4:- bl ckDl esa Drive or Folder dk flYksD’ku djrs gSA ftldk cSdi ysuk gksrk gSA vkSj blds ckn Next Button ij fDyd djrs gSA Setp 4:- blesa cSdi dks dgkW ij lso djuk gS A vkSj mldk uke nsdj Next Button ij fDyd djrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 44. Step5:- bl Mk;ykWx ckDl esa cSdi dk izdkj flysDV djrs gSA vkSj Next Button ij fDyd djrs gSAvkSj cSdi izfd;k pkyw gks tkrh gSA cSdi iwjk gksus ds ckn mldh fjiksVZ vkrh gS Backup dk iz;ksx djus ds fy;s mldks fjLVksj fd;k tkrk gSA bldh izksfll cSdi ds yxHkx leku gksrh gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 45. Character Map bldh lgk;rk ls word document esa fo’ks"k v{kj dks insert fd;k tk ldrk gSA ftUgsa dh cksMZ dh lgk;rk ls VkbZi ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA bldh izksxzke QkbZy dk uke Charmap.exe gSA Character Map dks LVkZV djuk Start all Program  Accessories - System Tool - Character Map Or Start  Run  charmap type djds  ok ij fDyd djus ij Character Map window open gksrh gSA ftl v{kj ;k fpUg dks insert djuk gksrk gSA mldks flysDV djds dkWih djrs gSA vkSj Document esa paste djrs gSA Chipboard View dEI;wVj esa tc ge cut or copy djrs gSA rks og eSVj Chipboard View program esa transfer gks tkrk gSA vkSj tc paste djrs gS mlds eSVj dh dkWih Document esa paste gks tkrk gSA bldh izksxzke QkbZy dk uke Chipbrd.exe gSA blesa tks QkbZy curh gSAbldk f}rh;d uke .clp gksrk gSSA fDyicksMZ [kksyuk%& Start all Program  Accessories - System Tool - Chipboard View Or Start  Run  Chipbrd type djds  ok ij fDyd djus ij Clipboard viewer window open gksrh gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 46. Disk Defragmenter ;g ,d fLkLVe Vwy gSA bldh lgk;rk ls fMzLd dks Defragment djrs gSA vFkkZr~ fMLd esa QSyh QkbZyksa dks O;fofLFkr fd;k tkrk gSA ftlls dEI;wVj dh speed rst gks tkrh gSA bl Vwy dk iz;ksx dEI;wVj esa ianzg fnu esa ,d ckj t:j djuk pkfg;sA Disk Defragmenter dk iz;ksx djuk %& Start all Program  Accessories - System Tool - Disk Defragmenter ij fDyd djus ij Disk Defragmenter window vkrh gSA bl foaMks esa ftl drive dk Defragment djuk gksrk gSA ml drive dks flysDV djrs gSA blds ckn Defragment Button ij fDyd djrs gSA Defragment gksus ds igys Drive dk ,sukysfll fd;k tkrk gS blds ckn Defragment gksrk gSA blesa pkj dyj gksrs gS tks disk esa QkbZy ,oa fMDl esa Lisl dh position dks n’kkZrh gSA yky dyj(Red Color):- defragment files dks n’kkZrk gSA uhyk dyj (Blue Color)%& Continuous Files dks n’kkZrk gSA gjk dyj(Green color) %& unmovable files dks n’kkZrk gSA lQsn dyj(White Color)%& Free Space dks n’kkZrk gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 47. Disk Cleanup bl flLVe Vwy gSA bldh lgk;rk ls fMLd dks Scan djds mlls vuko’;d QkbZykssa dks gVk fn;k tkrk gSA blls fMLd esa Qzh Lisl gks tkrk gSA blesa ftl drive dks Ldsu djuk gksrk gS mldks flYksDV djds Cleanup Button ij fDyd djrs gSA blds ckn ftu QkbZyksa ds izdkj dks flYksDV djds ok Button ij fDyd djrs gSA Scan Disk dk iz;ksx djuk %& Start all Program  Accessories - System Tool - Disk Cleanup System Information ;g ,d flLVe Vwy gSA blls flLVe ds gkMZos;j ,oa Software ds ckjs esa tkudkjh izkIr dj ldrs gSA vkSj ;fn izkscye vkjgh gSA rks mldks le>us esa vklkuh gksrh gSA System Information dk iz;ksx djuk %& Start all Program  Accessories - System Tool - System Information Scan Disk ;g ,d flLVe Vwy gSA ftldh lgk;rk ls fMLd dks Ldsu fd;k tkrk gSA ;fn dksbZ izkscye gksrh gS A rks blls fMLd dh izkscye dk irk yxkdj eslst ds :Ik esa iznf’kZr djrk gSA ;fn dksbZ izkscye ugh gksrh gS A rks No Problem dk eslst vkrk gSA bl Vwy dk iz;ksx le; le; ij djrs jguk pkfg;sA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 48. Window Update dEI;wVj esa foaMkst vkijsfVax flLVe dks le; l;e vkiMsV djrs jguk pkfg;s A ;fn daiuh dksbZ u;k vkiMsV djrh gSA rks og vius dEI;wVj ds vks,l es Hkh gks tkrk gSA blds fy;s dEI;wVj es baVjusV dh vko’;drk gksrh gSA foaMkst dks vkiMsV djus ds rhu vkWi’ku gksrs gSA 1. Auto update :- blesa foMksat vius vki viMsV gksrh jgrh gSA 2. bles lHkh isap vius vki download gks tkrs gSA ysfdu installation ds iwNrk gS fd dkSu ls isap install djuk gSA dkSu ls ugha 3. bles lHkh isap dh fyLV iznf’kZr gksrh gSA blesa download ds isap dk flysD’ku ;wtj dks djuk iMrk gSA 4. ;g Not Update option gksrk gSA Multiple users Feature of Windows Windows Xp ,d ls vf/kd ;wtj dk fuekZ.k dj ldrs gSA ftldk iz;ksx ;wtj vius vf/kdkj ds vuqlkj dj ldrk gSA blesa nks izdkj ds ;wtj gksrs gSA 1.Computer administrator :- bl ;wtj ls ;wtj dk create, change and delete dj ldrs gSA dEI;wVj esa dksbzZ u;k izksxzke install djldrs gSA ,oa flLVe esa changes dj ldrs gSA 2. Limited Account:- bl ;wtj ls ;wtj ds password dks change or remove dj ldrs gSA QkbZy dks ns[k ,oa ubZ QkbZy dks cuk ldrs gSA User dh piture, theme, other desktop setting change dj ldrs gSA ;wtj cukuk%& Step 1:- Start Button  Control panel  user accounts ij Mkcy fDyd djrs gSA bl foaMks esa Create a new account ij fDyd djrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 49. Step 2:- fQj u;s vdkmaV dk uke nsrs gSA vkSj next button ij fDyd djrs gSA Step 3:- blds ckn Account dk izdkj pqurs gSA vkSj Create Account ij fDyd djrs gSA rks u;s vdkmaV dk fuek.kZ gks tkrk gSA vdkmaV ij fDyd djds mldh lsfVax esa ifjorZu fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;gkW ls ;wtj vdkamV esa ikloMZ yxk;k tk ldrk gSA vdkamV dks cnyk tk ldrk gSA vdkamV dh fiDpj ] uke ,oa VkbZi dks cnyk tk ldrk gSA uksV%& Administrator Account ls gh vdkamV dks gVk;k tk ldrk gSA ftl vdkamV dks fMfyV djuk gSA mlls logoff gksuk pkfg;sA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 50. Sharing Folder and drives:- Windows xp esa QksYMj ,oa Drive dks 'ks;j djus ds fy;s ml ij jkbZV fDYkd djrs gSA mldh izksiVhZ ij fDYkd djrs gSA izksiVhZ ckWDl esa ‘share tab ij fDyd djrs gSA bl ckWDl esa Share this folder on the network dks select djrs gSA vkSj 'ks;j Drive dk uke nsrs gSA blds ckn Apply and ok button ij fDyd djrs gSA rks Drive or folder Share gks tkrk gSA ml ds uhps gkFk dk fpUg cu tkrk gSA ftl dks ge usVodZ esa ;wt dj ldrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 51. Printer Sharing:- Printer dks 'ks;j djds mldks usVodZ esa iz;ksx dj ldrs gSA Goto Start - Printer & Fax ij fDyd djrs gS blds ckn fizaVj ij jkbZV fDyd djrs gSA vkSj 'ks;j ij fDyd djrs gSA blds ckn share this printer dks pqurs gSA vkSj apply and ok ij fDYkd djrs gSA rks fizaVj 'ks;j gks tkrk gSAftldk iz;ksx ge usVodZ esa dj ldrs gSA blds bl fizaVj dks usVodZ ds dEzI;wVj esa install djds bldk iz;ksx dj ldrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 52. u n UNIT–IV LINUX: History & Features of Linux, Linux Architecture, File System of Linux, Hardware Requirements of Linux, Various flavors of Linux, Linux Standard Directories, Functions of Profile and Login Filesin Linux, Linux Kernel, UNIT–V WORKING WITH LINUX: KDE & Gnome Graphical Interfaces, Various Types of Shell Available in Linux, Multi-User Features of Linux, Login and Logout fromLinux System, Linux commands - bc, cal, cat, cd, clear, cmp, cp, mv, date, find, ls, pwd, mkdir, more, rm, rmdir, chgrp, chmod, chown, tty, wc, who, whois, grep, telnet, vi editor, Using Floppy, CD-ROMand Pen Drive in Linux, Permissions and Ownerships. Linux Operating System What is linux Linux ,d Operating System gSA vkWijsfVax flLVe ,d rjg dk dEI;wVj dk dUV~zksy izkssxzke gS tks dEI;wVj ds leLr fdz;kdykikss vFkkZr dk;kZsa ij fu;a=.k j[krk gS Linux vU; vkWijsfVax flLVe tSls M.S. Dos, P.C. Dos, Os/2 rFkk Win -95 /98 vkWijsfVax dh rjg gh ,d lk¶Vos;j gksrk gSA Linux ,d 32- bit multi operating System gS tks Intel 80386 ilZuy dEU;wVj ij mi;ksx djus ds fy, fMtkbu fd;k x;kA ykbuDl ds fodkl dh ’kq:vkr 1960 ds n’kd esa gqbZA lu~ 1968 esa AT & T csy iz;ksx’kkyk ds ’kks/kdrkZvksa us la;qDr iz;Ru ls ,d vkWijsfVax cuk;k ftls MULTICS ( Multiplexed Infrmation Computer System ) dgk x;k blds ckn 1969 esa unix dk fodkl fd;k x;kA Linux dk fodkl UNIX ls gh gqvk gSA ykbuDl dk fodkl VksjoSYM us fd;k l ~ 1991 esa bldk igyk otZu 0.11 fjfyt fd;k x;kA Linux dk Graphical interface, X window System ij vk/kkfjr gSaA Linux dk bfrgkl :- Linux dh yksdfiz;rk dks le>us ds fy;s ges 30 o"kZ igys tkuk gksxkkA tc dEI;wVj cM+s cM+s ?kjksa esa] LVsfM;eks esa gksrk Fkk rFkk ml le; mldk vkdkj gh lcls cM+h leL;k gksrk Fkk] rc ;g lkspk x;k fd izR;sd dEI;wVj esa vyx vyx vkWijsfVax flLVe gksuk pkfg;sA ,d lk¶Vos;j fdlh flLVe es ,d fo’ks"k m ~ns’; dh iwfrZ ds fy;s gksrk gS rFkk fdlh flLVe ds fy;s cuk lkW¶Vos;j fdlh nwljs flLVe ij dk;Z ugh dj ldrk gSA bldk vk’k; ;g gS fd ,d flLVe esa lEcfU/kr dk;Z dks djus okys lkW¶Vos;j dk nwljs dk;Z ds lkFk O;ogkj laHko ugha gksrk gSA ;g dk;Z ;wyj rFkk flLVe ,MfefuLV~zsVj nksuksa ds fy;s gh dfBu gksrk gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 53. ml le; dEI;wVj dh dher cgqr vf/kd gksrh Fkh rks ;wtj dks viuh vko’;drk dks ns[krs gq;s dEI;wVj dks [kjhnuk pkfg;s IT dh dqy ykxr vlhfer gksrh Fkh lu~ 1969 esa Bell Labs ysczksVjh ds oSKkfudksa us lkW¶Vos;j lEcfU/kr leL;k dks gy djus ds fy;s dk;Z djuk 'kq: dj fn;kA mUgksaus ,d u;s vkWijsfVax flLVe dk fuekZ.k fd;k ftldh fo’ks"krk,Wa Fkh – - flaiy o lqUnj - vlsEcyh dksM ds LFkku ij C izksxzkfeax ySXost esa fy[kukA - dksM dks fjlkbZfdy djus dh {kerkA Bell Labs ysczksVjh ds oSKkfudksa us vius izksysDV dkl uke “UNIX” j[kkA dksM fjlkbZfdfyax dk Qhpj dkWQh egRoiw.kZ Fkk vkSj ;g rc rd egRoiw.kZ Fkk tc rd dEI;wVj flLVe ,d dksM dks fy[ks tks fd flQZ ,d flLVe ds fy;s fodflr fd;k x;k gksA nwljh rjQ ;wfuDl dks Lis’ky dksM ds NksVs NksVs fgLlksa dh vko’;drk gksrh gS ftldks ge lkekU; rkSj ij duZy ds uke ls tkurs gS ;g duZy bl dksM dk flQZ ,d fgLlk gksrk gS tks fd ,d fo’ks"k flLVe ds fy;s Lohdkjk tkrk gS rFkk ;wfuDl flLVe dk csl gksrk gSA vkWijsfVax flLVe rFkk vU; lkjs QaD’kUl bl duZy ds pkjksa rjQ fufeZr fd;s tkrs gSA rFkk ;g Higher programing language esa fy[ks tkrs gS bl rjg dh ySXosat dk fuekZ.k ;wfuDl flLVe ds fuekZ.k ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA bl rduhd dk mi;ksx djds vkWijsfVax flLVe dk fuekZ.k dkQh ljy gks x;k gS ftl ij ge fofHkUu izdkj ds gkMZos;jksa dks ju dj ldrs gSA ;wfuDl ;wtjksa ds lkFk ,slk O;ogkj djrh gS fd og fofHkUu flLVeksa ds lkFk mls vklkuh ls iz;ksx esa yk ldsaA blh izdkj ;wfuDl ds fodkl dk dze pyrk jgkA blh dze cfqr lkjh phtsa lEHko gks x;hA gkMZos;j o lkW¶Vos;j osUMj vius izksMDVksa dks liksVZ djus ds fy;s ;wfuDl dh enn ysus yxsA igys le; esa ;wfuDl flQZ cM+s cM+s okrkoj.k tgkW esuQsze rFkk feuh dEI;wVj yxs gksrs Fks esa ik;k tkrk Fkk vxj ge ljdkj ;k fdlh Qkbysaf’k;y dkWjiksjs’kui dk dk;Z fdlh ;wfuoflZBh esa dj jgs gS rks vki viuk dk;Z ;wfuDl flLVe ds ek/;e ls dj ldrs gSA ijUrq NksVs dEI;wVj fodflr fd;s tkus yxs Fks vkSj 80 ds n’kd esa vf/kdrj yksxks ds ikl vius gkse dEI;wNj Fks ml le; ih lh vkdhZVSDpj ds fy;s ;wfuDl ds dkQh lkjs otZu mitC/k Fks ysfdu muesa ls dksbZ Hkh iw.kZ :i ls LorU= ugha Fkk Linux B. Torvalds us 1991 esa igys ykbuDl duZy dks fy[kkk FkkA ykbusDl us dkQh izflf} izkIr dh D;ksafd lkslZ dksM 'kh?kzrk ls izkIr gks tkrk gS ;wtlZ viuh vko’;drkuqlkj duZy dks LorU= :i ls ifjofrZr dj ldrs gSA fQj Hkh ;g le>uk egRoiw.kZ gS fd ykbusDl duZy dSls ‘'kkfey fd;k tkrk gS vkSj ;s u;s flLVe izksxzkEl dks fy[kus ls igys dSls dk;Z djrs gSA ykbusDl duZy lkslZ dkM ij vk/kkfjr dkWudzhV vkfdZVSDpj ,d fo’oluh; vkSj up-to-date refernse linux kernal hackers and developers dks iznku dj ldrs gSA ykbusDl 1991 ls dbZ ckj izfrfuf/k;ksa ds ,d xzqi }kjk nksgjk;h tk pwdh gS tks baVjusV ij usenet Newsgroups ds ek/;e ls dE;wfudsV djrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 54. ~ Linux an Unix Vompatible System vf/kdrj dkWeu ;wfuDl VwYl vkSj izksxzkEl ykbusDl ds vUrZxr ju gksrs gSA ykbuDl okLrfod :i ls baVsy 80386 ekbdzksizkslslj ij ji djus ds fy;s fodflr dh x;h FkhA vkWfjtuy otZu vU; IysVQkWeZl ds fy;s iksVsZcy ugha Fks D;ksafd ;s baVsy ds Lis’khfQd bUV~zUIV gS.Mfyax :VhUl dks mi;ksx djrs gSA Linux user base cMk gksrk gS 1994 esa Ed Chi }kjk cuk;h x;h ykbusDl ds de ls de 40000 ;wtlZ Fks ykbusDl MkWD;wesaVs’ku izkstsDV LDP ykbusDl duZy ds fy;s mi;ksxh vkSj fo’oluh; MkWD;wesUVs’ku ds fodkl ds fy;s dk;Z djrk gSA ;s ykbusDl ;wtlZ vkSj ykbusDl MsoyilZ nksuksa ds gh }kjk mi;ksx fd;s tkrs gSA FEATURE OF LINUX :- Linux is portable :- Linux dks lh izksxzkfeax ysaXost esa fy[kk x;k gS ftldk fdlh izdkj ds dEI;wVj gkMZos;j ls lEcU/k ugha j[kk x;k ;g fd;h Hkkh izdkj ds dEI;wVj ij pykus esa l{ke gS tSls PCAT, MACINTOS, MINI COMPUTER Linux is a multiuser and multitasking O.S. :- ,d ls vf/kd O;fDr ,d le; esa ykbuDl vkWijsfVax flDVe dk iz;ksx dj ldrs gSA ,d gkMZos;j fMokbl }kjk fd;k tk ldrk gSA 1. Network information service %- fofHkUu izdkj ds dbZ dEI;wVj dks vkil esa tksM+dk midk mi;ksx djus ds fy, ,d tky Lo:i lajpuk cuk;h tkrh gSA ftls usVofdZax dgrs gSA ykbuDl fo’ks"k :i ls usVofdZax esa dk;Z djus ds fy;s fodflr fd;k x;k gSA ykbuDl ds nokjk ge ikloMZ dks “ks ;j dj ldrs gS rFkk Wkvyksa dks lewgksa esa ckWaVdj usVodZ ij mi;ksx esa yk ldrs gSA 2. Multitasking : ykbuDl esa fdlh izksxzke dks NksVs NksVs dk;ksZa esa foHkkftr dj fn;k tkrk gSA dbZ dk;ksZa dks ,d lkFk fdlh rjg ls djus dh vkijsfVax dh {kerk dks gh eYVhVkfLdax dgrs gSA 3. Virtual Mrmory % ;fn ge fdlh cM+s izksxzke ;k ,Iyhds’ku dks laikfnr djrs gSA rks gesa dqN fQftdy eSeksjh dh vko’;drk gksrh gS tksfd gkMZ fMLd esa tek dj nh tkrh gS vkSj vko’;drk iM+us ij bls mi;ksx esa tk;k tk ldrk gSA 4. Posix Compliance : ykbuDl ,d iksflDl dkWeiysal gS vkSj ;wfuDl flLVe ds lkjs leqPp;ksa dks lgkjk nsrk gSA Dos Emulatar : ykbuDl esa ,d Dosemu uke dk izksxzke gksrk gS tks fd Dos emulator cukrk gS ftlesa vki dbZ MkWl dek.Ml dks fdz;kfUor djrk ldrs gSA Web server : cso loZj ,slk lkW¶Vos;j gS tks fd cso istksa dks cukus ds dke esa vkrk gS ykbuDl esa Apache uke dk loZizpkfyr osc loZj ik;k tkrk gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 55. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ bl vkWijsfVax flLVe dk eq[; Hkkx gS duZy ;g ,Iyhds’ku dzS’kksa ls iwjh rjg lqjf{kr gSA agks ldrk gS fd ,Iyhds’ku dSz’k gks tk;s fdUrq ;g blds ckotwn Hkh lqjf{kr jgrk gSA bldk ykHk ;g gksrk gS fd ykbusDl vkWijsfVax flLVe dks nqckjk pkyw ugha djuk iM+rkA mijksDr ds vykok ykbusDl lwj{kk Hkh iznku djrk gS vkWijsfVax flLVe vius vius tqM+s izR;sd ;wtj dks d,d Qkby lsV o Mk;jsDVh ls tksM+ nsrk gSA bl izdkj ;wtj viuh Mk;jsDVh esa miyC/k lwp;ukvksa dks i<+ ldrk gS gVkj ldrk gS cny ldrk gS vkSj tksM+ ldrk gS bldk ykHk ;g gksrk gS fd tks fu;fer vU; ;wtj gS mudh Qkbyksa esa dksbZ NsM+NkM+ ugha gks ldrhA Linux esa dbZ izksxzeksa dks dbZ ;wtjksa ds }kjk lkFk lkFk pyk;k tk ldrk gS bl fo’ks"krk Multiprograming dgrs gSA Structure of Linux: ykbuDl esa fofHkUu dk;ksZa dks djus ds fy;s rhu vyx vyx fgLls gksrs gSA ;s fgLls vkil esa utnhdh ls tqM+s jgrs gSA 1- File Server: QkbZy ds lEcU/k esa tkudkjh j[krk gSA tSls fd Qkby dgkW ij j[kh gS pkgs vki VsDl izkslslj esa QkWby dks cuuk jgs gSA ;s lHkh QkbZy dh enn ls gksrh gSA 2- Shell: ykbuDl esa ,d lk/kkj.k ;wtj baVjQsl gksrk gS ftls 'kSy dgrs gS ykbuDl esa tc ge fdlh dk;Z dks djus ds fy, fdlh dek.M dks ptkrs gS rc dek.M dk funsZ’k loZizFke 'kSy ds ikl tkrk gS dEI;wVj essa funsZa’kksa dk ckbujh Hkk"kk esa nsuk gksrk gS tks vke yksxksa dh le> ls ijs gSA ftl dkj.k funsZ’k 'kSy ds ikl igqWapdj mlds nokjk vuqokn fd;s tkrs gSA ftls duZy ds nokjk le>k tk lds fQj duZy dEI;wVj gkMZos;j dks funsZ’k nsrk gS ftlds nokjk dk;Z lEiUu gksrk gS Shell System Kernel dk vax u gksrs gq, Hkh System Kernel dks Program execuite djus ds fy;s 'kSy dh vko’;drk gksrh gSA Linux esa fuEu izdkj ds 'kSy miyC/k gksrs gSA BASH - BOUNNE AGAIN SHELL KSH - KORN SHEL PDKSH - PUBLIC DOMAIN KORN SHELL buds vykok dqN vU; ’kSy fuEu gS ----------- CSH, TCSH rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 56. KERNEL: - Kernel Linux Operating Sysem dh dksj izksxzke gksrh gSA duZj ,d ,slk vkWijsfVax flLVe izksxzke gsS tks fd dEI;wVj gkMZos;j ds lalk/kuksa dk fu;af=r djds mdk mfpr mi;ksx ;wyj ls djokrk gSA tSls gh dEI;wVj Start gksrk gS duZy ykap gks tkrk gSA vkSj dEI;wVj ds vkWQ gksus rd yksM jgrk gSA ;g bl ckr ij fuHkZj ugha djrk fd vki dkSu ls lk¶Vos;j ;k ’kSy esa ju dj jgs gSA It’s memory resident partion of Linux, It perfarmance following task: - I/O management Prcesse management device management file management Memory management Error handling Command execution n The Linux File System What is a file:- Linux esa lHkh dqN QkbZy ds ~okjk gh iznf’kZr fd;k tkrk gSA ,d QkbZy esa Text, Programming Information, Shell Scripts vkfn vU; dbZ phtsa+ LVksj dh tkrh gSA lkekU;r% Qkby ,d Computer Structure gS tks lwpd dks Electronic Farmat ( Bits 0 or 1 ) esa j[krk gSA dbZ Qkbyksa dks laxfBr djds ,d Qkby flLVe cu;k tk ldrk gSA ;wfuDl dh rjg gh ykbuDl QkbZy flLVe dk ,d heirarchical <kWapk gksrk gS ftlesa Qkbyksa dks Mk;jsDV~zh esa fLFkr dj fn;k tkrk gS fMLd ij ;s lkjh Qkbysa ,d :V directory esa Shell UTILITY APPLICAION PROGRAM LINUX KERNEL COMPUTER HARDWARE USER rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 57. fLFkr gksrh gSaA jwV directory dks ge dbZ Subdirectories esa foHkkftr dj ldrs gSA Linux Operating System Hkh Root directory dks fuEu Subdirectory esa foHkkftr fd;k x;k gS – bin, boot ,user, home, etc, rFkk dev. mijksDr directories esa fofHkUu MkVk ls lEcfU/kr vyx vyx Qkbysa gksrha gSA izR;sd Qkby dk ,d uke gksrk gS lkekU;r: flLVe esa Qkby dk uke vf?kdre 14 Character dk gks ldrk gSA lkekU;r: Qkby dh yEckbZ fdruh Hkh gks ldrh gSA fdUrq ;fn nks QkbZy ds izFke 14 v{kj leku gS rks mu nksuksa QkbZyks dks ,d gh le>k tk;saxkA Naming Rules of Files: 1. QkbZy uke vius vki esa ,d ‘'kCn gksuk pkfg, vki Pried ( . ) rFkk Underscore ( _ ) dk mi;ksx ,d QkbZy ds vusd ‘’kCnks dks tksM+us ds fy;s dj ldrs gSA MkWl esa ( .) QkbZy dk var crkrk gS tcfd ykbuDl esa nks QkbZyksa dks tksM+us dk dk;Z djrk gSA ykbuDl esa ysVj ds ds’k dk egRo gksrk gSA vFkkZr~ ykbuDl cM+s vkSj NksVs v{kjksa dks vyx vyx ekurk gSA mnk- Bos_report and boss_report rFkk BOS_REPORT ;g rhuksa vyx vyx uke gSA QkbZy ds uke esa Space, Back space, Tab dk mi;ksx ugha dj ldrs gSA fu;e dh nfV ls v{kjksa dk mi;ksx QkbZy ds uke esa fd;k tk ldrk gSA ijarq fuEu v{kjksa dks QkbZy ds uke esa mi;ksx ugha dj ldrs gS _! , @, #, $, %, ^, &, (, ), [,],{,}, “ ,”, ‘,’ ,/ , <,> vkfn A File Types: ykbuDl esa lkjh lwpuk Qkby ds ek/;e ls mi;ksx esa yk;h tkrh gSA blh izdkj ;wtj dh izksxzke o MkVk Qkbyksa ds vykok dqN Lis’ky Qkbysa Hkh gS tks fd fofHkUu Mk;jsDVfj;ksa vkSj vU; I/O device ls lacf/kr gksrh gSA ;gkWa Qkbyks dks rhu Hkkxksa esa ckWaVk x;k gSA Ordinary Files:- os Qkbysa ftUgsa ;wtj fdlh Application ds }kjk fufeZr djrk gS ordinary files dgykrh gSA TSkls % ordinary file fuEu izdkj dh gksrh gS Text Files :- bUgsa ASCII FILE Hkh dgk tkrk gSA VsDl Qkby esa tls dqN fy[kk tkrk gS dEI;wVj mls mlds Ascii Format ls igpkurk gSA vFkkZr~ izR;sd lkekU; ysVj dk ,d U;wesfjd izLrqrhdj.k gksrk gS ftls Ascci Character dgrs gSA Ascii code fdlh fo’ks"k vkijsfVax flLVe ij fuHkZj ugha djrk gSA blfy, Unix Text Editor esa cukbZ xbZ Qkby dks ih lh ds Word Processor esa [kksyk tk ldrk gSA Data Files :- bUgsa Non ascii file Hkh dgrs gSA buesa fofHkUu v{kjksa dks Ascii Character rFkk Application }kjk dSls O;ofLFkr fd;k tk;sxk blls lEcfU/kr funsaZ’k VsDl Qkby ds }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 58. ~ mnk- ds fy;s XY Graphics editor ftlesa Qkbyksa dks cukus rFkk blds VsDl rFkk xzkfQDl dks QkjesfVax lEcfU/kr funsZ’k lekfgr gSA Command Text Files :- bl izdkj dh Qkbyksa ds }kjk kSy fLdzIV dks rS;kj fd;k tkrk gS fyl dkj.k bUgsa 'kSy fLdzIV ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA bu Qkbyksa dk mi;ksx kSy dks dekaM dks iz;ksx djus esa gksrk gS ftl izdkj Mkl esa budk vi;ksx cSp Qkby cuus esa gksrk gS mlh izdkj ykbuDl esa dek.Mksa ds fdz;kUo;u ds fy, 'kSy nokjk budk mi;ksx gksrk gSA Executable File :- blesa izksxzke Qkby gksrh gS ftldks ckbujh dksM esa fy[kk tkrk gS vkSj ftudks izksxzej }kjk fdlh dEI;wVj Hkkkk esa mRiUu fd;k tkrk gSA .Directories :- Linux esa tc Hkh ge ,d Mk;jsDVjh dk fuekZ.k djrs gS rks ykbuDl ,d Mk;jsDVjh Qkby cukrk gS ;g Bhd mlh izdkj gS ftl izdkj fdlh ,d [k.M esa vusd NksVs NksVs [k.M cuk ldrs gSA vFkkZr~ ,d Mk;jsDVjh Qkby ds vUnj ge vU; Mk;jsDVjh rFkk Qkby cuk ldrs gSA Special device file :- vf/kdka’k flLVe Qkbysa Lis’ky Qkbysa gksrh gS ;s Qkbysa flLVe ds HkkSfrd lajpuk dks iznf’kZr djrh gSA vFkkZr~ bu Qkbyksa ds vUrxZr fofHkUu HkksSfrd ;a+=ksa tSls Printer, Monitor ls lacaf/kr Qkbysa gksrh gS bu Qkbyksa dk mi;ksx vkijsfVax flLVe dks gkMos;j ls lEcfU/kr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Links :- Links dk mi;ksx Qkvy dk miuke ;k nwljk uke cukus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA tSlk fd ge tkurs gS fd ykbuDl eYVh;wyj vksijsfVax flLVe gS fylesa dbZ ;wtj ,d lkFk ,d gh Qkby dk lk>k dj mi;ksx esa ykrs gS blesa Links ds }kjk ,d gh Qkby ds nks uke cukdj mudk mi;ksx vyx vyx ;wtj }kjk fd;k tk ldrk gSA rFkk gj ;wtj ds }kjk fd;k x;k ifjorZu ml ,d gh Qkby esa laxzfgr jgrk HARDWAE REQUIRMENTS OF LINUX  An Intel 80386, 80486 on Pentium Processor  8 MB RAM  3800 MB FREE HARD DISK SPACE  AN CD ROM DRIVE  AN 31/2 FLOPY DISK DRIVE  AN VIDEO GRAPHICS  AND MOUSE, KEYBOARD,TAP DRIVE,PRINTER,MODEM,TERMINALS ETC rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 59. ~ izkslsl Process): orZeku esa u;s OS’s tSls foaMkst vkSj ykbusDl ,d gh le; esa fofHkUu dk;ksZa ds fdz;kUou dks Lohd`fr nsrs gSA blfy;s ;s vkWijsfVax flLVe eYVhVkfLdax vkWijsfVax dgykrs gSA Linux esa izR;sd jfuax VkLd ,d izkslsl ekbdzksizkslslj }kjk ,d gh le; esa fdz;kfUor djsxk ijUrq okLrfodrk esa ,slk ugha gksrk gS gksrk ;g gS fd ekbdzksizkslslj fdz;kUou le; dks lHkh jfuax izkslsll ds e/; leku :Ik ls foHkkftr dj nsrk gSA vr% izR;sd izkslsl ,d jkm.M jkWfcu eSuj esa ekbdzksizkslslj dk vVsU’ku izkIr djrk gSA vr% fdlh Hkh fn;s x;s {k.k ij ;fn ge eSeksjh ds LuSi’kkWV dks yssrs gS rks dsoy ,d gh izkslsl ekbdzksizkslslj }kjk fdz;kfUor fd;k tk;sxkA izkslslsl dh fLofpax dkQh rhoz gksrh gSA ftlds dkj.k ;g xyr eglwl gksrk gSs fd izkslslj ,d gh le; esa dbZ lkjs izkslsll dks fdz;kfUor dj jgk gSA izkslsll dh 'ksM~;wfyax ,d izksxzke tksfd “ Scheduler” dgykrk gS ds }kjk dh tkrh gS tks Linux OS dk ,d okbVy dEiksusUV gSA ;s 'ksM~;wyj izksxzke Li"V :Ik ls dkQh tfVy gksrk gSA vxys FkszM ij fLop djus ls igys ;s dj.V izkslsl ds ckjs esa lwpuk laxzfgr djrk gSA ;s lh- ih- ;w- jftLVj dh dj.V oSY;wt flLVe LVSd ds dUVsUV~l vkSj ,Iyhds’ku LVSd dks lfEefyr djrk gSA tc ;s izkslsl Qu% VkWbe LykWV izkIr djrs gSa rks ;s oSY;wt Qu% laxzfgr gks tkrh gSA f’kfifVax dh ;g lkjh izfdz;k ,d FkzsM ls nwljs FkzsM rd tkrh gS tks vDlj dkWUVSDLV fLop dgykrk gSA /;ku j[kus ;ksX; gS fd ykbusDl] izh ,EifVo 'ksM;wfyax dks mi;ksx djrs gS vFkkZr~ tSls tSls izkslsl dk Vkbe LykWV foHkkftr gksrk tkrk gS osSls oSls dkWUVSDLV fLop 'kh?kzrk ls ijiQkWeZ djrs tkrs gS blds ckotwn fd izkslsl viuk dk;Z djrs gS ;k ughA duZy eSeksjh esa ju gksus okys izR;sd izkslsl ds fy;s ,d ;wfud vkbZ Mh- bUgsa vU; jfuax izkslsll ls vyx n’kkZus ds fy;s nsrk gS ;s vkbZ Mh- vDlj izkslsll vkbZ- Mh- ;k ih- vkbZ- Mh- ds uke ls tkus tkrs gSA ,d jfuax izkslsl ds ih- vkbZ- Mh- dks izksxzkesfVdyh fizaV djuk dkQh ljy gksrk gS ;gkWa ij bls izkIr djus okyk izksxzke fn;k x;k gS – int main() { print(“processID = %d”,getpid()); } ;gkW ij getpid() ,d ykbczsjh QaD’ku gS tks dkWy fd;s x;s izkslsl ds izkslsl vkbZ- Mh- dks okfil dj nsrk gSA tc izkssxzke dk fdz;kUou vfUre pj.k ij vk tkrk gS rks izkslsl VfeZusV gksus yxrk gSA tc gj le; ge ,d izksxzke ju djkrs gS rks ,d u;k izkslsl fufeZr gksrk gSA vr% duZy gj le; izkslsl ds fy;s ,d u;k ID nsrk gS ;s izksxzke dks dbZ ckj fdz;kfUor djus ds }kjk Li"V fd;k tk ldrk gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 60. Parent and Child Process – tSlk fd ge tkurs gS fd gekjk jfuax izksxzke ,d izkslsl gksrk gS bl izkslsl ls ge vU; izkslsl dks cuk ldrs gSA ;gkWa ij nks izkslsll ds e/; isjsUV pkbYM fjys’kuf’ki gksrk gSA ,d ykbczsjh QD’ku }kjk bls izkIr djus dk rjhdk fork( ) dgykrk gSA ;s QaD’ku jfuax izkslsl dks nks izkslsll esa ckWaV nsrk gS ftuesa ls ,fDtfLVax izkslsl isjsUV ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gS vkSj u;k izkslsl pkbYM uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA More Process – ekuk fd ge fdlh Child Process ds rgr fMLd ij dksbZ izksxzke fdz;kfUor djuk pkgrs gS rks blds fy;s fork() dk iz;ksx djds ,d Child Process rRi’pkr~ bl Child Process ds vUnj Exec Function rkfd ge bl izksxzke dks Child Process ds varxZr Disk ij fdz;kfUor dj ldsaA Exec Library Functions dh ,d Family gksrh gS ftlesa Hkh izR;sd Member dk vyx dk;Z gksrk gSA LINUX COMMAND Linux Operating System esa fofHkUu dk;ksZ tSls Qkby fuekZ.k Mk;sDV~zh fuekZ.k Qkby ijeh’ku yxkuk bR;kfn dk;ksZ ds fy, dqN dek.Mksa dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS ykbuDl esa iz;qDr gksus okys dqN dek.Mksa dk o.kZu fuEu izdkj gSA 1.Id: - bldk full form (Identification device) gS bl dek.M dk iz;ksx iz;ksDrk ds :Ik esa viuk fooj.k izkIr dj ldrs gS-A Syntax: - $ id {Enter} mDr dek.M fdz;kfUor gksus ij fuEu izdkj Ldzhuy ij tkudkjh izkIr gksrh gS tSls wid = 601 ( man) gid = 107 (rd) groups = 201 (rd), 3( adm),7( lp) ftlesa man vkidk iz;ksDrk uke gS ,oa mldk id no. 601 gS rFkk tks vkids rd uked primary group esa gS ftldk lewg id 107 gS nwljs lewg dk uke adm gS rFkk mldk U;wesfjd id 3 gSA 2.who: - bl dek.M ds iz;ksx ls flLVe ij orZeku esa Login fd;s gq, users dh fyLV iznf’kZr gksrh gS bl dek.M ds }kjk lHkh ;wtj ds lEcU/k esa fofHkUu tkudkjh tSls uke] VfeZuy ua-] yksfxu dk le;] o fnukWd iznf’kZr gksrh gSA mnk- ds fy;s % $who {enter} User names terminal no. Login date Login Time ravi tty10 Jan 14 12:30 anurag tty10 Jan 14 13:00 rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 61. ~ ~ ~ ~ Who command ds nokjk ge fdlh fo’ks”k ;wtj ds lEcU/k esa leLr tkudkjh izkIr dj ldrs gS blds fy;s fuEu dek.M iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS A Syntex:- $who <user name> {enter} mnk- $who gour {enter} mDr dek.M fdz;kfUor gksus ij ;fn a gour user mifLFkr ugha gksxk rks fuEu lwpuk iznf’kZr gksrh gS gour does not exit ;fn ;g ;wtj mifLFkr gS rks iwokZuwlkj dsoy ;wtjuse ds lEcU/k esa tkudkjh iznf’kZr gksrh gSA ;fn ;wtj ;g tkuuk pkgrk gS fd og orZeku esa fdl yksfxau ij dk;Z dj jgk gS rks mlds fy, fuEu dek.M iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS 3. $who I am {enter} blls ftl ;wtj ij ykWfxau fd;s gq;s gS mlls lEcfU/kr lwpuk iznf’kZr gksrh gSA finger :- cM+s flLVe ij who command ds iz;ksx l ;wtj dh yEch lwph iznf’kZr gksrh gS ftlesa fdlh fo’ks”k tkudkjh izkIr djus ds fy, finger command dk mi;ksx djrs gSA Syntax: - $finger <login name> {enter} ;g who <user name> command ds lerqY; gSA pwd :- bl dek.M ds }kjk convert working directory dk irk pyrk gSA ykbuDl esa ge fdlh Mk;jsDVh dk fuekZ.k dj mlds vUnj tkdj dksbZ dk;Z djrs gS rks computer screen ij ;g tkudkjh ugha feyrh ;k fn[kk;h ugha nsrk gS fd ge fdl Dir ds vUnj mifLFkr gS vr% pwd command cgqr mi;ksxh gSA Syntax: $pwd {Enter} 4.mkdir:- bl dek.M dk mi;ksx ykbuDl vksijsfVax flLVe esa Mk;jsDV~zh ;k lcMk;jsDV~zh cukus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSAmkdir(make directory) Dos ds MD dek.M dh rjg mi;ksx esa yk;k tkrk gS Syntax: - $mkdir <directory name> {Enter} mnk % $mkdir anurag {Enter} 5.cd :- bl dek.M dk mi;ksx orZeku Working directory dks change djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA 6.cd . . :- bl dek.M ds }kjk ge fdlh ,d Mk;jsDVh ds ckgj vk ldrs gSA Syntax : $cd .. {Enter} Syntax : $cd <directory name> {Enter} mnk- % $cd ram {Enter} ;fn gesa dbZ Sub directories ds vUnj ls lh/ks gkse Mk;jsDVh ij okfil vkuk gS rks mlds fy, fuEu dek.M dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 62. $cd {Enter} 7.cat :- cat command dk mi;ksx ykbuDl esa rhu vyx vyx rjhdksa ls d;k tkrk gS ftlds QyLo:Ik esa gesa vyx vyx ifj.kke izkIr gksrs gS bls fuEu izdkj mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA cat > :- bl dekaM ds }kjk ge Linux esa file dks cukrs gS vFkkZr~ file cukus fy, bl dek.M dk iz;ksx gksrk gS tgkW file name ml Qkby dk uke gS ftls fufeZr fd;k tk jgk gSA $ cat > anurag {Enter} file dks save djus ds fy, ctrl + D dk mi;ksx djrs gSA cat :- bldk mi;ksx igys ls cuh fdlh Qkby dk esVj ns[kus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS ;fn Qkby miffLFkr ugha gS rks fuEu lwpuk nsrk gS ksh – filename not found 8.cat >> :- bl dek.M dk mi;ksx fdlh igys ls cuh Qkby esa vfrfjDr esVj tksM+us ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA 9.write :- bl dek.M ds ek/;e ls ykbuDl net work ij nwljs ;wtj dks message Hkst ldrs gSA Syntax: $write username {Enter} $ write Loginname {Enter} fQj dlZj uhps vk tkrk gS rc message type djrs gS blds Ik’pkr Control + D ls lso djrs gSA 10.clear :- bl dek.M dk mi;ksx ykbuDl esa Ldzhu dks lkQ djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA Syntax: $clear {Enter} 11.bc :- bl dekaM dk mi;ksx VfeZuy ij dsYdwysVj dks LFkkfir djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA bls fuEu izdkj pyk;k tkrk gS Synax : $bc {Enter} blds Ik’pkr~ dlZj ds uhps vk tkus ds ckn ge dksbZ x.kuk djus ds fy, dksbZ expression nsrs gS rks mldk ijh.kke Ldzzhu ij fizUV gks tkrk gSA 12.ls :- ls command ds }kjk Mk;jsDV~zh ds lEiww.kZ contexts (tSls file rFkk Subdirectory) dh list izkIr gksrh gSA blds lkFk vU; option dk Hkh mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS ftuds }kjk vyx vyx ifj.kke izkIr gksrs gSA Syntax :- $ls {Enter} rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 63. blls gkse Mk;jsDV~zh eas mifLFkr lHkh Contents dh lwph iznf’kZr gksrh gSA dekaM }kjk fgMu QkbZy dh fyLV iznf’kZr ugha gksrh gSA linex operating system esa tks QkbZy period (.) ls start gksrh gS mls fgMu QkbZy dgk tkrk gSA vr% fgMu QkbZy dh fyLV ds fy;s ls ds lkFk –a option dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS syntax :- $ls –a {Enter} blh izdkj fofHkUu izdkj ls fyLV dks iznf’kZr djus ds fy, vU; Soption dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS tks fuEu izdkj gSA -d : bllss dssoy Mk;jsDV~zh dh fyLV iznf’kZr gksrh gSA -l : blls QkbZy rFkk Mk;jsDV~zh dh fyLV ykWax QkjesV esa iznf’kZr gksrh gS ftlesa QkbZy ijfe’ku] QkbZy cuus dh fnukWd rFkk le; ls lEcfU/kr tkudkjh iznf’kZr gksrh gSA -m : blls QkbZy rFkk Mk;jsDV~zh dh fyLV Ldzhu ij pkSM+kbZ esa iznf’kZr gksrh gS ftlesa izR;sd QkbZy rFkk Mk;jsDV~zh dkek }kjk izFkd gksrh gSA -r : blls QkbZy rFkk Mk;jsDV~zh dh fyLV reverse order esa iznf’kZr gksrh gS -t : blls QkbZy rFkk Mk;jsDV~zh dh fyLV cukus ds le; ds vk/kkj ij dzec) iznf’kZr gksrh gS ftlesa lcls ckn esa cuus okyh QkbZy ;k Mk;- lcls igys iznf’kZr gksrh gS rFkk lcls igys cuh QkbZy ckn esa iznf’kZr gksrh gSA -A : blls QkbZy rFkk Mk;- dh fyLV Nqih gqbZ QkbZy ds lkFk iznf’kZr gksrh gSA 13.Head :- ;g QkbZy ds esVj dks fn[kkrk gS ftlesa QkbZy ds esVj dh izkjEHk dh 10 ifDr;kWa fn[kk;h nsrh gSA Syntax :- $head <File name> {Enter} blds }kjk ;fn gesa fdlh Qkby dh iafDr;ksa dh la[;k viuh bPNkuwlkj ns[kuk gS rks blds fy;s fuEu dekaM iz;ksx gksrk gSA syntax :- $head –(No. of lines) (filename) Exam :- $head –20 raja {Enter} mDr mnkgj.k esa jktk QkbZy dh izkjEHk dh 20 ykbZu dks Ldzhu ij iznf’kZr djsxkA 14.tail :- bl dekaM ds }kjk Qkby ds var dh 10 iafDr;ka iznf’kZr gksrh gSA Syntax :- $tail (filename) blds }kjk Hkh ge viuh bPNkuqlkj ykbuks dks iznf’kZr dj ldrs gS blds fy, $tail –20 raja {Enter} ;g dekaM raja file ds vUr dh 20 lines dks iznf’kZr djsxkA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 64. 15.lp :- ;g dekaM printer dks print request Hkstus ds fy, mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS bl dekaM dh enn ls db QkbZy dks ,d request esa print fd;k tk ldrk gSA Systax :- $lp (file name) 16.cal :- bl dek.M ds }kjk ge ,d ekg dk dsys.Mj ns[k ldrs gS bls fuEu izdkj pyk;k tkrk gSA Syntax : $cal {Enter} ;fn vki iwjs o"kZ dk dsys.Mj ns[kuk pkgrs gS rks fuEu izdkj dek.M VkbZi djrs gSA Syntax : $cal [year] {Enter} fn;s x;s ekg dk dsys.Mj ns[kus ds fy, fuEu dek.M VkbZi djrs gS Syntax :- $cal [month] [ year] mnk :- $cal {enter} System date ds orZeku eghus dk dsys.Mj nsxkA mnk :- $cal 1 2006 {enter} ;g tuojh 2006 eghus dk dsys.Mj nsxkA mnk :- $cal 2006 {enter} 2006 ds iwjs o"kZ dk dsys.Mj nsxkA 17.ps :- bl dek.M ds }kjk orZeku esa py jgh izkslsl ds lEcU/k esa tkudkjh izkIr gksrh gS bld lkFk nks vkWilu mi;ksx fd;s tkrs gS ps –e :- blds }kjk lEiw.kZ izkslsl ds lEcU/k esa tkudkjh izkIr gksrh gSaaaa A ps –f :- blds }kjk orZeku izkslsl ds lEcU/k esa lEiw.kZ tkudkjh iznf’kZr gksrh gSA 18.cp :- ;g ,d file dks ,d Mk;jsDB~zh ls nwljh Mk;jsDV~zh esa dkWih djus ds fy;s mi;ksx dh tkrh gSA nwljs :Ik esa ge dg ldrs gS fd blds }kjk QkbZy ds esVj dks u, uke ls dkWih dj ldrs gSA Syntax: - $cp <Source filename> <Target filename> Example: - $cp gour bl mnk esa a anurag file ds contents subhedar uked file esa dkWih fd;s tk jgs gSA cp command ds lkFk dqN option use gksrs gS rks fuEu gS % -i. :- blds mi;ksx ls destination directory esa Qkby overwrite ugha gksrh gSA -r :- blds }kjk lEiw.kZ directory dks dkWih dj ldrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 65. ~ ~ ~ 19.mv :- bldk mi;ksx Qkby rFkk Mk;jsDVzh dks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij ewo djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA rFkk blds }kjk ge Qkby rFkk Mk;jsDVh dk uke Hkh cny ldrs gSA Syntax :- $mv filename new filename Option :- -f :- ;g Qkby dks ewo dj nsxk bl ckr dks confirm ugh djrk fd Qkby vksojjkbZV rks ugha gks jgh gSA -i. :- ;g user dh permission ds ckn Qkby dks ewo djrk gS rFkk vksoj jkbZV ds fy;s iwNrk gSA 20.rm :- blds }kjk ge fdlh Qkby ds gVk (delete) ldrs gSA Syntax :- $rm [option] [filename] Options, -f :- ;g ;wtj dh Lohd`fr ds fcuk Qkby dks gVk nsxkA -i.:- ;g ;wtj dh Lohd`fr ds ckn Qkby dks gVkrk gSA -r :- blds }kjk ge Mk;jsDVh dks Hkh gVk ldrs gSA 21.rmdir :- ;g dekaM Mk;jsDVh dks gVkus ds fy, mi;ksx gksrk gSA Syntax :- $rmdir <directory name> Directory [kkyh u gksus dh fLFkfr esa fuEu error massage vkrk gS Directory not empty 22.wc :- ;g dek.M Qkby esa fdrus 'kCn] v{kj rFkk fdruh ykbu gS fxudj Ldzhu ij fizUV djrk gSA Syntax: - wc [option] <file name> ;fn ge dsoy vyx vyx v{kj] ykbu rFkk 'kCn dks fxuuk pkgrs gS rks fuEu vkWi’ku mi;ksx fd;s tkrs gSA -c : display no. of characters -l : display only no. of lines -w : display only no. of words Example: $wc drgour.txt {enter} 21 99 322 drgour.txt Line 21, words 99, characters 322 and drgour.txt name of files. ge ,d lkFk dbZ Qkbyksa ds fy, 'kCn] v{kj rFkk Qkbyksa dh fxurh dj ldrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 66. Syntax: $wc file1 file2 file3 21 99 322 file1 10 25 100 file2 15 35 120 file3 46 159 542 Total ;fn Mk;jsDV~~h eas fLFkr leLr Qkby ds fy;s wc command dk iz;ksx djuk gS rks mldk flUVsDl fuEu gksrk gSA Syntax:- $wc * 23.pr :- ;g dek.M fizUVj }kjk Qkby dks fizUV djus ds fy, mi;ksx gksrk gSA Syntax: - $pr [option] filename Option: - -d : text dks double space esa fizUV djrk gSA -h : ;g headen text dks output ds izkjEHk esa fgMu ds :Ik esa fizUV djrk gSA -i. : ;g ist dh No. of Lines dks lsV djsxkA -w: ;g ist dh pkSM+kbZ dks lsV djsxkA 24.ln command :- ;g dek.M nks ;k nks ls vf/kd Qkbyksa dks fyad djus ds fy, mi;ksx gksrk gSA blds lkFk ,d vkWi’ku –s dk mi;ksx Symbolic link LFkkfir djus ds fy, gkrk gSA Syntax: - $ln [opion] <source file> <target file> 25.mail :- tc Hkh ykbuDl dks ykWfxau djrs gSa rks vkidks esy ds lEcU/k esa lwpuk izkIr gksrh gSA ;g lwpuk bl :Ik esa gksrh gSA you have mail ;fn vki bl mail dks bl le; ugha iM+rs gSa rks ;g message le; le; ij mifLFkr gksrk jgsxk bl mail command dk iz;ksx izkIr gq, mail dks iM+us ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS mail dks /khjs /khjs ns[kus ds fy;s ctrl+s rFkk vkxs cM+us ds fy, ctrl + q dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA 26.chmod command: - bl dek.M dk iz;ksx fdlh nh xbZ Qkby dh lEcU/k esa permission ( read, write, execute ) dks cnyus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Syntax:- $chmod mode filename rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 67. fdlh Qkby dks mi;ksx djus ds fy, Linux network system ij rhu System dke djrs gS user, groups and other . fdlh Qkby dh rhuksa permission dks nsus ds fy, (+) rFkk gVkus ds (-) fpUg dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA fdlh Qkby dh permission user, groups and other dks nsus ds fy, chmod dek.M dk mi;ksx fuEu izdkj mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA Example:- $chmod u+rwx, g-rwx, o-rwx raja mDr dek.M ds }kjk u g and o dks read write rFkk executable permission yxk ldrs gSA lHkh permission gVkus ds fy, fuEu izdkj fy[krs gS $chmod u-rwx, g-rwx, o-rwx raja bl dek.M ds }kjk u g o dks rhuksa permission gVk ldrs gS blh izdkj fdlh ,d O;fDr u, g and o dks dksbZ ,d ;k nks ;k rhuksa permission yxkus ;k gVkus d fy, + rFkk – fpUg dk iz;ksx dj ;g dk;Z fd;k tk ldrk gSA fuEu izdkj r w x permission yxk o gVk ldrs gS% +r or -r read permission +w or –w write permission +x or -x executable permission fdlh Qkby dh permission nsus o gVkus ds fy, vkafdd iz.kkyh dk Hkh mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS vkafdd iz.kkyh esa permission ds fy, rhu vad fn;s tkrs gS ftlesa igyk vad ;wtj dk nwljk vad xzqi dk rhljk vad vU; ds fy, gksrk gSA bl izdkj vakfdd iz.kkyh ds vk/kkj ij fofHkUu mode number fuEu izdkj gSA 400 Read Permission 200 Write Permission OWNER (USER) 100 Execute Permission 040 Read Permission 020 Write Permission GROUP 010 Execute Permission 004 Read Permission 002 Write Permission other 001 Execute Permission bl izdkj bl vkafdd iz.kkyh ds Combination ds }kjk fdlh Qkby ds }kjk fdlh Qkby dh permission user group and other ,d nks ;k rhuksa permission nh tk ldrh gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 68. ~ fdlh Qkby dh permission ns[kus ds fy, fuEu dek.M dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA $ls -l raja 27.find command :- bl dek.M dk mi;ksx Linux esa file dks search djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA ;g dos ds dir/ <file name> command dh rjg dk;Z djrk gSA Syntax: - $find –name <filename> -print Option: - -print : ;g search fd;s x;s result dks fizaV djrk gS ;fn print option ugha yxkrs gS rks file search rks djsxk fdUrq screen ij print ugha gksrkA -name : ;g fn;s x;s uke dh Qkby dks ns[sskxkA mnk :- $find -name raja –print ;g dek.M raja file dks orZeku directory esa lpZ djds print djsxkA ;fn ges lkjh lc Mk;jsDVh esa Qkby dks search djrk gS rks fuEu dek.M fy[krs gSa $find/ -name raja –print ;g raja file dks lkjh lc Mk;jsDV~zh esa search djsxkA 28.cmp :- ;g ,d rqyuk djus okyk dek.M gS ;g nks QkbZy dh rqyuk djus esa mi;ksx gksrk gSA rFkk ;g crkrk gS fd nksuksa QkbZy ,d gS ;k ughaA linux esa ;fn nks Qkbyksa ds igys 14 character cjkcj gks rks os Qkbysa ,d leku dgykrh gSA Syntax: - $cmp filename1 filename2 Example: - $cmp raja rani ;g Raja file dh Rani file ls rqyuk djsxkA 29.date :- ;g dek.M orZeku fnukWad iznf’kZr djrk gSA $date sun Aug 8 20:03:35 IST 2004 30.tty :- ;g dek.M VfeZuy ds Qkby dk uke iznf’kZr djrk gS tks fd ekud input ls tqM+k gksrk gSA Syntax: - $ tty /dev/pts/o 31.greap :- bl dek.M dk iz;ksx fdlh text dks ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd Qkbyksa esa search djrs ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS rFkk mu ykbuksa dks fn[kkrk gS ftlesa fn;k x;k Text string gS ;g dos ds find command dh rjg gSA Syntax : greap [option] “text pattern” <filename> rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 69. -c :- ;g mu ykbuksa dks iznf’kZr djsxk tks match gqbZ gSA -I :- ;g lower rFkk upper v{kjksa esa varj ugha djsxkA -l :- mu Qkbyksa ds uke fn[kk;sxk ftuesa ykbuDl esfpax gqbZ gS -n :- izR;sd matching line dh list mlds line no ds lkFk nsrk gSA -v :- mu lines dks fn[kkrk gS tks match ugha gqbZ gSA mnk :- $greap “I am going” raja.txt 32.chwon :- tc ge Qkby dk fuekZ.k djrs gS rks mlds owner Lo;a gh gksrs gS ij dHkh dHkh fLFkfr ,slh gksrh gS fdowner ship (LokfeRo) dks nwljs ;wtj ds LFkkukUrj.k djuk pkgr gS rks blds fy;s chwon command dk use fd;k tkrk gSA Syntax: - chwon [opion] <username> <filename> Example :- $chown ajay report 33.chgrp :- ;g chwon command dh rjg gh gS ijUrq bldk iz;ksx Qkby dh group ownership dks transfer djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA Syntax: - chgrp [option] <group> <filename> $Chgrp dca report 34.kill :- ;fn dksbZ izkslsl background esa py jgh gS vFkkZr fdlh nwljs ;wtj }kjk terminal ls pykbZ xbZ gS rks mls kill }kjk [kRe fd;k tk ldrk gSA Syntax : kill [option] PID tgkW PID process identify number gSA Example : pgdca :$kill 101 ;g ml izkslsl dks [kRe dj nsxk ftldk PID 101 gS ;fn vki pid no. ns[kuk pkgrs gS rks ps command dk iz;ksx djrs gSA ksh :- ;g linux dk dkQh popular shell gSA korn shell esa tkus ds fy;s ksh command dk iz;ksx djrs gSA uucp :- bl dek.M dk mi;ksx ,d e’khu ls Qkby dh nwljh e’khu ij dkih djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA Syntax : $uucp <source file> <destination file> Example : $uucp report 1991 anurag ! uar/raju/report 1991 ;gkW ij anuraga ,d e’khu dk uke gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 70. 35.copy : ;g dek.M postgreSQL table rFkk standered file, system files ds chp MkVk dks ewo djrk gS copy to command table ds iwjs MkVk dks Qkby esa ewo dj nsrk gSA rFkk copy from command file ds MkVk dks Vscy esa LFkkukrfjr dj nsrk gSA Standard Input/Output Re-direction lHkh operating System esa standard input device keyboard gksrh gSA rFkk standard output device monitor ( VDU ) gksrh gSA ijarq dHkh dHkh ;g vko’;drk gksrh gSA fd  ,d command dk output izkIr dj mls eksfuVj ij ns[kus ds fy, ,d LFkku ij Qkby esa j[kk tk ldsA  ,d command ds fy;s input, keyboard ds LFkku ij ls Qkby esa gksA Linux esa bl mijksDr leL;kvksa dks gy djus ds fy;s I/O Redirectors gSA ;s input rFkk output dh fn’kk cny nsrs gSA Input / Output redirections command Symbol User Results > Command > filename < Command < filename file ls input izkIr djds command ds }kjk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA bls input re-director dgrs gSA >> command>>filename command dk output file dks append ( tksM+ ) djrkgSA | (pipe) command1 | Command2 igys command1 run gksxk vkSj bldk output command2 dks fn;k tk;sxkA command ds output dks file esa Hkstrk gSA bls output re-director dgrs gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 71. tSls % $cat> anu ;g anu uke ls file dks mRiUu djsxk blesa input Keyboard ls fy;k tk;sxk rFkk keyboard ls fy;s x;s input dks anu Qkby esa j[k fn;k tk;sxkA $ ls > raja ;g current directory list dks raka file esa Hkst nsxkA ;fn crkbZ xbZ file igys ls miyC/k gS ugha gS rks 'kSy mls igys mRiUu dj nsxkvkSj ;fn file igys ls miyC/k gS rks ls command ds }kjk mRiUu MkVk Qkby esa ekStwn MkVk dks gVkdj u;k MkVk fy[k nsxkA $cat < raja.txt ;g jktk Qkby ds vanj ds contents dks screen ij iznf’kZr djsxkA $cat>> raja.txt ;g jktk Qkby dks append dj nsxkA $ls|ls ;g current directory dh list dks printer ds fy;s Hkst nsxkA NOTE: input output dk ,d fo’ks"k area pipe (|) gSA ftlesa programmers dh ,d fo’ks"k :fp gksrh gS D;ksafd linux programming esa pipe ,d vge Hkwfedk vnk djrs gSA tc pipe (setup) iz;ksx djrs gS rks blesa ,d dek.M ds fy;s input dk dk;Z djrkgSA iz’u ;g vkrk gS fd ikbZi rFkk fjMkjsD’ku esa D;k varj gSA redirection esa output dks ges’kk Qkby esa Hkstk tkrk gS tcfd ikbZi esa output dks dek.M esa Hkstk tkrk gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 72. VI TEXT EDITOR VI dk iwjk uke Visual Editor gSA Linux esa bldks ,d cM+k Software ekuk x;k gSA blls igys editing dk dk;Z djus ds fy, ed uked line editor dk iz;ksx gksrk FkkA vi editor dk mi;ksx ascii file dks create djus ;k edit djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA tSls shell scripts cukuk ]mail messages, System file vkfnA Vi Editor esa ge dlZj dks Ldzhu dh ml yksds’ku ij ysdj tk ldrs gS tgka ij vki dksbZ ifjorZu djuk pkgrs gS ;k vki fdlh izdkj dk xykscy psat djuk pkgrs gksaA Vi eseksjh esa Qkby dh ,d dkWih ij dk;Z djrk gS vkSj fMLd ij Qkby dks rHkh viMsV djrk gS tc ge bls ,slk djus ds fy;s dgrs gSA izR;sd ,MhVj esa buiqV fMokbl nks dk;Z djrh gS Qkby esa VSDLV dks balVZ djkuk vkSj ,MhVj dks funsZ’k nsus ds fy;s dek.M nsukA Vi editor ds ykHk (main advantages of Vi) % 1. Vi iw.kZ :i ls UnioX flLVe ij miyC/k gksrk gS ;g LVscy QkWeZ gksrk gS D;ksfd ;s iw.kZ :i ls Qzh gksrk gSA 2. Vi dbZ lkjh dek.M~l j[krk gS vYQkU;wesfjd dhdksmi;ksx djrk gSA bls Lis’ky QaD’ku dh vko’;drkugha gksrh gSA 3. Vi ,d NksVk izksxzke gS fyls cgqr T;knk flLVe eSeksjh ;k CPU Vkbe dh vko’;drk ugha gksrh gSA ;g vR;f/kd rhozrk ls dk;Z djrk gSA 4. Vi iw.kZ :i ls VfeZuy fMokbl baMhisUMsUV gSA ;s fdlh Hkkh izdkj ds VfeZuy ds lkFk dk;Z dj ldrk gSA Vi editor ds eq[; nks"k (Main disadvantages of Vi):- Vi Column oreanted ugha gS ;g izR;sd ykbu dks izHkkfor djus ds fy;s dek.M ugha j[krk gSA 1. Vi esa dSjsDVlZ ds Lis’khQkbM iSVuZ ds fy;s dek.M lhfer gSA Vi Editor dks start nks izdkj ls dj ldrs gS 1. Without file: $vi 2. With file : $vi[option] <file name> vi ds lkFk mi;ksx fd;s tkus okys dqN option fuEu gS -L : ;g Vi dks start djrk gSA SSystem ds crash gksus ds le; ij lost gqbZ Qkby dks recover djrk gSA -r : Recovers an open filew after a crash -R :Recover a file last does not allow you to change the file. Vi Editor Mode: rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 73. Vi Editor esa dk;Z djus ds rhu eksM gksrs gSA ftuesa vyx vyx dk;Z fd;s tkrs gSA Command Mode Text Mode ( Insert Mode) Last Line Mode (Ex Mode) (1). Command Mode :- Vi Editor dk fMQkYV eksM gksrk gSA bl eksM esa ge fofHkUu izdkj ds dek.M dks tSls ykbZu fMyhV] VsDl dkWih djuk vkfn dk;Z dj ldrs gSA “Esc Key” press djds text mode ls command mode esa vk ldrs gS Vi Editor izkjEHk gksus ij blh mode esa vkrk gSA (2). Text Mode (Insert Mode) :- bl eksM esa text type djus dk dk;Z fd;k tkrk gSA “i” press djds command mode ls text mode esa vk ldrs gSA blds vykok Hkh vU; rjhds fuEu gS : Command Result Enter Enter dh press djus ls ml v{kj ds rqjar ckn u;h ykbu insert gkxhA i i key press djus ls dlZj ds igys v{kj tqM+rk gSA 2 I key press djus ls orZeku ykbu ds izkjEHk esa v{kj tqM+rk gSA a blls dlZj iksth’ku ds ckn v{kj tksM+rk gSA A blls orZeku ykbu ds var esa v{kj tqM+rk gSA c iwjk VsDl cny tkrk gSA C orZeku ykbu es dlZj ds ckn dk iwjk VsDl cny tkrk gSA o blls orZeku ykbu ds rqjUr ckn u;h ykbu O blls orZeku ykbu ds igys u;h ykbu insert gksxhA R ,d v{kj dks cnyk tkrk gSA R v{kjksa dks tc rd cnyk tkrk gS tc rd ESC Key press u dh tk;sA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 74. ~ (3). Last Line Mode (Ex Mode) : bl eksM ds }kjk Qkbyks dks gs.My fd;k tkrk gS Qkbyksa dks gS.My djus ls rkRi;Z Qkby dks lso djuk]a text string dks search djuk] ,d fLVzax dks nwljh fLVax ls cnyuk gSA “/” or “ ? ” key press djds bl eksM esa tk ldrs gS budk fuEu izdkj ls iz;ksx dj ldrs gSA /text cursor position ls vkxs dh vksj text dks search djrkgSA ?text cursor position ls ihNs dhvksj text dks search djrk gSA N Last Find reapet :s/text/text1 orZeku ykbu esa igys text ds LFkku ij text1 replace djrk gSA :s/text/text1/g orZeku ykbu esa lHkh text ds LFkku ij text1 replace djrk gSA :1,5 s/text/text1/g :1,$ s/text/text1/g line No 1 ls Qkby ds var rd lHkh text ds LFkku ij text1 dks replce djrk gSA Command Mode ds dqN vU; mi;ksxh dekaM fuEufyf[kr gSA line No 1 ls line No 5 ds e/; lHkh text ds LFkku ij text1 dks replce djrk gSA rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 75. Cursor Movment Command: - Command Action k Up arrow ctrl + P Up arrow j Down arrow ctrl + N Down arrow h Left arrow ctrl + H Left arrow - Move the first character of the previous line 0 Move to the first character of the current line G Go to the last of document H Home move to the first character on top line L Move to the first character on the bottom line M Move to the first character on the middle line w move to the curser on next word nG Move Nth Line No ctrl + F Page Forward ctrl + B Page Backward Screen Movement Commands Command Action ctrl + Y Roll Up ctrl + E Roll Down ctrl + U Scroll Up ctrl + D Scroll Down rock_siraj@ymail.com
  • 76. Delete Command Command Action dd Delete one line dw Delete one word x Delete a character u undo last change D Delete all current position File Command Command Action :w save file :q quit with saving :q! quit without saving ZZ quit with saving rock_siraj@ymail.com

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