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Disk operating system
 

Disk operating system

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SirajRock

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    Disk operating system Disk operating system Document Transcript

    • J.C.S COMPUTER Operating System Unit- I [Dos, Widow 95/98, Window NT] Interoduction:→ Operating system ,d master control program gksrk gS tks computer dk → lapkyu djrk gSA vkSj ,d fu;=ad dh Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gSA CPU ls izkIr ldsrks dks computer ds Hkkxks rd tkus ds izokg flow dks Hkh ;g fu;f=r djrk gSA operating system computer dk ,d egRoiw.kZ vax gS D;ksfd ;g vU; lHkh application programe dks computer es fdz;kfUor djrk gSA lHkh vU; program computer e’khu ds lEidZ es vkus ls igys operating system ds lEidZ es vkrs gSA Example: → M.S. Dos , Windows 95, Unix, window 98 , window 2000 , OS/2, warp, window NT etc IMB ds mainframe computer ds fy, operating system fuEu gSA 1- mvs 2- vms 3- Dos/vsE etc M.S. DOS [Micro soft – Disk operating system] I. Introduction, History & Viersion of Dos:→ bldk iwjk uke microsoft disk operating → system gSA ;g lcls yksdfiz; operating system gS tks micro computer es iz;qDr gksrk gS Personal computer ds fy, IBM us loZizFke PC-Dos uke ls ,d operating system rS;kj fd;k FkkA blds fodkl es fcyxsLVl uked ,d izksxkej dk lg;ksx fd;k FkkA ckn es fcy xsV~l us viuh dEiuh z microsoft corporation dk xBu fd;kA August 1981 es microsoft corporation us MS Dos uke ds operating system dk laLdj.k 1.0 fodflr fd;k tks IBM ds PC ds fy, rS;kj fd;k x;k FkkA lu~ 1983 es tc hard disk ;qDr micro computer fodflr fd;s x;s rc MS Dos 2.0 version market es vk;k bl operating system ds }kjk ,d gh disk ij vusd files dks lxzfgr djus dh lqfo/kk gks xbZ lkFk gh file vkSj directory ds fl)kUr dk pyu gqvkA lu~ 1984 es intel 80286 izkslslj ;qDr micro computer fodflr fd;s x;s rc m.s. Dos 3.0 vkSj m.s. Dos 4.0 version dk fodkl fd;k x;kA microsoft ds operating system dks Dos (Disk operating system) dgk tkrk gSA D;ksfd ;g vf/kdrj disk ls lEcfU/kr Input/ output dk;Z djrk gSA I. DOS Basics:(i) File:→ Computer es data ,oa lwpuk dks ,d fer djds lxzg djus ds fy, ,d bdkbZ dks file → dgrs gSA ;g bysDVksfud fof/k ls lxzfgr fd tkrh gSA blfy, bls bysDVksfud file Hkh dgrs gSA Data ,oa information dks secondary storage device ij stor djus ds fy, bysDVksfud file rS;kj dh tkrh gSA Data :→ ;g o.kZekyk ds v{kj , vad vkSj fpUg gksrs gSA tSls%& uke, izkIrkad , fnukad vkfn Data gSA → files nks izdkj dh gksrh gSA (a) Data file (b) Progrem file (a) Data file:→ ;g lwpukvks dks vkadMks ds :i es stor j[krh gSA tSls%& fo/kkfFkZ;ks ds uke , jksy → uEcj , ijh{kk es izkIrkad vkfn laxzg djds j[k ldrk gSA (b) Program file:→ bl file es ge fdlh computer Hkk"kk es fy[ks funsZ’kks dks lxzfgr djrs gSA → SIRAJ SIR 1
    • J.C.S COMPUTER Element of file :→ ,d data file es vkadMs gks ldrs gS izR;sd vkadMs vusd fields ls feydj cuk gksrk → gS izR;sd field es djsDVj gksrs gSA rhu rRo gksrs gSA (A) character:→ ;s o.kZekyk ds v{kj vad ;k fo’ks"k fpUg gksrs gS dqy 256 izdkj ds character gks → ldrs gS A o.kZekyk ds v{kj & ( A to Z and 0 to Z ) vad & 0 to 9 fpUg & ( ) / * < > # { } [ ] ` (B) field:→ tc computer file dks ,d lkj.kh ds :i es rS;kj fd;k tkrk gS rc bldk izR;sd → LrEHk ;k dkWye field dgykrk gSA tSls%& Roll. No. student Name Date of Birth Marks 787 Prem 02&10&1975 48 788 Ashok 05&07&1982 49 789 Shri Ram 05&07&1986 46 field field field field (C) Record:→ file es laxzfgr lwpuk dh ,d iafDr record dgykrh gSA TkSls%& → Roll. No. student Name Date of Birth Mark Record 787 Prem 02-10-1975 48 Record 788 Ashok 05-07-1982 49 Record 789 Shri Ram 05-07-1986 46 file & file name:→ computer es rS;kj dh tkus okyh izR;sd file dks disk ij laxzfgr djus ds fy, → mldk uke fu/kkZfjr fd;k tkrk gS bls file name dgrs gSA file name dh lgk;rk ls ge disk ij laxzfgr file dks iqu% izkIr dj ldrs gS mls disk ls gVk ;k feVk ldrs gs mles laxzfgr lwpuk dks laxzfgr Hkh dj ldrs gSaA disk ij laxzfgr lHkh file dks lwph ,d i`Fkd LFkku ij laxzfgr gksrh gS ftls directory dgrs gSA blls izR;sd files ds file name ds lkFk mldh disk ij fLFkfr dk irk pyrk gSA Rule of file Name:→ fuEufyf[kr fu;e gSA → (i) file name es nks Hkkx gks ldrk gS (a) Primary file name:→ ;g vf/kdre 8 character es fn;k tkrk gS o U;wure 1 → character es ns ldrs gSA tSls %& SALES, PHRCHASE etc (b) Extension ;k foLrkjd %→ ;g max 3 character es fu/kkZfjr fd;k tkrk gSA ;g file foLrkjd %→ name dh izd`fr] izdkj ];k fo’ks"krk dks O;Dr djrk gSA tSls%& EXE , BAT etc (ii) Primary file name ,ao Extension ds chp MkWV dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA Example:-SALES . DOC ↓ ↓ Primary file name Extension (iii) lEiw.kZ file name es v{kjks ds e/; space ugh fn;k tk ldrk gSA (iv)nks ;k nks ls vf/kd files ds file name ,d leku ugh gks ldrs gSA (v) ,sls file name ugh fn;s tk ldrs gS ftuds vFkZ M.S. Dos es fo’ks"k vFkZ j[krs gSA M.S. Dos ds funsZ’k dks file name ds :i iz;ksx ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA Example:- Copy, DEL, RD vkfn (vi) file name es funsZ’k fpUgks dk iz;ksx ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA tSls%& [ ] < > etc SIRAJ SIR 2
    • J.C.S COMPUTER Directory & Directory structure:→ vusd file dh lwph dks directory dgrs gSA ,d directory → es laxzfgr files ds ckjs es fuEufyf[kr lwpuk,W gksrh gSA (a) file name (b) Extension (c) files es mifLFkr character dh la[;k ;k file dk vkdkj Byte es (d) fnukad Date (e) Time le; blds }kjk ge Loa; dh viuh directory Hkh cuk ldrs gSA ge ,d directory ls vusd directory cuk ldrs gSA ftUgs Sub-Directory dgrs gsaA directory ds uke dks fu/kkZfjr djus ds fy, file name ds fu;e ykxw gksrs gSA (a) Current Directory:→ ;g og Directory gksrh gS ftles ge orZeku es dk;Z dj jgs gSA → tSls%& C: LOVLEEN > orZeku Directory Dos prempt es lovleen uke dh directory orZeku directory dks O;Dr djrh gSA (b) Root Directory:→ izR;sd Disk es ,d ewy directory gksrh gSA ftles disk dh vU; lHkh → Directory rS;kj gksrh gSA ;g directory disk dh format djrs gSA (i) le; Dos }kjk Lor% gh rS;kj gks tkrh gS A (ii) M.S. Dos es bl directory dk fpUg () Back clase fu/kkZfjr gksrk gS vr% (iii) ewy Directory dk dk;Z uke ugh gksrk gSA Example:- C:>_ ↓ Root directory C: LOVLEEN > _ ↓ ↑ Root directory Current directory Root directory dh vusd 'kk[kk,W ;k sub directory gks ldrh gSs (iv) vr% ewy directory dks dHkh Hkh ugh feVk ldrs gSA C: &&&& → Dos →Windows →Word star →Data base →fox pro →Lovleen etc. (c) Drive Name:→ Drive computer es iz;qDr disk dks O;Dr djus ds fy, ,d ladr gksrk gSA → s Drive dks Dos es o.kZekyk ds v{kj (character) vkSj dhyu fpUg (:) ds }kjk O;Dr fd;k tkrk gS A tSls%&C:,B:,A:, etc Micro computer es izk; floppy disk hard disk Compact disk vkfn iz;qDr gksrh gSA buds Drive fpUg dks ge C:,A:,B:,D:, vkfn ls O;Dr djrs gSA Hard disk dks izk; C:, ls O;Dr djrs gSA ;fn computer es ,d ls vf/kd hard disk gS rks bUgs C:,D:,E:, vkfn ls O;Dr djrs gSA Dos izksEV orZeku drive dks bl izdkj O;Dr djrs gSA C:LOVLEEN > _ (d) Using path to specify location of a file ( file dh fLFkfr crkus ds fy, path dk iz;ksx ) :→File directory ;k Sub-directory es mifLFkr gksrh gSA fpUg /(slash) ftls (path & Sign) dgrs → gSA C:PremAshokshri RamKailash >↓ ↓ Root Directory Path Sign SIRAJ SIR 3
    • J.C.S COMPUTER Parts of a Command:→ M.S. Dos ds command ds rhu Hkkx gksrs gSA → (A) Command Name:→ Command name og 'kCn gksrk gS ftls ge command es lcls → igys nsrs gSA ftldh lgk;rk ls Dos dks ;g irk pyrk gS fd ges D;k fdz;k djuh gSA tSls%& Dir,Copy,Del etc (B) Parameter:→ M.S. Dos dks dHkh dHkh command es vfrfjDr lwpuk dh vko’;drk → gksrh gSA blds fy, command name ds ckn Parameter dk use fd;k tkrk gSA tSls%& C:DEL b SALES.TxT↵ command ds fy, parameter ,d ls vf/kd Hkh gks ldrs gSA (C) Switch or options:→ switch dk iz;ksx / (Right slash) ds ckn ,d v{kj ds }kjk → command ds vUr es fn;k tkrk gS bldh lgk;rk ls funsZ’k ds dk;Z dks ubZ fn’kk nh tkrh gSA Example:→ C:>Dir/P↵ ;k C: >Dir/ ↵ ;gkW P ,d switch gSA ftldh lgk;rk ls file dks page wise ns[k ldrs gSA Booting:→ Computer dks on djus ij loZizFke bldh LFkkbZ memory Ram es lxzfgr gksrh gSSA → BIOS:- Basic Input output system file computer ds leLr Input Output midj.kks dh tkWp djrh gSA HardDisk ls MS-Dos operatring system RAM es tkrh gSA rFkk rhuks files IOSys , MS- Dos Sys vkSj Command. Com vkfn Hkh RAM es Load dh tkrh gSA vUr es computer dh Ldzhu ij MS-Dos dk Prompt fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA bl izdkj Dos dk computer dh memory es Lor% laxzfgr gksuk Booting dgykrk gSA Computer dk fLop vkWu djuk ↓↕ POST & (Power on self Text) ↕↓ Memory es Dos Lod djuk ↕↓ & Dos Prompt ↓ C: >_ Key board Bootable file rhu izdkj dh gksrh gSA 1- IO. Sys → Hidden file 2- MS. Dos . Sys → Hidden file 3- Command . Com → Program file M.S.- Dos dh eq[; files ( Main file of MS.DOS) → MS. Dos operating system dh eq[; files dqN fo’ks"k dk;ksZ tSls (a) Booting dh fdz;k (b) Input output ds fMukbZlst fu/kkZfjr dj mUgs lek;ksftr djuk (c) operating system ds internal command dks memory es stor djuk vkfnA buds Extension Hkh fo’ks"k gksrs gS .Sys, .Com, .exe, .BAT etc SIRAJ SIR 4
    • J.C.S COMPUTER (A) IO.SYS vkSj MS.DOS .SYS files :→ ;s nksuks files fNih gqbZ gksrh gSA ftuds uke ge files dh → lwph es ns[k ugh ikrs gSA ;s izR;sd Disk ij mifLFkr gksrh gSA ;s nksuks files booting ds le; Lor% gh computer dh RAM es stor gks tkrh gSA ;s nksuks files Dos kernel dk izfrfuf/kRo djrh gSA Dos kernal computer Input/Output devices vkSj operating system ds e/; lEidZ LFkkfir djrk gSA bUgs ns[kus ds fy, C:>Dir/AH dk iz;ksx djrs gSA (B) Command . Com: → MS-Dos es ,d command interpretor gksrk gSA tks rhuks files IO.Sys, MS.Dos.Sys vkSj command.Com dk lewg gksrk gSA Command .Com file ,d Program file gSA command .Com file user dks computer ls lEidZ LFkkfir djus dh lqfo/kk nsrh gSA bles internal command stor jgrs gSA ftUgs user Dos prompt ij type djds Execute djrk gSA Command .com dks command interpreter, Console command processor ;k shell Hkh dgrs gSA tSls %& Computer Io. Sys & ms dos . sys User Hard ware Command. Com Computer Interface (C) AutoExe . BAT file:→ Booting ds ckn operating system disk ij Autoexe.BAT file → dksa <q<rk gS vkSj bls fdz;kfUor Execute dj nsrk gSA ;g fdz;k computer dks ON djus ij izR;sd ckj gksrh gSA Autoexe.BAT file ,d Batch file gSA ftles Dos command gksrs gSA ;g program file ds leku bles fy[ks funsZ’kks dks Lor% Execute djrh gSA blfy, bldk uke Autoexe vFkkZr~ Auto Executable j[kk x;k gSA Autoexe . BAT file es ge Disk ij mifLFkr vU; Application Programs dh fLFkfr crkus okys Dos command laxzfgr djrs gSA tSls%& PATH & C:ws ; C:Dbase ; C:windows Note:- IO.Sys, MS.Dos .Sys, ,oa Command . Com file MS.DOS dh system file dgykrh gSA (D) Config . Sys file :→ Computer dks on djus ds ckn Boot gksrk gSA rFkk ge AutoExec BAT → file ls MS-Dos operating system es vU; software dh fLFkfr fu/kkZfjr djrs gSA blds ckn MSDos }kjk computer es mifLFkr Hardware dh fLFkfr vkSj izdkj fu/kkZfjr djus dh ckjh vkrh gSA blds fy, Config.Sys file dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ;g Text file gksrh gS tks Computer ds Hardware Hkkxks ( memory, keyboard, mouse, printer etc ) dks fu/kkZfjr djrs gSA ;g Root Directory es stor jgrh gSA bles ge la’kks/ku dj ldrs gSA vkSj u;s funsZ’k Hkh tksM ldrs gSaA Config.sys file es fy[ks tkus okys Command Example:-- (i) Buffer:→ ;g MS-Dos dks ;g crkrk gS dh disk ls lwpukvks ds vknku iznku ds → fy, Memory dk fdruk Hkkx fjDr NksMk tk,A (ii) Country:→ fofHkUu ns’kks dh Hkk"kkvks ds fu/kkZj.k ds fy, Computer system dks fuf’pr → djrk gSA (iii) Device:→ fdlh device dks pykus ls lEcfU/kr program device drive dks memory → es lxzfgr djrk gSA tSls%& Mouse Driver, Printer Driver etc. (iv) Files:→ ;g ,d ckj es fdruh files computer fd directory es [kksyh tk ldrh gSA → (v) Shell:→ ;fn ge command . com ds vykok dksbZ vU; command interpreter iz;ksx → djuk pkgrs gS rks ;g mls fuf’pr djus ds dke vkrk gSA SIRAJ SIR 5
    • J.C.S COMPUTER DOS COMMAND Types of Dos Command ;g nks izdkj dh gksrh gSA (i) Internal Command (ii) External Command (i) Internal Command:→ ;s command Dos ds lkFk lnSo miyC/k jgrs gSA D;ksfd ;s command → botting ds le; Lor% memory es stor gks tkrh gSA ;s lHkh command command.com programe file es ladfyr gksrs gSA blfy;s ;s command lnSo miyC/k jgrs gSA tc rd ge computer dks off ugh dj nsrs gSA fuEufyf[kr Internal command gSA (i) Command:→ CLS ( clear the screen) → Syntax:→ C:>CLS↵ Purpose: →;g screen ds contents dks feVkrk gS rFkk curser monitor dh izFke line ds izFke column ij igqWp tkrk gSA (ii) Command:→ DATE → Syntax:→ C:>Date↵ Example:→ C:>Date rks vkrk gS current Date is 10&03&2001 Purpose:→ bl command ds }kjk ge computer es date ns ldrs gS ;g date American format es gksrh gSA tSla%& mm&dd&yy es nh tkrh gSA (iii) Command:→ Time → Syntax:→ c:>Time↵ Example:→ c:>Time↵ blds ckn fuEufyf[kr lines vk;sxh%& current time is 10%06%32%40 Enter new times Purpose:→ blds ckn ;fn le; cnyuk gks rks ?kaVk% feuV% lSd.M ds :i es u;k le; fn;k tkrk gS ugh rks dsoy Inter dj nsrs gSA (iv) Command:→ Dir → Syntax:→ C:>Dir↵ Example: → C:>Dir ↵ blds mrj es vkidh screen ij mu lHkh files ,ao Subdirectory ds uke vk tk;sxs tks fd current directory es gSA Purpose:→ fdlh directory es 'kkfey lHkh files ,ao Sub-directory dh lwph dks ns[kus ds fy, bl command dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA Options:→ Diroptions (a) DirP→ todisplay page wise (b) DirW→ to display width wise (c) Diron → To order by (A to Z ) Name (d)Dir -n→Reverse order by name(Z to A) (e)DirOE→ order by Extention (A to Z) (f)DirO-E→Reverse order by Extention (Z to A) (g)DirOD→ order by date (h)DirS→ To display list of sub-directory & their files also (i) DirO-s → Order by size (j) DirAH→ To display hidden file (k) DirA → To display all files including hidden file Name <Dir> Bytes page date time (l) DirAD→ show only directories (m) DirAS → show system files SIRAJ SIR 6
    • J.C.S COMPUTER (v) Command:→ Copy- Con → Syntax:→ C:>copy b con b <file name> ↵ Example:→ C:>copy b con b PREM↵ blds ckn curser fups vk tkrk gS mlds ckn tks file cukuh gS mlds contents fy[ks tkrs gS mlds ckn Az ;k f6 djrs gS rks 1 file copied fy[kk gqvk vk;sxkA Purpose:→ bldk use file cukus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA (vi) Command:→ Type → Syntax:→ C:>Type b <file name>↵ Example: →C:>Type b Prem ↵ Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx file es fy[ks x;s contents dks ns[kus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA (vii) Command:→ VER [version] → Syntax:→ C:>VER ↵ Example:→ C:>VER↵ bldk mrj fuEu izdkj vk;sxk M.S. Dos version 6-22 Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx M.S. Dos dk version dkSulk gS ns[kus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA (viii) Command: →VOL [volume] Syntax:→ C:>VOL↵ Example:→ C:>VOL ↵ rks vk;sxk Purpose:→ bldk iz;ksx computer volume crkrk gSA (ix) Command:→ MD [Make Directory] → Syntax:→ C:>md b <directory name> ↵ Example:→ C:>md b PREM ↵ Purpose:→ fdlh disk ;k floppy ij Root directory ;k fdlh nwljh directory es dksbZ sub-directory cukus ds fy, bldk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA leku uke dh nks directory ugh cuk ldrs gSA (x) Command: →CD [change directory] Syntax:→ C:>cd b <directory name> ↵ Example:→ C:>cd b PREM ↵ C:Prem↵ Purpose→ bl command dk iz;ksx current directory cnyus ds fy, Hkh fd;k tkrk gSA blls ckgj vkus ds fy, C:PREM > CD.. ↵ lh/ks root directory es vkus ds fy, :-- CD dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA (xi) command:→ RD [Remove directory ] → Syntax:→ C:> RD b < directory name> ↵ Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx fdlh directory dks gVkus ds fy, ;g vko’;d gS fd og [kkyh gksuh pkfg, mles u rks file o u gh Sub-Directory gksuh pkfg,A Example:→ C:PREM Ashok > copy b con b Ram ↵ method type Az ;k f6 1file copied igys file gVkus ds fy, C:PREM Ashok > DEL b RAM ↵ C:PREM Ashok > cd ↵ C: PREM > RD b Ashok ↵ C: PREM > cd ↵ C: > RD b Prem ↵ C: > ↵ SIRAJ SIR 7
    • J.C.S COMPUTER (xii) Command:→ Copy → Syntax:→ C:> copy b <source name> b <target name>↵ Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx fdlh file dh udy djds oSlh gh nwljh file cukus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA (i) ,d directory ls vU; directory es (ii) ,d drive ls vU; drive es Example—C:>copy Ajay Exe A: ↵ Example:→ C:> Copy b Ram b Shyam ↵ bl command ls shyam uke dh ,d file vkSj cudj rS;kj gks tk;sxh vkSj vUr es fy[kk gqvk vk;sxk 1 file (s) copied ;fn bl uke dh file cuh gqbZ gS rks lUns’k vk;sxk& file already exists overwrite it? (Yes/No) vkidks Y ;k N nsuk gS Y nsus ij iqjkuh file dks xk;c djds ubZ file cuk nh tkrh gSA fu;e%→ (i) ;fn ewy file current Dir es ugh gS rks iwjk path nsuk gksxkA (ii) ;fn ubZ file current Dir es ugh cukuh gS rks mlds uke ds lkFk ml Directory dk path lfgr uke nsuk vfuok;Z gSA (iii) wild card fpUgks dk iz;ksx %→ Example:→ ;fn ges viuh current directory dh lHkh file system files fdlh nwljh directory PRRG es copy djuh gS rks C:> copy b * sys. b PRG ↵ (xiii) Command:→ Ren [Rename] → Syntax:→ C:> Ren b <sorce name> b <target name>↵ Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx fdlh file & Directory dk uke change djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ C:>Ren b Ashok b Prem ↵ ;fn file dk uke cnyuk gS rks current directory es ugh gS rks mlds iqjkus uke ds lkFk iwjk path nsuk pkfg, u;s uke ds lkFk ikFk nsus dh t:jr ugh gSA C:> Ren b C:ABCCDERAM b C:shyam ↵ wild card sign dk iz;ksx %& C:>Ren b * ASC b * Txt ↵ (xiv) Command:→ DEL ( delete) → Syntax:→ C:> DEL b <file name> ↵ Purpose: →bl command }kjk disk ij mifLFkr vuqi;ksxh files dks delete gVkus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ (i) C:> Del b ABC↵ (ii) wild card dk iz;ksx C:>Del b * * ↵ rks igys psrkouh nh tk;sxh %& All file in the directory will be delete are you sure(Y/N) Y nsus ij file gV tk;sxh o N nsus ij command j) gks tk;sxkA (xv) Command:→ PATH → Syntax: →C:>PATH ↵ Example:→ C:>PATH ↵ rks vk;sxk%& PATH_ C:Dos; C:; C:Lotus ; C:Dbase Purpose:→ ;fn dksbZ eaxicutabletable file current directory es ugh gSA rks path }kjk mu file dsk set dj ldrs gSA bu files dks <q<us ds fy, iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA tSls%& ws rFkk Lotus Sub-Directory ds fy, path C:>path_ C:ws; C:lotus ↵ lko/kkuh %& nks Sub directory ds e/; ladr ; yxkuk vko’;d gSA s (xvi) Command:→ PROMPT → Syntax:→ C:> PROMPT b <Prompt name> ↵ Purpose:→ M.S.Dos dk :i cnyus ds fy, prompt command dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA SIRAJ SIR 8
    • J.C.S COMPUTER ge fdlh Hkh 'kCn ;k okD; dks Prompt cuk ldrs gSA Example: →C:>PROMPT b Iam Prem↵ rkss C:> ds LFkku ij I am Prem uke dk Prompt cu tk;sxkA C:> PROMPT /? djrs gSA rks fuEu vk;sxk Prompt can be made up of normal character and the following specials codes. $Q→ (equle Sign) $$→ $ (doller sign ) $T→ current Time $D→ current Date $P→ current drive & path name $V→ System Dos version number $N→ Current Drive $G→ > (Greater than sign) $L→ <(less than sign) $P→ : ( Pipe Sign) $B→ Back space okil C:>Prompt ykus ds fy, $E→ Escape code tSls Prompt b $ P $ G ↵ Example:-C:> prompt b $ D $T $Q $G ↵ rks Prompt bl izdkj dk vk;sxk:-TUE 08- 18- 1998 12: 28: 16 -;g prompt tc rd jgsxk rc rd nqckjk botting ugh gks tk;sA (xvii) Command:→Pause → Syntax:→ C:> Pause ↵ Purpose:→ bl Command dk iz;ksx fdlh processing dks dwN le; jksdus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example: →C:> Pause ↵ Pause message :bl command dh mi;ksfxrk rc gksrh gSA tc mi;ksx drkZ dks ,d volj nsuk gksrk gSA rkdh oks fdlh yEcs lans’k dks vPNh rjg ls i< ldsA ;g funsZ’k pkyq gksrk gS rks screen ij ;g lans’k vk;sxk& Press any key to continue AC }kjk bldks C:> ij yk;k tk ldrk gSA WILD CARD : →dHkh dHkh fdlh command ge ,d ;k lHkh file ds uke nsus dh ctk; dwN pquh gqbZ file ds lewg dk uke nsuk pkgrs gS ,slh fLFkfr es ge file uke es wild card dk iz;ksx djrs gSA M.S. Dos es wild card ds :i es nks fpUgks dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA (i) * ,d ls vf/kd v{kjks ds fy, bldk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA (ii) ? (Question) :→ ,d v{kj ds fy, iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ C:>Dir ABC *→ ;g ABC uke dh leLr file dks n’kkZrk gSA C: > Dir * * : →blds }kjk leLr files screen gksrh gSA C:>Dir AB ? D Dos :→ ckdh lHkh uke ;gh o ? ds LFkku ij dksbZ Hkh vda C:> Dir A??? Doc :→ igyk v{kj A o ckdh dksbZ Hkh gksA Dir, Copy, RDEL, & REN etc ds lkFk iz;ksx dj ldrs gSA (2) External Command ;s ,sls command gksrs gS tks computer dh eq[; memory es miyC/k ugh jgrs gSA cfYd vyx programe file ds :i es disk jgrs gS tSls gh vki dksbZ External command nsrs gS command processer mlls lEcfU/kr files dks disk ij <q<rk gSA vkSj fey tkus ij memory ess load dj nsrs gSA bldks pykus ds fy, ;g vko’;d gS fd mudk laLdj.k ogh gksuk pkfg, tks vkids M.S. Dos dk gSA ugh rks Incorrect version dk lans’k vk;sxk vkSj vkns’k j) gks tk;sxkA SIRAJ SIR 9
    • J.C.S COMPUTER fuEufyf[kr External command gSA (i) Command:→ CHK DSK (check disk) → Syntax: →C:> CHK DSK b <drive letter> ↵ Example:→ C:> CHKDSK B: ↵ Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx storage unit es fjDr memory rFkk mlls lEcfU/kr miyC/k lwpukvks es ckbV vkfn dk irk yxkus ds dke vkrk gSA ;kfu iz;ksx dh xbZ memory dh {kerk fdruh gSA blls option dk Hkh iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA (ii) Command :→ EDIT → Syntax:→ C:>EDIT↵ Purpose:→ bldk iz;ksx file cukus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ C:>EDIT ↵ rks vk;sxk file, edit, view, table, bles Hkh file cukdj mles Editting dj ldrs gSA (iii) Command:→SORT <file Name> ↵ → Syntax:→ C:> sort b <sorce file name > ↵ Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx file dks dzec) djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ C:>sort b ABC ↵ bles file ds contants dks sort fd;k tkrk gSA tSls %→ C:>copy con RAM↵ Kailash Ashok Shri Ram Prem AZ 1file copied mldas ckn sort command dk iz;ksx djrs gS rks ;g file sort accending order es gks tk;sxh tSls%& Ashok Kailash Prem Shri Ram ijUrq bUgs ;fn Desending order es djuh gS rks option ;k switch /R dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA C: > sort b /r <file name>↵ (iv) Command: →ATTRIB Syntax :→ C: > ATTRIB [+ - option ] <file name> ↵ C: > ATTRIB [+R: - R ] [+H : -H] [ +A : -A][ +S: - S] [Drive] [Path] [File Name ] [ /S] + → Sets an Attrubute - → Clears an Attribute R → Read only file H → Hidden file attribute A → Arthive file attribute S → system file attribute /S → Processes file in all directory in the special path Example: →(i) C: > ATTRIB +R ABC ↵ vc bl file es editting ugh dj ldrs bldks dsoy i< ldrs gSaA (ii) C:> ATTRIB –R ABC ↵ vc bl file es editting dj ldrs gSA (iii) C: > ATTRIB +H ABC ↵ vc ;g file Nwi tkrh gSA (iv) C:> ATTRIB –H ABC ↵ ;g file okil ns[k ldrs gSA vkxs Hkh blh izdkj ls bu option dk iz;ksx dj ldrs gSA bu option dk ,d lkFk Hkh iz;ksx dj ldrs gS o wild card dk iz;ksx :-- SIRAJ SIR 10
    • J.C.S COMPUTER C:> ATTRIB +R +H * *↵ blds }kjk Asia directory dh lHkh file dks dsoy i< ldrs gSA ,oa mUgs Nwik ldrs gSA C: Asia > ATTRIB –R +H ABC↵ (v) Command:→ LABLE → Syntax:→ C:> Lable b <Lable Name> ↵ Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx vius uke dk lable cukus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ C:>lable b prem ↵ rks vk;sxk%& Enter vol. lable.... uke nsuk ckn es Dir/P }kjk ns[kuk (vi) Command:→ X Copy Syntax:→ C:> X copy b source name b Target Name ↵ Purpose: →lHkh Directory , Sub-Directory & file dks dkWih djus ds fy, iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA bles Hidden file dh copy ugh gksrh gSA Example:→ C:> X copy * * A:↵ A copy [Y/N] (i) /P –for permission (ii) /S /D /E o /V etc (vii) Command:→ DOSKEY → Syntax:→ C:> Doskey ↵ Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx fdUgh command dks memory es stor djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ C:> Doskey ↵ C:> CLS↵ C:> Dir ↵ F7_ list of command (ftrus command use fd;s mldh list) F3_ Repeat list No. F9_ for line No. ( ftl command dks ns[kuk gS mlds uEcj nsdj ns[k ldrs gS tSls C:>command No. ↵ (viii) Command:→ TREE → Syntax:→ C:> TREE /f ↵ Purpose:→ Directory , Sub-directory ,oa file dh lajpuk dks fn[kkrk gSA [ Directory dk <kWpk ns[kuk ] Example:→ C: ASIA > TREE /f it show file also ↵ (ix) Command:→ MOVE → Syntax:→C:> MOVE <sorce name > <target name> ↵ Purpose:→ Directory & files change djus ds fy, move command dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ C:>move C: Asia /xyz ↵ C:Aisa / Nepal /xyz ↵ (x) Command:→ MORE → Syntax:→ C:> * More ↵ Purpose:→ bl command }kjk fdlh nwljs command ds output dks page wise fn[kkrk gS ftlls file ds contents dks page wise ns[k ldrsa gSA Type dks jksdus ds fy, more dk iz;ksx C:> Type <file name> b more ↵ Example:→ C:> More ↵ Dir b : More ↵ SIRAJ SIR 11
    • J.C.S COMPUTER (xi) Command:→ SCAN DISK → Syntax:→ C:> Scan disk ↵ Purpose:→ tc ykbV can gks tkrh gks rks Computer dh chain VqV tkrh gS mls tksMus ds fy, scan disk dk iz;ksx djrs gSA Example:→ C:> Scan disk ↵ (xii) Command:→ DISK COPY → Syntax:→ C:> Disk copy b <source drive name > b <Target Drive name >↵ purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx ,d floppy dh nwljh es copy djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ (i) C:> Disk copy A: B: ↵ 'krZ%& nksuks floppy ,d gh vkdkj o laxzg {kerk leku gksuh pkfg,A (ii) C:> Disk copy A: B: ↵ (iii) C:> Disk copy A: B: /V ↵ chp&chp es copy dks izekf.kr Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gSA (xiii) Command:→ Disk comp → Syntax:→ C:>Disk comp <source><target> ↵ Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx Hkh Disk copy dh rjg gh gksrk gSA Example:→ C:>Disk comp b A: b B: ↵ (xiv) Command:→ Print → Syntax:→ C:> Type b <file name > PRN ↵ C:> Print <file name>↵ Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx fdlh file dk printer }kjk print fudkyus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ C:>print prem ↵ vk;sxk Name of list device(PRN) vxj vkids ikl dbZ printer gks rks fdlh ,d dk uke ns ldrs gSA tSls %& LpT1, LpT2 ;fn ,d printer gSA rks Enter press dj nsrs gSA (xv) Command:→ MODE → Syntax:→ C:>MODE’40 ↵ Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx prompt dh size change djus ds fy, djrs gSA Example:→ C:>Mode 40↵ rks blls prompt size cMh gks tkrh gSSA okil C:>Mode 80↵ rks size normal gks tkrh gSA (xv) Command :→ F Disk → Syntax:→ C:> F disk↵ Purpose:→ bl Command dk iz;ksx disk dk partition Hkkx djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ C:> Fdisk ↵ rks iwNrk gSA (Y/N) Y press dj nsxs rks disk dks part es ckaV nsrk gSA N press dj nsxs rks Command j) gks tkrk gSA (xvii) Command:→ BACK UP → Syntax:→ C:> Back up b <drive name> b <target drive name> ↵ Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx stall djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA tc dHkh dksbZ personal file delete gks tkrh gSA mlds fy, ml file dk back up ys fy;k tkrk gS ftlls ge mldk mi;ksx dj ldrs gSA Example:→ C:> Back up A: B: ↵ (xviii) Command :→ Find → Syntax:→ C:>find “STRING” <file Name>↵ Purpose:→ bl Command dk iz;ksx fdlh particular 'kCn dks <q<us ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA SIRAJ SIR 12
    • J.C.S COMPUTER i<sxkA Example:→ loZizFke copy-con ls file cukuk (i) C:>find b “fox" b prem ↵rc dsoy Capital letter okyh line gh i<sxkA (ii) C:>find ?i b “fox" b prem ↵ ftl line es fox 'kCn fy[kk x;k gS bu lHkh line dks (iii) C:>find /V b “fox" b prem ↵ (a) ;fn fox capital letter es fy[kk gS capital letter okyh line ugh i<sxk ckdh lHkh i<sxkA (b) ;fn fox small letter es fy[kk gS rks small letter okyh line ugh i<sxk ckdh lHkh line i<sxkA (iv) C:>find /N b “fox" b prem ↵ (a) ftl line es fox capital letter es fy[kk gS dsoy mu line dks i<sxk o muds uEcj Hkh crk;sxkA (b);fn fox small letter es fy[kk gS dsoy mu linedks gh i<sxk o mlds uEcj crk;sxk (v) C:> find /v/n b “fox" b prem ↵ blls fox dh capital letter okyh line ugh i<sxk ckdh line dks i<sxk o mlds uEcj crk;sxkA (xix) Command:→ Format → Syntax :→ C:> format <Drive Name>↵ftl floppy es dke dj jgs gks mls Drive Name dgrs gSA Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx floppy ,oa hard disk dh formating djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ C:>format b A: ↵ blds lkFk options /S /Q ,oa /N dk Hkh iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA (xx) Command:→ DELTREE → Syntax:→ C:>Deltree <Directory Name>↵ Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx Directory , Sub directory & thier filesdk Removedjus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ C:Asia>del tree india↵ Asia India Raj MP China Japan UP Jaipur Jodhpur Ajmer rks blls india ls lHkh file & Directory dks gVk nsxkA (xxi) Command:→SYS → Syntax:→ C:> Sys b <Drive Name> ↵ Purpose:→ bldk mi;ksx fdlh floppy dks system disk cukus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ C:>Sys A:↵ (xxii) Command:→Undelete → Syntax:→C:Undelete<file Name > ↵ Purpose:→ bl Command dk iz;ksx gVkbZ gqbZ file dks okil ykus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ (i) C:> Undelete b *. BAT ↵ SIRAJ SIR 13
    • J.C.S COMPUTER (ii) lHkh files dks cpkus ds fy, C:>Undelete / ALL↵ (iii) cpkbZ xbZ file dh List ns[kus ds fy, C:>Undelete / list ↵ 'krZ%& ;g Command rHkh dke djsxs tc muds chp dksbZ file o directory ugh cukbZ xbZ gSA (xxiii) Command :→ UNFORMAT → Syntax:→ C:> Unformat b <Drive Name>↵ Purpose:→ bl Command dk iz;ksx xyrh ls fdlh t:jh floppy Disk dks format vkns’k ls format fd;k tk pqdk gS rks fQj ewy voLFkk es ykus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ C:>Unformat b A:↵ rks vk;sxk Warning Are you sure you went to update the susta area of your drive A :- (Y/N) Y cVu nck nsxs rks Unformate djuk izkjEHk gks tk;sxk N cVu nck nsxs rks command j) gks tk;sxh A Unformat dk dke lekIr gks tk;sxk rks fuEu lans’k vk;sxk The system area of Drive A: has been rebuit you may need to restore the system. (xxiv)Command: →APPEND Syntax:→ C:>Append source/Path addimal drive / path / switches ;k option Purpose:→ Sub directory dk path search djus ds fy, bldk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA Example: →C: word; / wpdata ↵ (xxv) Command:→ HELP → Syntax:→ C:>command name /?↵ Purpose:→ bl command dk iz;ksx ge computer ij fdlh Hkh command ds ckjs es iwjh tkudkjh izkIr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Example:→ C: >Dir/?↵ ;k C: > Help b Dir↵ Que:- Copy & Xcopy command es vUrj crkb;ssA Ans:Copy Xcopy 1- Copy Internal command gSA 1- tcfd Xcopy External command gSA 2- Directory & Sub Directory 2- tcdh blls Directory , Sub directory dh copy ugh dh tk ldrh gSA dh Hkh copy dh tk ldrh gSA 3- copy ls permission etc. 3- tcfd Xcopy es permission vkfn option dk use option dk iz;ksx ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA fd;k tkrk gSA tSls%& /S /P /D /E /V etc. Que:- Internal & External Command es vUrj crkb;sA Ans:- Internal Command External Command 1- bles vyx ls Qkby dh t:jr ugh iMrh gSA 2- bles file stor command.Com es gksrh gSA 1- tcdh bles vyx ls Qkby dh t:jr gksrh gSA 2- tcdh bles file stor Ex ternal Com gksrh gSA Type of files [Excutable Y/S Non executeble file in dos] M.S.Dos es files eq[; :i ls nks rjg dh gksrh gSA 1- Executable 2-- Non Executable 2 1- Executable : →Executable file mu file dks dgk tkrk gS ftues ,sls programe gks ftUgs ge vius PC ij lh/ks pyk ldrs gS ;k Run djk ldrs gS ,slh file ds uke ds vkxs T;knkUrj Exe ;k Com ;k Bat ,DlVs’ku yxk;k tkrk gS ;s Extersion dsoy izHkko ugh gksrk EXE rFkk COM file Binary code ;k Machine Language es gksrh gSA T;knkUrj PC }kjk [kqn rS;kj dh tkrh gS A BAT Files SIRAJ SIR 14
    • J.C.S COMPUTER lk/kkj.k vadks o fpUgks ls cuh gksrh gS ijUrq bldh gj line MS DOS dk dksbZ vkns’k gksrh gS budks file dgk tkrk gSA gj Batch file dq/k command dk group gksrh gSA ge viuh lqfo/kk ds fy, Batch file cuk ldrs gSA tc ges dbZ programe ,d lkFk fd;kUofor djkus gks rks muds fy, vkns’k ,d file es j[kdj Batch ds :i es j[k ldrs gSA Computer dks Boot djrs le; pykbZ tkus okyh file Autoexec./ BAT ,slh gh Batch file gSA 2- Non Executable:→ Non executable file mu files dks dgk tkrk gS ftles dksbZ Data ;k ,slk → Programe Hkjk tkrk gS ftls dEikby fd;s fcuk ugh pyk;k tk ldrk ,slh file vusd rjg dh gksrh gSA buds ukeks ds vkxs fuEufyf[kr Extension iz;ksx fd;s tkrs gSA DOS:→ ml Extension dk iz;ksx ftles vPNh rjg format fd;s x;s Data ;k Text j[ks → tkrs gS budks lh/ks Niok;s tkrs gSA HLP:→ bu file es lgk;rk djus okyh lwpuk,W gksrh gSA → TXT ;k ASC:→ bles lk/kkj.k fpUgks ls cus Data j[ks tkrs gSA → BAK:→ ;s file T;knkUrj fdlh file dk iqjkuk :i ;k Back up ;k Duplicate gksrh gSA → BMP,PCX ;k TIF:→ ,slh file dk iz;ksx Graphics Package dk lkFk fd;k tkrk gS ftles → fpe LVksj gksrs gSA BAS:→;g Extention T;knkUrj Basic program file ds uke ds lkFk gksrk gSA → DOS :- FAT [ file Alocation Table ] (i) Dos dh Disk nks Hkkxks ds vUnj cVh gqbZ gksrh gSA (i) system Area (ii) Data area system Area 2% es rFkk Data area 98% es cVk gqvk gksrk gSA system area es Tracks gksrs gSA tcfd Data area es Data stor gksrs gSA System Area ds rhu Hkkx gksrs gSA Boot, Fat, Root vc ge ;gkW ij FAT ds ckjs es o.kZu djsxsA FAT:- Dos stall a file or more logical units called cluster [ cluster is a call a cation of sector ] ,d sector ds vUnj fdrus cluster gksrs gSA ;g mldh {kerk ds mij fuHkZj djrk gSA tc user sequest djrk gSA ml file dks save djus ds fy, rc oks file cluster ds vUnj tkdj save gks tkrh gSA bu cluster ds uEcj gksrs gSA tks fd NO2 ls 'kq: gksrs gSA cluster NO. 0 o 1 Reserve stor jgrk gSA tks fd ID Byter rFkk Dos Boot ds fy, dke es vkrk gSA izR;sd cluster ds fy, user Area dk ,d Indification dk serial No. gksrk gSA ftlds dkj.k gh fat ds vUnj entry gksrh gSA fat simple table No. gksrs gSA igys cluster ds ikl Root Directory dh file gksrh gSA ;fn file dh size cluster size ls T;knk gks rks og file nwljs cluster dk vkil es link gksrk gSA tgkW ij End of tgkW ls file [kRe gks tkrh gS ogkW ls link [kRe gks tkrh gSA (iii) cluster size of floppy disk Disk Type cluster Size 1.5"-2.88 MB 1024 Bytes: 2 sector 3.5"- 1.44 MB 5/2 Bytes: 1sector 5.25"- 1.2 MB 5/2 Bytes: 1sector 5.25"- 360 MB 1024 Bytes: 2 sector (iv) cluster size of hard disk Disk type cluster Size 16 MB ;k 16 MB ls de 4x 1024: 8sector 17 MB to 128 MB 2x1024 :4sector SIRAJ SIR 15
    • J.C.S COMPUTER 129 MB to 256 MB 257 MB to 512 MB 513 MB to 1024 MB 1025 MB to 2045 MB 4x1024: 8sector 8x1024 : 16 sector 16x 1024 : 32 sector 32x 1024 : 64 sector Physical structure of Disk (i) Disk vFkkZr ,d floppy disk ;k Hard disk gksrh gS ftlls Tracks cus gkssrs gSA ;s tracks vkxs sector es foHkkftr gksrs gSA ;s sector tks fd disk ij cus gksrs gS ;s disk dh xfrfof/k;ks fd ,d izkjfEHkd bdkbZ gSA (ii) izk;ksfxd :i ls ;s disk igys ls preformatted ds :i es gksrh gS tks fd tracks es foHkkftr gksrh gS ,d flys.Mj ds vUnj gksrh gSA (iii) floppy es nks lrg gksrh gS bldh drive es nks heads lekosf’kr gksrs gS head 0 lkbM 0 ds fy, gksrk gSArFkk head 1 side 1 ds fy, gksrk gSA nksuks head ,d lkFk gh fdz;k djrs gSA vr% side 0 dk 1st track o side dk 1st track feydj ,d flys.Mj dk fuekZ.k djrs gS blh izdkj side 0 side 1 dh track 2 feydj ,d vkSj flys.Mj cukrs gS bl izdkj vkxs Hkh flys.Mj curs gSA Head O Track Side O 4 Pairs Head Asseably Side 1 Head 1 bl izdkj n oh Tracks platler2 dh n oh tracks vkil es dkYifud line }kjk tqMdj ,d flys.Mj cukrs gSA lkjs head feydj vkxs fiNs ?kwekdj ,d lkFk tqM tkrs gS vkSj ,d lkFk xfr djrs gSA M. S. Window 95/98 UNIT & II Introduction:→ M.S. windows graphics user interface (GUI) fl)kUr ij vk/kkfjr → ,d cgqr gh mi;ksxh software gSA ;gkW ij interface 'kCn dk rkRi;Z Computer o user ds chp oS;fDrd vknku iznku ls gSA M.S. windows ls iwoZ Dos dk iz;ksx cgqr gksrk Fkk fdUrq window dk dos dh vis{kk vf/kd ykHkdkjh fl) gksus ds dkj.k orZeku es window dk mi;ksx lokZf/kd gks jgk gSA Window loZizFke vxLr 1995 es vesjhdk dh micro soft dEiuh }kjk rS;kj djds izpfyr fd;k x;k bles fuEu lqfo/kk, Fkh & Network, Fax, ,ao multimedia ijUrq ckn es 1998 es bles lq/kkj djds internet ls tksMk x;kA blds ckn tks version windows ds vk;s oks fuEu gS& Window 2000 Window XP &Window advance service Windows ds eq[; dk;Z fuEu gS& 1- gkMZos;j ij fu;a=.k 2- izksxzke dk fdz;kUo;u SIRAJ SIR 16
    • J.C.S COMPUTER 3- lwpukvks dks O;ofLFkr djuk 4- lapkj midj.k etc. Windows Concepts:→ [concept of GUI] → orZeku computer system es GUI fl)kUr us ,d ubZ dzkfUr yk nh gS GUI dk eq[; m)s’; computer user o computer ds e/; vUr%fdz;k dk c<kuk gSA bldk eq[; m)s’; gS dh computer ij dke djus okyk ,d lk/kkj.k O;fDr Hkh lgtrk dk vuqHko djs vkSj computer ls vf/kd ls vf/kd dke es ys ldsA ifjHkk"kk%& GUI og ek/;e gS tks fd fpeks dh bdkb;ks dks egRro nsrk gSA ;g fpfer bZdkb;ks computer system ds fofHkUu L=ksrks o lqfo/kkvks dks iznf’kZr djrh gS bu fpfer bdkbZ }kjk ge computer system ls vUr% fdz;k dj ldrs gSA Feature of GUI:- (i) GUI dh eq[; fo’ks"krk, gS fd ge tks Ldzhu ij ns[krs gS ml dk;Z dks ,d fDyd }kjk vklkuh ls dj ldrs gSA (ii) GUI n{krkiw.kZ lwpukvks o izfrlwpukvks dks iznku djrk gSA (iii) GUI es lwpukvks dks bl izdkj izLrqr fd;k tkrk gSA fd og mi;ksx drkZ ds fy, ljy o lqxe gksA (iv) bles Ldzhu feuw gksrk gS tks vklkuh ls n`’; o vn`’; gks ldrk gSA (v) mouse dk mi;ksx cgqrk;r las fd;k tkrk gS tks fd computer ds mi;ksx dks ljyrk iznku djrk gSA (vi) bles file directory vkSj system ls lEcfU/kr vU; bdkb;ks dks fpf=r bdkb;ks }kjk iznf’kZr fd;k tkrk gSA I. (2) Windows features : → bldh eq[; fo’ks"krk,W fuEufyf[kr gSA (a) ;g Graphics ij vk/kkfjr gS window dh eq[; fo’ks"krk ;g gS dh ;g ,d GUI software gS ftles graphics fpUg cus gksrs gS ftldh lgk;rk ls dk;Z tYnh o de le; es dj ldrs gSA (b) Command & parameter dks ;kn j[kuk vko’;d ugh A %& bles eq[; fo’ks"krk ;g gS dh bles Dos dh rjg command o paremeter ;kn j[kuk vko’;d ugh gS D;kSfd bles command graphics :i es fn[kkbZ nsrs gS mldks mouse }kjk click djds run djk ldrs gSA (c) Window dk mi;ksx djrs gq, ge ,d gh le; es dbZ application ij ,d lkFk open dj ldrs gSSA (d) bles mouse dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS tks fd ,d u;s mi;ksxdrkZ dks vR;f/kd lqxerk iznku djrk gSA (e) fofHkUu iSdstks ds e/; Data dk vknku iznku vfrlqxe o ljy gks x;k gSA (f) ,d u;k lq/kjk gqvk interface (g) yEcs file uke (h) Windows ,DlIykstj (i) lq/kjh gqbZ [ksy rFkk multimedia lqfo/kk (j) iqjkus programe ds lkFk vuq:irk (k) ljy Mkd lqfo/kk (l) ,dhd`r networking lqfo/kk Window feature laLdj.k dk uke tkjh gksus dk o"kZ eq[; fo’ks"krk,W Windows 1.0 1985 GUI ij vk/kkfjr o multitasking Windows 1.2 1987 ,d window ij nwljh window Windows 2.1 1987 vkHkklh e’khu (vartual machine) Windows 3.0 1990 programe eSustj / file eSustj dh lqfo/kk Windows 3.1 1992 multimedia capacity network SIRAJ SIR 17
    • J.C.S COMPUTER Windows 3.11 Windows 95 1993 1995 Windows 98 Windows 2000 32 Bit networking 32 Bit file iw.kZ 32 Bite operating system multitaskin network capacity yEcs file name foLrkj.k dh lqfo/kkA bUVjusV ij dk;Z djus dh fo’ks"k lqfo/kk 1998 2000 (3) Window structure: → loZizFke window dks open djrs gS rks og nks Hkkxks es cVkW gqvk fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA bldh lajpuk bl izdkj gSA Application window & □ x Micro soft word File Edit View Insert format Tools Table Window Help standred Bar formating Bar Document - □ x ▲ ▼ Page Sec Start status Bar Task Bar ;g Windows nks Hkkxks es cVka gksrk gSA 1- Application window 2- Document window (1) Tital Bar: →vU; Bar dh rqyuk es xgjs jax dh ifêdk gksrh gSA ftles Min, Max, o close Button gksrs gS blds ck;s dksus es control menu gksrk gSA ftldh lgk;rk ls programe dks move run close o vU; fdz;k,W dj ldrs gSA (2) Menu Bar :→ ;g programe ls lEcfU/kr menu dks izLrqr djrh gS ftls menu bar dgrs → gSA tSls word ds fy, file , edit, view, insert, format, tools, table, windows, help vkfn menu gksrs gSA bl ij Dyhd djrs gS ;k Alt ds lkFk f ls file menu ds popup f menu [kqy tkrs gSA ftudh lgk;rk ls tYnh dk;Z dj ldrs gSA (3) Standard Tool Bar:→ standard tool bar menu bar ds Bhd uhps dh rjQ fLFkr gksrk gS → bles dbZ cVu gksrs gSA ftUgs cgqr ls menu command ds shart cut ds :i es iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA bues cut, copy, save, open, spell, cheek etc. (4) Formatting Bar: →standred tool bar ds uhps formatting bar gksrh gS ftles dbZ cVu gksrs gS ftuls document es type fd;s x;s text dks format fd;k tkrk gS bues font, size, bold, underline etc. SIRAJ SIR 18
    • J.C.S COMPUTER I. Document Windows :→ Word dh document window es file cukbZ o n’kkZ;h tkrh gSA → fuEu rRo gksrs gSA (1) Title Bar:→ ;g ckj application ckj dh rjg gh gksrh gS bles document name gksrk → gSA tc file dks save ftl uke ls djrs gS og uke vk tkrk gSA (2) Ruler:→ ;g document window es title ckj ds uhps gksrh gSA bldh lgk;rk ls page → width margin rFkk tab vkfn set fd;s tkrs gSA (3) View button: →;g uhps dh rjQ horizental scorall bar ds ck;h vksj gksrs gS budh lgk;rk ls Ldzhu ij document ds display dks change fd;k tkrk gSA (4) status bar:→ ;g current curser position iznf’kZr djrk gSa → Pag 1 Sec1 V1 At 1" Ln 1 Col 1 3.05AM (4)Desk top: →windows 95/98 lode gks tkus ds ckn VDU ij tks izkjfEHkd Ldzhu fn[kkbZ nsrh gS mls desk top dgrs gSA window dk gj dke desk top ls gh 'kq: gksrk gS ;g T;knkrj iz;ksx dh tkus okyh oLrqvks dks O;ofLFkr djus ds dke es vkrk gSA tks folder ;k object ckj&ckj iz;ksx dh tkrh gS mUgs Desk top ij j[k fn;k tkrk gSA Desk top ij dbZ object gksrs gSA My computer Recycle Bin Network Neigh bourhood My Brief case Task Bar Start menu files & folder shortcuts etc ;s objects desk top ij gj le; gksuk vko’;d ugh gSA rFkk mudk dze Hkh vyx&vyx gks ldrk gSsa D;ksfd gj O;fDr viuh est dks vius rjhds ls yxkuk gS ysfdu bues ls izR;sd dk m)s’; vkSj O;ogkj ges’kk ,d leku gksrk gS desk top es izR;sd oLrq ,d NksVs fpHk }kjk fn[kkbZ tkrh gS ftlds uhps bl objects dk uke Hkh fy[kk gksrk gS uke lfgr bl fpHk dks izfrd dgk tkrk gSA My Coputer Recycle Bin My Brief case Acceseries MS. Dos Prompt Fox pro Start Desk Top (5) Task Bar: → tc Hkh vki dksbZ program pkyq djrs 1.11 PM gS ;k dksbZ window [kksyrs gS rks screen ds lcls uhps task bar es ml window dks O;Dr djus okyk cVu fn[kkbZ nsrk gS bl izdkj task bar ges lHkh pkyq program ij rRdky igqWpus dh lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSA (i) Task bar dk igyk Box start button gksrk gS mlds ckn lHkh [kqys gq, ;k pkyq gq, program ds fy, ,d ,d Box gksrk gSA (ii) tc Hkh vki window ls fdlh nwljs program ij tkuk pkgrs gs rks task bar es ml program ij Dyhd dj nhft, tc vki fdlh window dks cUn close djrs gS rks task bar ls mldk Box xk;c gks tkrk gSA SIRAJ SIR 19
    • J.C.S COMPUTER vki tksc dk;Z dj jgs gS ml ij fuHkZj djrs gq, task bar ds nk,a dksus ftls notification area dgrs gS mles vU; fpUg Hkh fn[kkbZ iM ldrs gS tSls vkids NikbZ dk;Z dks O;Dr djus okyk Privite ;k iksVZfcy computer iznf'kZr djus ds fy, ,d cSVjh vfUre fljs ij ,d ?kMh fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA Setting ns[kus ;k cnyus ds fy, bu izrhdks dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, %& ;fn vki rkjh[k ;k le; dh setting ns[kuk pkgrs gS rks flQZ ?kMh ds fpUg ij double click dj nhft, ftlls ,d Mk;yks Box vk;sxk ftlls vki data&time dks set dj ldrs gSA (6)start menu:→ window 95/98 dsa desk top ds uhpys ck, dksus es start cVu dks Dyhd djdss → start menu [kqy tk;sxk ;g menu okLro es iwjs computer dk ,d lqfo/kktud control point gS computer lHkh dk;Z ;k fdz;kdyki blh menu ls izkjEHk fd;s tkrs gSA tSls%& Window updata Programs Favorite Documents Setting find Help Run Log. off shut down start start menu start menu ds fofHkUu fodYi vkSj mUgs pquus ij gksus okys izHkko fuEufyf[kr gS& 1-- Programs:→ ;g mu programs dh lwph fn[kkrk gS ftUgs T;knkrj iz;ksx fd;k → tkrk gS bl lwph es ls bfPNr izksxke pqudj mls pkyq fd;k tk ldrk gSA z 2-- Documents:→ ;g fodYi mu nLrkostks dh lwph fn[kkrk gS ftUgs gky gh es iz;ksx → es yk;k x;k Fkk ;k [kksyk x;k Fkk vki bues ls fdlh dks fDyd djds fQj ls [kksy ldrs gSA 3. Setting: → ;g system ds mu rRoks dh lwph fn[kkrk gS A ftuds fy, vki setting cny ldrs gS vkSj vius computer dk dkufQxjs’ku lq/kkj ldrs gSA 4-- find:→ bldh lgk;rk ls vki fdlh QksYMj Qkby lk>k computer ;k Mkd lans’k → dks <q<a ldrs gSA 5. Help:→ blls help program izkjEHk gksrk gSA blls vki windows es dksbZ dk;Z → djus ds fy, lgk;rk ys ldrs gSA 6. Run:→ blls dksbZ ikyu djus ;ksX; program run djk;k tk ldrk gSA vFkok ;fn → vki dksbZ M.S. Dos command nsrs gSA rks folder [kksyk tk ldrk gSA 7. Shout Down:→ bl fodYi ls vki window ls ckgj fudydj (vFkkZr Log off → djus ) ;k rks computer cUn dj ldrs gSA ;k iqu% pkyq dj ldrs gSA (7) My Computer:-→ ;g oLrq ,d NksVs computer ds izrhd }kjk fn[kkbZ tkrh gSA bl oLrq es vkids computer es stor dh xbZ izR;sd lwpuk dh tkudkjh gksrh gSA My computer ij dk;Z djus ds fy, bls [kksyk tkrk gSA fdlh object dks [kksyus ds fy, mouse pointer dks mlds mij ys tkdj Double click djrs gSA ;k ,d ckj click djds Enter key nck nsrs gSA ,slk djrs gh Screen ij ,d windows fn[kkbZ iMrh gSA ftles fuEufyf[kr phts gksrh gSA (i) izR;sd Mkbd dk izrhd (ii) Control isuy dk QksYMj (iii) Printer dk QksYMj My computer dh window vkidh vko’;drk vuqlkj cnyh tkrh gSA vkSj ;s cnyko vxyh ckj cnyus rd izHkkoh jgrs gSA SIRAJ SIR 20
    • J.C.S COMPUTER Opening a folder: → Window es files dks b/kj m/kj djus ds fy, ges folder dkss [kksyus dh t:jr iMrh gSA Folder [kksyus dh fof/k %& (i)My computer ij double click djrs gS rks screen ij my computer dh window [kqy tk;sxhA (ii) bl window es ml drive ij double click fdft, ftles vkidk folder gS ¼ ;g Mªkbo lkekU;r% C: gksrk gS½ blds ICON ij Double click djrs gS rks bl Drive dh Window [kqy tkrh gS mlds a lHkh folder o files Icon fn[kkbZ nsxsA (iii) mles u;k folder cuk ldrs gS iqjkuk folder open dj ldrs gSA tSls%& My computer - □ X File Edit View Go Faverite Help Back forword up Cut Paste Copy Undo >> Address My computer ▲ My Computer 3½ Floppy A: C: D: Printer Web folder PPP bl izdkj folder dks [kksyrs gw, bfPNr folder rd igqp ldrs gSa ;fn vki fdlh folder ls Bhd mij okysa folder ij tkuk pkgrs gs rks ml window ds Vqy ckj es up caVu ij click fdft,A ¼8½ Recycle Bin:→ ;g vkidks gVkbZ gqbZ files rFkk folders dks ljyrk ls cpkus dh lqfo/kk nsrh gS → dksbZ Hkh gVkbZ gqbZ files ;k object ;k folder bu Bin es Mky nh tkrh gSA bl Bin dks vki ckn es dHkh Hkh [kksy ldrs gSA vkSj ;fn vuko’;d gks rks LFkkbZ :Ik ls gVk ldrs gSaA Recycle Bin dks iwjh rjg [kkyh djuk Hkh lEHko gSA bl Bin es iMh gqbZ oLrq,W feVk nh tkrh gSa mUgs fQj izkIr djuk lEHko ugh gSA Recycle Bin ,d oLrq gS blds Hkh dbZ xq.k gSA 1- vkdkj%& vkdkj ftruk cMk gksxk ;g mruh gh T;knk gVkbZ xbZ files dks stor djsxkA 2- laxzg.k%& tc Stor dh xbZ files ls iwjk Hkj tkrk gS rks ubZ gVkbZ xbZ files ds fy, txg cukus ds fy, lcls iqjkuh files dks feVk nsrk gSA 3- Window 95/98 ds fy, izHkkoh gksrk gS MS.Dos ls gVkbZ xbZ files ls ugh A 4- gVkbZ xbZ files dks iqu% izkIr djus dh izfd;k %& Recycle Bin ( Double click ) %%→ gVkbZ xbZ file ij tkdj Right Button click djuk rks → fuEu Contacts menu vk;sxkA TSls %→ Restore Cut ckn es Restore dks slect djrs gSA Delete Properties bl izdkj og file ges ewy voLFkk es fey tk;sxhA 5- Recycle Bin dks iwjh rjg [kkyh djus dh fdz;k %→Recycle Desktop es cus Recycle Bin Icon ij mouse ds Right Button ij click dhft, rks ,d Context menu vk;sxk ftles ls Empty Recycle Bin dks select djrs gS rks Recycle Bin iwjh rjg [kkyh gks tk;sxkA Dialog Box My Computer tSlk gh gksrk gSA 4- Window Accessories ¼1½ Calculater Calculater nks rjg ds gksrs gSA SIRAJ SIR 21
    • J.C.S COMPUTER ¼1½ Normal ¼Basic Calculater½ ½ ¼2½ Scientification ¼ ¼Scientific Calculater½ ½ bldks pykus ds fy, & Start→Program→Accesseries→Calculater ¼1½ Normal:→ Mouse dh lgk;rk ls fdlh uEcj ij Click djds D;k operation ¼ + - * ½ vkfn → djuk ;g Hand Held calculater tSlk gh gksrk gSA ¼2½ Scientification:→ tc dHkh Scientification Calculater dks ascept djuk gksrk gSA View → menu ds vUnj tkdj Scientification Calculater dks select dj fn;k tkrk gSA blds vUnj ftu No. dks Ctrl + c Copy fd;k tkrk gS rFkk Ctrl + v ls Past fd;k tkrk gSA ;g View → Scientification NOTEPAD Windows es Notepad ,d rjg dk Text editor gS tgkW ge NksVh Text file cuk ldrs gSA bldk Extension .TXT gksrk gSA bldksa pykus ds fy, & Start→ Program→Acceseries→ Notepad ↵ rks fuEu izdkj dk Dialog Box open gksrk gSA Untitle & Notepad - + x File Edit Search Help 1▲ ▼ Note pad menu I. file →New →Open →Save →Save as →Print →Page set up →Print set up →Exit (i) View :→ bl Command dk iz;ksx dksbZ ubZ file cukus ds fy, fsd;k tkrk gSA ftldk uke Untitle → gksrk gSaA (ii) Open:→ bl Command dk iz;ksx igys ls cuh gqbZ file dks open djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA → (iii) Save:→bl command dh lgk;rk ls cukbZ xbZ file dks vius uke ls save dj ldrs gS ftles → primary uke type fd;k tkrk gSA o Extension ;g .TXT vius vki ys ysrk gSA (iv) Save As :→ bl command fd lgk;rk ls file es fd;s x;s cnyko dks ge nwljh file Save dk → ldrs gSA bles Hkh file name fn;k tkrk gSA (v) Print:→ bl Command ds }kjk file dks print djk ldrs gSA → (vi) Page set up:→ blds }kjk page dks set dj ldrs gS ftles page dk margin o header → footer vkfn fn;s tkrs gSA (vii) Print set up:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls printer o mlds dqN option dks O;ofLFkr dj → ldrs gS tSls orientation, paper size etc. (viii) Exit:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls file dks cUn djds Notepad ls ckgj vkrs gSA → SIRAJ SIR 22
    • J.C.S COMPUTER II. Edit→Undo →Cut →Copy →Delete →Select Alt →Date & Time →Word wrap (i) Undo:→ bl command dk iz;ksx fn, x;s command ds izHkko dks u"V djus ds dke es vkrk gSA → (ii) Cut:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls file es fdlh Hkh iw.kZr;k u"V dj clip Board es Hkst ldrs → gSA (iii) Copy:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls document es fdlh Hkh Text dh copy dks clip board → es Hkst ldrs gSA (iv) Delete:→ bl command }kjk files es fdlh Hkh Text dks iw.kZr;k u"V fd;k tk ldrk gS vr% → bldks iqu% izkIr ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA (v) Select Alt→ ;g command iwjh file dks select djus ds dke vkrk gSA → (vi) Date&Time:→bl command ds }kjk djlj ds LFkku ij Date & Time Insert dj ldrs gSA → (vii) Word wrap:→ bl command ds }kjk ge file es Text dks wrap dj ldrs gS ;g ,d rjg → dk Toggal command gSA igyh ckj djus ij word wrap on gks tkrk gSA III. Search:→ Find → →Find next (i) Find:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls Document es fdlh Hkh Text dks <q< ldrs gS fuEu → Dialog Box vkrk gSA X Find Find what Find Next Cancle □ Match Case Direction Clip  down (ii) find Next:→ bl Command dh lgk;rk ls iwoZ ds <qa<k x;k Text dks iqu% file es <qa<k tk ldrk → gSA IV. Help:→ blds }kjk Notepad ds fy, Help pkfg, rks ge ys ldrs gSA → (3) Word Pad Introduction:→Window es Word pad ,d rjg dk word Processor gSA ftles ge dksbZ Hkh → letter, Notice, document, publication type dj ldrs gSaA ;g Notepad tSlk gh gS ysfdu bles eq[; vUrj wordpad es formatting dj ldrs gS ysfdu Notepad es formatting ugh dj ldrs gSA wordpad ,d cgqr vkn’kZ word processer ugh gS tSls fd ms.word perfect gksrk gSA vkSj uk gh ,d vkn’kZ DTP (Desk top publisher) gSA tSlk fd pagemaker gSA o wordpad dh izkjfEHkd file dk uke Document gksrk gSA vkSj bldk Extension- .RTF (Reach Text Format) gksrk gSA bldks pykus dh izfdz;k%& Start→ Program →Acceseries→wordpad↵ Rkks fuEu izdkj dk Dialog Box vkrk gSA Document – Word pad X File Edit SIRAJ SIR View Insert format 23 help
    • J.C.S COMPUTER I. File :→ → (i) New:→ bl Command ds }kjk ge ubZ file dks [kksy ldrs gSA → (ii) Open:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls iqjkuh ;kfu igys ls save dh gqbZ file dks open dj ldrs → gSA (iii) Save:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls file dks save dj ldrs gS save djus ij uke iwNrk gS rks → primary Name ns nsrs gS Extension .RTF vius vki ys ysrk gSA (iv) Save As :→ bl Command dh lgk;rk ls ge file es fd;s x;s cnyko dks nwljs uke ls save → dj ldrs gS ;fn fdlh us file dks Delete dj nh rks og nwwljh file ls izkIr dj ldrs gSA (v) Print:→ blds }kjk file dks Print dj ldrs gSA → (vi) Print Preview:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls ge document dks print ls igys preview → ns[k ldrs gS tks dh print gksus okyk gSA (vii) Page set up: →bl Command ds }kjk ge Page dh size, right,top,bottom margino orientation dks cny ldrs gSA (viii) Exit:→ bl command ls word pad dks cUn dj ckgj fudky ldrs gSA → II. Edit:(i) Undo:→ operater ds }kjk fn, x, command ds izHkko dks u"V djus ds dke es vkrk gSA → (ii) Cut:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls fdlh file ds Text dks gVkdj Clip board es Hkst ldrs → gSA (iii) Paste:→ bl Command ds }kjk Clip Board es tks Hkh gksrk gS og Curser ds LFkku ij paste → dj ldrs gSA (iv) Paste special:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls tks lwpuk file ds vUnj vk jgh gS mldk → format bl vk/kkj ij cnyk tk ldrk gSA blls Paste ds lkFk lkFk Linked Hkh djk ldrs gSA (v) Clear:→ bl command ds }kjk Document es fdlh Hkh Text ;k Graphics dks select djds → clear dj ldrs gSA (vi) Select Alt:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls iwjs document dks select fd;k tk ldrk gSA → (vii) find:→ bl command ls document ds fdlh Hkh Text dks <qa<k tk ldrk gSA → (viii) find Next:→ <qa<s x;s Text dks iqu% Document es <qa<k tk ldrk gSA → (ix) Replace:→ bl command dk iz;ksx document es fdlh Hkh <qa<s x;s 'kCn dh txg ij nwljk → 'kCn cnyk tk ldrk gSA (x) Link:→ bl command dk use link ds izn’kZu dks cnyk tk ldrk gSA rFkk nks files ds fcp es → link djk ldrs gSA (xi) Object properties:→ bl command ds }kjk fdlh Hkh select object dh properties dks → cnyk tk ldrk gSA III. View:→ → (i) Tool Bar:→ ;g ,d izdkj dk Toggal command gS ftlls Tool Bar dks fn[kk o gVk ldrs gSA → (ii) formal Bar:→ bl Command ds }kjk format Bar dks fn[kk o feVk ldrs gS ;g ,d Toggal → command gSA (iii) Ruler:→ bl command ds }kjk Ruler dks on ;k off fd;k tk ldrk gS ;g Hkh Toggal → command gSaA SIRAJ SIR 24
    • J.C.S COMPUTER (iv) Status Bar: →bl command dh lgk;rk ls Status Bar dks Ldzhu ls on/off fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;g Hkh toggal command gSA IV.Insert:→ → (i) Date&Time:→ bl command dk iz;ksx document es tgkW ij Curser fLFkr gS ogkW Date o → Time insert dj ldrs gSA (ii) object:→ bl command ds }kjk tks Dialog Box iznf’kZr gksrk gSA mles vyx&vyx → application dh list iznf’kZr gksrh gSA ge fdlh Hkh application ds lkFk linking dj ldrs gS rFkk ogkW ls dksbZ Hkh object word pad es yk ldrs gSA V. format: → (i) Font:→ bl command ls ge fdlh Hkh font dk nwljk font cuk ldrs gSA → (ii) Bullet style:→ bl command ds }kjk fdlh Hkh line ;k paragraph ij Bullet yk ldrs gSA → (iii) Paragraph:→ fdlh Hkh paragraph ds alignment o mlds indent dks cnyk tk ldrk gSA → (iv) Tabs: →bl command ds }kjk Tabs dks yxk;k tk ldrk gSA (v) Help: → (4) Paint Paint Brush ,d ,slh Application gS ftls graphics ;k fp= cukus ds iz;ksx es fy;k tkrk gSaA Bldks Start djus dh izfdz;k %& Start→ Program→Acceseries→Paint Rks fuEu izdkj dk Dailog Box open gksrk gSA Untitled Paint File Edit View Image Color □ X Help ▲ ▼ (i) Tool Bar:→ → (i) free from select:→ bl tool dh lgk;rk ls fdlh object dks vfu;fer vkdkj es select dj → djrs gSA bls djus ij Edit es Cut o Copy on gks tkrs gSA (ii) Select Box:→ bl tool dh lgk;rk ls fdlh Hkh object dks select dj ldrs gSA → (iii) Eraser: →bl tool ds }kjk fdlh Hkh object dks feVk ldrs gSA Mouse dk left cVu dks nck fn;k tkrk gSA o jcM dk vkdkj Hkh NksVk cMk dj ldrs gSA (iv) fill with colour:→ bl tool dh lgk;rk ls fdlh Hkh {kS= es jax Hkjk tk ldrk gS bl tool dks → select djds bl {kS= es tkdj mouse dk left button dks nck fn;k tkrk gSa rks bl {kS= es jax Hkj tkrk gSA SIRAJ SIR 25
    • J.C.S COMPUTER (v) Pick Colour:→ bl tool dh lgk;rk ls colour dks pquk tk ldrk gSA → (vi) Magnifier:→ ;g object dks screen ij cMk iznf’kZr fd;k tkrk gSa → (vii) Pencil: →bl tool dh lgk;rk ls free hand Drawing cukbZ tk ldrh gSaA (viii) Brush:→ ;g tool Hkh hand drawing djus ds dke vkrk gS ijUrq ;g tool spary painting ds → fy, Hkh mIk;qDr gksrk gS loZizFke foreground colour o line Size text dks select dj mouse curser dks ogkW ys tkdj mouse ds left button ds }kjk spray fd;k tkrk gSaA (ix) Text: →bl tool dh lgk;rk ls fdlh Hkh text dks fy[kk tk ldrk gSaA (x) Curve:→bl tool dh lgk;rk ls operater line [khpdj mlds Lo:Ik dks cny ldrk gSaA → (xi) Rectangde:→ bl tool ds }kjk operater pqus gq, jax rFkk eksVkbZ dk prqHkZqt rFkk oxZ cuk ldrk → gSaA (xii) Line:→ bl tool ds }kjk lh/kh line [khp ldrs gSA → (xiii) Polygon:→ bl tool dh lgk;rk ls operater polygon vkdkj cuk ldrs gSA → (xiv) Ellipse:→ bl tool dh lgk;rk ls o`r cuk;k tk ldrk gSA → (xv) Rounded Rectengle:→ blls Rounded rectagle cuk;k tk ldrk gSA → (xvi) Spree colour:→ → Paint Bursh menu: → I. File:→ → (i) New:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls ubZ file [kksyh tk ldrh gS rks mldk uke Untitled vkrk → gSA (ii) open:→ bl command }kjk fdlh iwoZ ls save dh xbZ file dks open fd;k tkrk gSA → (iii) Save:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls ftl file es dke dj jgs gS mls Save fd;k tk ldrk gSA → mldk primary uke nsrs gS Extension .BMP vius vki ysrk gSA (iv) Save As :→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls curser drawing dkss fdlh nwljs uke ls Save fd;k → tk ldrk gSA (v) Paint :→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls file dks print fd;k tkrk gS bls djus ij ,d Dailog → Box vkrk gSA ogkW ij printing quality, resolution o No. of copies dks crk;k tkrk gSA (vi) Print preview:→ bl command ds }kjk print ls igys file dks ns[kk tk ldrk gS fd print ds → ckn dSlh vk;sxhA (vii) Print Set up:→ bl command ds }kjk printer dks select fd;k tkrk gS o mlds option tSls → orientair paper searce card size es change fd;k tkrk gSA (viii) Page set up:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls margins header o footer dks set fd;k tkrk → gSA (ix) Exit:→ blds }kjk orZeku file dks cUn dj paint brush ls ckgj vk;k tkrk gSA → II. Edit: → (i) Undo:→ bl command ds }kjk operater }kjk fn;s x;s vk[kjh command ds action dks u"V → fd;k tkrk gSA (ii) Repeat:→ ;g command last action dks iqu% oks gVkrk gSA → (iii) Cut:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls fp= fdlh Hkh pqus gq, fgLls dks Cut djds clip board es → Hkstk tkrk gSA (iv) Copy:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls fdlh pqus gq, fgLls dh copy dj mls clip board es → Hkstk tkrk gSA (v) Paste:→ bl command ds }kjk tks drawing fdl clip board es gS mls okil nwljh txg → paste fd;k tk ldrk gSA SIRAJ SIR 26
    • J.C.S COMPUTER (vi) Clear selection:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls pqus gq, fgLLks clear fd;s tkrs gS ftls paste → }kjk iqu% ugh yk;k tk ldrk gSA (vii) Select Alt:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls iwjh file dks select fd;k tkrk gSA → (viii) Copy To:→ bl command dk iz;ksx fdlh select fd;s gq, fgLls dks fdlh ubZ file es stor → fd;k tk ldrk gSA (ix) Paste from:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls orZeku file es fdlh nwljh file dks insert fd;k → tk ldrk gSA III. View:→ → (i) Tool Bar: →bl command dh lgk;rk ls Tool Bar ds Display dks on/off fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;g Toggal command gSA (ii) Color Bar:→ bl command ds }kjk color box ds Display dks on/off fd;k tk ldrk gSA → (iii) Status Bor:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls status Bar ds display dks on/off fd;k tk → ldrk gSA Defant ;g off jgrh gSA (iv) Zoom:→Screen ij Drawing ds vkdkj dks cMk / NksVk fd;k tkrk gSA → (v) View Bit map:→ bl command ds }kjk Screen ij drawing ds vykok lHkh dqN gV tkrk gS → vr% print ds igys Drawing dks ns[kuk gks rks ;g Command dke es fy;k tkrk gSA (vi) Text Tool Bar:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls text tool bar dks on/off fd;k tkrk gSA → IV. Image:→ → (i) Clip/Rotate:→ bl command ds }kjk selected object dks Horizantally o vertically ?kqek;k → tk ldrk gSA (ii) Streach/Skew:→ bl command dh lgk;rk ls fdlh Hkh pqus gq, object dks streach/skew → fd;k tk ldrk gSA (iii) Invert color:→ bl command ds }kjk forground o background dks cnyk tk ldrk gSA → III. Windows Explorer Introduction:→ Windows Explorer win 95/98 operating system dk file&folder dk izcU/k → djus okyk program gSA tks iqjkus laLdj.k file monager program dh txg fy;k x;k gSA ysfdu blls ;g T;knk 'kfDr’kkyh o fofo/krkiw.kZ gSA Windows Explorer dk iz;ksx fuEu function djus es fd;k tkrk gSA 1- folder ds <kWps dks ns[kukA 2- u;k folder cukukA 3- folders ,oa files dh lkezxh ns[kuk o cnyukA 4- program 'kq: djuk rFkk Document [kksyukA 5- file ;k folder dks b/kj m/kj ys tkuk o udy djukA SIRAJ SIR 27
    • J.C.S COMPUTER Exploing – My computer File Edit View Go favorite Tool Help Back Forword Up Copy Paste Undo Address My computer 3½ floppy [A:] All folder HCL [C:] Desk top HCL [D:] My computer HCL [E:] Recycle bin HCL [F:] Acceseries [G:] My Brief case Printer On line service Control Panal Dail up Networking Scheduled Tasks My Computer 10 object (S) 6- files ds xq.kks (properties) ds ns[kuk o cnyukA vc ge bu dk;ksZ dks djus dh fof/k dks crk,xs%& 1- QksYMj <+kWps dks ns[kuk [ Vieving structure of folder] :→ → blds fy, loZizFke window explorer pykuk gksxkAbldks pykus dh fof/k;kW %& (i) Desk Top ij cus Icon ij Double click djukA (ii) Start→Program→Window explorer ↵ rks fuEu izdkj dk Dialog Box open gksrk gSA - □ X ▲ bles file o folder dk <+kpkW fn[kkbZ nsrk gS tool bar ls fups window nks Hkkxks es cV tkrk gS left part tree pane rFkk Right part Contents pane dgykrs gSA ;fn vkius folder dks select fd;k gSA rks lkezxh iV~Vh (Contents pane) es ml folder ds Sub folder rFkk vU; lHkh files ds Icon Hkh fn[kk;sxsA nwljh fof/k%& My Computer ij Right Button Click djds mles explorer dks select djrs gS rks ,d window explorer open gksrk gSA Start→Right button Click rhljh fof/k%& Start→Right button Click→Explorer Tree pane ¼o`{k iV~Vh ½ es ( + ) fpUg o ( - ) fpUg gksrs gSA /ku fpUg ( + ) dk vFkZ& bl folder es Sub Folder Hkh gS ml ij click djrs gS rks lHkh Sub folder tree pane es fn[kkbZ nsrk gS o mles fpUg ( - ) vk tkrk gSA _.k fpUg ( - ) dk vFkZ & vc bles dksbZ Hkh folder ugh gSA bl izdkj ls ge window explorer es lHkh file o folder dk <kpkW ns[k ldrs gSA (2) u;k QksYMj cukuk [Create New folder]→ → window explorer dk Dialog Box [kqyk gksrk gS rks u;k folder cukus dh izfdz;k fuEu gSA 1- file menu ij tkdj New ij click djds folder dks select djrs gS rks Contents pane ij u;k folder create gks tk;sxkA 2- ftl Drive ij folder cukuk gks default C: Drive ij gh folder cuk;k tkrk gSA mldks Tree pane es ls mldks select djrs gS rks og Address Bar es vk tkrs gSA mlds ckn file ds New – folder ij click djrs gS rks u;k folder cu tkrk gSA mlds ckn fdlh folder dks vkSj Hkh mlh es djuk gks rks dj ldrs gSA bl izdkj ls folder create dj ldrs gSA SIRAJ SIR 28
    • J.C.S COMPUTER file→New→folder ↵ QksYMj ,oa Qkby dh lkezxh dks ns[kuk o cnyuk [ Viewing and changing Contents of folder &file] ;fn lkezxh iV~Vh es fn[kkbZ ns jgs fdlh folder fd lkezxh ns[kuk pkgrs gS rks mlds Icon ij Double click fdth, ftlls og folder tree pane es select fd;k gqvk fn[kkbZ nsxk rFkk mlds lHkh files o folder content pane es fn[kkbZ nsxh tks uke o Icon ds :Ik es gksxhA fdlh folder dh lkezxh cnyus ds fy, fdlh Hkh pane es ml folder ds Icon ij mouse ds right button ij click fdth,A rks context menu [kqysxk ftles open ij click djus ij window dks [kksy ldrs gSA mles bPNkuqlkj fdz;k, dj ldrs gSA nwljh fof/k& Tree panme es ls folder select djuk o content pane es ls Icon ij double click djrs gSA (4) Program 'kq: djuk o Document [kksyuk [Starting Program and opening document] fof/k%→ program ftl folder es gS ml folder dh tree pane ij click fdth, blls lkexzh pane es fof/k%→ og program fn[kkbZ iMus yxsxk vc ml file ;k folder ij double click dj fnft, ,slk djrs gh ml file ls ;fn dksbZ program tqMk gksxk rks og izkjEHk gks tk;sxkA vkSj ;fn dksbZ nLrkosTk tqMk gksxk rks og [kqy tk,xkA mles bfPNr fdz;k dj ldrs gSA (5) file ,oa folder dks nwljs txg ys tkuk o udy djuk %→ window Explorer dk iz;ksx djds vki %→ fdlh file ;k folder dks ,d folder ls nwljs folder es ys tk ldrs gS ;k udy dj ldrs gSA file ;k folder move djus dh izfdz;k& 1- folder or file ij right button click djuk 2- Context menu es ls Cut dks select djuk 3- ftl folder es ys tkuk pkgrs gS mlds nk,W button ij click djuk 4- ml folder ds context menu es paste dks select dhft, ,slk djrs gh og file ;k folder iqjkuh txg ls gVdj u, folder es vk tk;sxkA fdlh file o folder dh nwljs file ;k folder es copy djus dh fof/k Hkh yxHkx ;gh gS mles cut dh txg copy dks select djuk gSA vkxs fn[k ugh jgk gSA IV. Entertainment (i) C D Player :→ → (i) Compact Disk dks pykus ds fy, Compuct Disk dk player gksuk cgqr t:jh gSA rFkk speaker tks dh voice ;k vkokt lquus ds fy, t:jh gks tkrk gSA ge CD player ds lkFk fuEu vksj Hkh dqN dj ldrs gSA (ii) T;ksgh ge CD dks play djrs gS mlds lkFk fdlh nwljs program dksa Hkh pyk ldrs gSA rFkk mu application ;k program ds vUnj Hkh dke Hkh dj ldrs gSA Compact Disk ds Track dks secquenal ;k random order es Hkh pyk ldrs gSA CD player dh lgk;rk ls compact disk ds tracks dks forward ;k reverse Hkh dj ldrs gSA Compact disk player dh lgk;rk ls stop o pause Hkh dj ldrs gSA ;s lHkh mlds control panel ds vUnj vkrs gSA Sound card dh lgk;rk ls CD dk volume o control fd;k tk ldrk gS CD player dk dailog Box open gksrk gSA rc mlds vUnj ml CD player o elated tracks dh lkjh information stor jgrh gSA bl compact disk dh play line vkrh gS blds vUnj mu track dh information jgrh gSA bl player dks pykus ds fy, %& Start→ Program→Acceseries→Entertainment→CD player ↵ SIRAJ SIR 29
    • J.C.S COMPUTER tc CD Rom es CD ugh gks rks ;g player fuEu izdkj ds message Display djrk gSA tks fuEu izdkj gS%& 1- Data or No Disk Noded 2- Please insert Disk (1) Player:→ → Sonqni, BIN Name, Ria pad, audio manager. (2) DVD player:→ ( Digital Video disk player ) ;g CD player dh rjg gh dk;Z djrk gSA o → CD player tSlk gh gksrk gSA Start→ program→Accesseries→Entertainment→DVD Player↵ (3) Media Player :→ ;g Multi media dh NksVh Application gS tks dh multi media dh file → pykus ds dke vkrk gSA blesa vksfM;ks fofM;ks Disk Hkh pykbZ tkrh gSA ;g Track ds vk/kkj ij pyrh gSA bldkas pykus ds fy, %& Start→program→Acceseries→Entertainment →Media player↵ rkas media player open gksrk gSA blds vUnj Scroll Bar open gksrk gSA bls vkxs fiNs fd;k tk ldrk gSA Media Player File Edit Device Scale Help ◄ ►  □ X ▼ 7 ► ▲ DVD:→ bldks pykus ds fy, igys DVD Disk Insert djrs gSA ;fn disk audio gS rks → Automatically cdplayer start gksrk gSA ;fn disk vidia gS rks DVD pykuk iMsxk blds fy, DVD player es ls option dks select djus iMsxs tSls fd CD player es djrs gSA (4) Sound Recorder:→ ;g ,d NksVk lk program gS ftlls ge /ofu dks (i) Record dj ldrs gSA → (ii) Wave file cuk ldrs gS Sound record microphone }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA ,d ckj save fd;s sound ds vUnj (iii) Editting rFkk dqN (iv) part remove Hkh dj ldrs gSA blds vUnj ge (v) Add Eco. Effect Hkh ns ldrs gSAA blds fy, CPU ds vUnj Sound board lgh gksuk pkfg, sound recorder dks start djus ds fy, izfdz;k %& Start→ Program→Acceseries →Entertainment→ Sound Recorder↵ rks fuEu izdkj dk Dialog Box vkrk gSA Sound Recorder File Edit Effect Position O’ Cosec Ask to Start Seek to End - □ X Help Length O’ Cosec Play Stop Record Total Sound dh length Right vkSj cus Box ds vUnj vkrh gSA tc play button ij click djrs gSA rks /ofu play gks tkrh gSA SIRAJ SIR 30
    • J.C.S COMPUTER ftl Sound dh Recording djuh gSA rks sound dks on djds Record button ij click djrs gSA ckn es stop ij click djuk& (5) Volume Control:→ ;g Sound card o Speaker dh /ofu dks fu;f=r djus ds dke es vkrk gS → bls 'kq: djus ds fy, %& Start→ Program→Acceseries→Entertainment→Volume control↵ tc 'kq: djrs gS rks fuEu izdkj dk Dialog Box vkrk gSA Volume Control □ X Volume Wave Balance SW Synth CD player Line in Control Balance Balance Balance Balance Mute all Mute Mute Mute bles fuEu xq.k gks ldrs gSA 1- Volume Control:→ ;g sound dks control djrk gSA 2- Line In:→ ckgj ls computer ds vUnj sound dks Hkstus ds dke djrk gSA 3- Wave out:→ Wave file dks Control djus dk dk;Z djrk gSA 4- Audia CD:→ Sound control djrk gSA 5- Microphone:→ Sound dks okfil play djus dk dk;Z djrk gSA Mute unit 3 V. System Tools (i) Character map:→bldk o.kZu fiNs window Accessories es ns[kA → s (ii) Back up:→ Start→program→Acceseries→System tool Back up↵ → rks fuEu izdkj dk Dialog Box vk;sxk& Micro Soft Back up Job Edit View Tools Help Back up Restore Back up Job - □ X Start What to Back up  All select file ○ New and changes files Tree Pane Name Size Type Modifid Where to Back up Option Back up dh lgk;rk ls Hard Disk vkfn dh Duplicate copy rS;kj djds j[k ldrs gSA tc dHkh Hkh Hard Disk vkfn dks format djuk iM tk;s rks Back up ds }kjk okil program restore fd;k tk ldrk gSA Starting & Start program & blds fy, ges ,d Imagery Disk dh vko’;drk gksrh gSA ftlds vUnj ls ge Program dk Back up ys ldrs gSA Back up dh xbZ file dk Extention .BAK gksrk gSA (3) Clip board viewer:→ tc ge fdlh Hkh document ;k text dks cut ;k copy djrs gS rks → document dks fdlh txg ij j[kus dh vko’;drk gSA SIRAJ SIR 31
    • J.C.S COMPUTER window tgkW ij Text ;k Document dks stor djrk gSA og clip board viewer dgykrk gSA tc ges okil dgh ij paste djuk gksrk gS rc windows bl storage ls ykdj paste dj nsrk gSA bldks pykus dh izfdz;k%& Start→ program→Acceseries→System tool → Clip Board viewer↵ tc dHkh Hkh ge print Screen Key Hkh Press djrs gS rks ogkW ls Image clip Board viewer ds vUnj pyh tkrh gSA Clip Board viewer dk Extension- .CLP Clip Board Presentation:→ tc dHkh Hkh ges clip board viewer ds context dks save djuk gksrk → gS rks file menu ds vUnj save As okyk button select djrs gSA ,d ckj save fd;s x;s content dks fdlh nwljh application es copy o paste dj ldrs gSA Clip board viewer ds vUnj ftu content dks current es Cut ;k copy djrs gSA oks gh clip board viewer ds vUnj jgrs gSA (4) Disk Defragmenter:→ ;g file dh position dks iznf’kZr djrh gsa bldks pykus ds fy, %& → Start→ program→Acceseries →system tool→ Disk Defragmenter ↵ (i) Drive Select (ii) Start button ij click (iii) Detail claster by claster (iv) program file dks ckj&ckj research djrk gSA tc ge bls run djrs gS rc ges ;g iwNrk gS fd dkSulh Drive dk fragments djuk gSA tc ;g process start gks tkrk gS rks ge mldh Detail Hkh ns[k ldrs gSA ;s Detail claster by clutstrc show djrk gSA bl fragment program fil e dks ckj&ckj Research djrk jgrk gSA (i) ftlls program tYnh ls start gks tkrk gSA bls eghus es ,d ckj t:j pykuk pkfg,A (ii) Disk Defragment pykus ls igys ;g Drive dks Error dks Hkh check djrk gSA vr% bls nwj djus ds fy, igys Scan disk pykuh pkgh, fQj Disk fragment pykuk pkfg,A (5) Drive Space:→[compress the Drive] → bldh starting izfdz;k fuEu izdkj gSA Start→ prograam→Acceseries→system tool→ Drive Space ↵ rks bl izdkj dk Dialog Box vkrk gSA ftlls ;g show djrk gS dh ftl Drive dks compress djuk gksrk gS mldks select djrs gSA vkSj mlds ckj es Next screen ij ;g show djrk gS fd igys rFkk ckj ess ml Drive dk pie chart curk gSA vc ge start ij click dj nsrs gS rks compress djuk 'kq: gks tkrk gS blls igys ges ;g iwNrk gS fd bu file dk Back up ysuk gS ;k ugh ;fn Back up ysuk gS rks yes ij click dj nsrs gSA ;fn ugh ysuk gS rks fl/kk compress djuk 'kq: dj nsrk gSA Error cheek djds compressive 'kq: dj nsrs gSA blds ckn system shout down djds restor djrs gSA Compress dk;Z dSls djrk gS %→ tc ge Drive dks Compress ;k NksVk djrs gS rks lkjk Data Big %→ file ls New Drive es vk tkrk gS ftlls Host DDrive dgrs gSA ;g H By Default vkrk gS blls ges vkSj dksbZ Hkh dke ns ldrs gSA tc ge Computer dks Boot djrs gS rc Drive space command Hkh lode gks tkrk gSA oks ;g crkrk gS fd System tks ryk’k dj jgk gS rks Bick file dks lode djds ns nsrk gS blfy, system ;k machine dks lHkh C Drive dh properties dh sheet ns[k ldrs gS rks mlds vUnj Hkh options vkrs gSA bl Big file dks hide Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gSA ftlls bl file dks Read/Write ugh dj ldrs gSA blls Uncompress Hkh dj ldrs gS creating a New particine Drive Space tks free space jgrs gSA tks New particine cukrs gS tks Hkh Particine curs gS oks Hkh compresss gksrs gSA tks fd more storage ds fy, use es vkrs gSA SIRAJ SIR 32
    • J.C.S COMPUTER (6) Scan Disk:→ Scan Disk hard Disk dh lqj{kk ds fy, use es fy tkrh gSA ;g Error dks → [kkstrh gS rFkk bldks lgh djrh gSA rFkk bldks lIrkg es ,d ckj t:j pykuk pkfg, ftlls fd Hard Disk dh problem dks cheek dj ldsA bldks Start djus ds fy, fuEu izfdz;k gSA Start→ Program→Acceseries →System tool→ Scan Disk ↵ ;g ges iwNs cxSj gh Error dks Bhd dj nsrk gSA rFkk ge Adavance button ij click dj nsrs gSA ge cgqr lkjs ifjorZu Hkh dj ldrs gSA (i) Display Summory (ii) Long file (iii) Cross Inked file (iv) Lost file fragment (v) Check files etc. Scan Disk Prem C: - □ X Select the Drive you want to cheek for errors 3½ floppy [A:] Prem [C:] Type of test O Standard [ cheeks filles and folder errors ] O Thorough [ Perfor standred test and scans disk surface for errors] Start Close Advanted (7) System Information:→System Information ds ikl lkjs system dh information jgrh gSA → bls start djus dh izfdz;k fuEu izdkj gSA Start→ program→Acceseries →system tool→ system information ↵ tc bls open djrs gS rks rhu Hkkx [kqyrs gSA 1- Hard Resoures 2- Component software 3- Envoronment fuEu Dialog Box vkrk gSA Microsoft System Information - □ X System Information ▲ Shared Resource 1 Devices Hardware Resource Components Software Entironment (i) Hard Resources:→ Hard setting dh tkrh gS ftuds vUnj DMA, Conficture, Sharing, → forced, Hardware, I/O IRQS mamory etc. (ii) Component:→ blds vUnj Window dk Configration gksrk gS tSls multi media, Display → modem Network etc. (iii) Software Environment: →blds vUnj memory ds vUnj dkSu&dkSu ls Software gS mudk mYys[k gksrk gSA tSls Driver, OLE, Registration. (8) System Monitor:→ system monitor ;g crkrk gS fd No. of process fdrus gq, gSA ;g → Graphically Represent djrk gSA blds fy, Edit menu es Cotegries high light gksrh gSA mles ls select Iten djds ns[krs gS ;fn tool Bar ds bar ij click djrs gSA rks Data, Bar chart ds :Ik es SIRAJ SIR 33
    • J.C.S COMPUTER Display gksrk gSA blds vUnj ge Numeric Graph ns[k ldrs gSA blds fy, Numeric chart button ij click djuk gksrk gSA ;g Bar, Chart button ds ckn es fLFkr gksrk gSA (10) Drive Converter:→ [FAT32] → [file Alocation table 32 bit] MS. Dos o window tks igys use es vkrs muds vUnj FAT 16 dk gh use gksrk Fkk FAT 16 flQZ Track & harel Drive ds Contents j[krs gSA FAT 32 es large file Alocation gksrk gSA D;ksfd Small Alocation es space T;knk gksrk gSA FAT tks gS Hard Drive dh list dks stor djrk gSA ;k save djrk gSA Converting to FAT 32 :→ → ge operating system windows stall djrs gS rc FAT 32 dk Hkh process 'kq: gks tkrk gSA FAT 32 Convert djus ds fy, fuEu steps use es ysrs gSA Start→ Program→Acceseries→System tool →Drive Conversion↵ blds ckn ,d Dialog Box open gksrk gSA bles ls Drive select djuh gksrh gSA bl Dialog Box ds vUnj Drive dh list vkrh gSA ftl Drive dks select djrs gSA ml Drive dk Conversion Start gksrk gSA By default C Drive select gksrk gSA fQj Next button ij Click djrs gSA blds ckn System Antivirus program rFkk System utilities dks cheak djrk gSA fQj blds ckn Next cVu ij click dj nsrs gSA blds ckn og Back up ysuk 'kq: dj nsrk gS rFkk Drive convering djuk 'kq: gks tkrk gSA VI. Sharing Information Between Program Introduction:→ Windows 95 dh vusd fo’ks"krkvks es ls ,d fo’ks"krk ;g Hkh gS fd vki fdlh nLrkost → es vyx&vyx izdkj dh lwpuk,W Hkj ldrs gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, & ,d Decument program es lk/kkj.k Text, spreed start, Graphics, Sound rFkk Video ds VqdMs Hkh ns[ks tk ldrs gSA Object, linking and Embending OLE :→ ,d Document es vusd rjg dh lwpuk Hkjuk ;k vusd izdkj dh lwpuk,s ,d djus dh bl rduhd dks object linking and Embending OLE dgk tkrk gSA Starting Start→ Setting→Contral panal→Dailup networking↵ rks ,d Dialog Box Appear gksrk gSA Dail up Networking X □ File Edit View Back Up /// Dail up Networking Make New Connect bles make new Connect ij Double Click djrs gS rks ,d Dailog Box appear gksrk gSA ftles Computer dk uke fn;k tkrk gSA ftldk Connection djuk gS ckn es modem dks select djrs gSA mles ls Area Code o phone No. dks fy;k tkrk gSA (2) Hyper Terminal:→ blls ge file dks send ,oa Receive dj ldrs gS rFkk modem dh → lgk;rk ls Remote Computer dks Hkh Connect dj ldrs gSA starting of Hyper Terminal Start→ program→Acceseries →Communication →Hyper Terminal ↵ Dialog Box SIRAJ SIR 34
    • J.C.S COMPUTER Connection Desenotion New Connection Enter a name and connection Name Icon OK Cancle (i) Hyper Terminal dh vf/kd tkudkjh ds fy, ge mlds vUnj okyh Help menu es ls lgk;rk ys ldrs gSA (ii) Hyper Terminal ls ge nwljs computer dh file dks use es ys ldrs gS ;fn mudk log in o password ekyqe gksA (iii) bldh file ds Contents ,oa Biodata es modification o u;s Data Add dj ldrs gSA (3) Phone Dialer: →bldk use ge modem rFkk vU; Device dh lgk;rk ls Telephone call djus es fd;k tkrk gSA Starting of the phone dialer Start→ program→Acceseries→ Communication → Phone dialer↵ Phone Dialer File Edit Tools Help Number of dialer Spead Dial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 0 # Speed dialing:- Speed dialing No. cukus ds fy, ge Edit menu es ykdj speed dial dks select djrs gS rks gekjs lkeus ,d Dialog Box Appear gksrk gSA Direct Cabel Connection :→phone line ds }kjk user ds fy, t:jh ugh gS user Remo dks → serial Cabel }kjk Connection dj bues ls dksbZ Hkh Cabel dk use dj ldrs gSA (i) Serial Null Modem Cabel (ii) Lap link Cabel (iii) Inter link Cabel SIRAJ SIR 35