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Daniele TosiFiber Optic Sensors for Digital Monitoring:      Opportunities and Challenges           Zhejiang University - ...
Roadmap1. Technology overview2. The problem3. Lab-in-a-fiber4. Signal processing5. Applications and opportunities
1. Technology overview
Optical fiber sensorsSensors embedded into optical fiber devicesAll physical parameters transduced into fiber                ...
Why optical fibers                      με, nε, pε sensing★ Super performance   0.01°C accuracy                      1 ppm ...
Why optical fibers                      με, nε, pε sensing★ Super performance   0.01°C accuracy                      1 ppm ...
Why optical fibers                      με, nε, pε sensing★ Super performance   0.01°C accuracy                      1 ppm ...
Why optical fibers                      με, nε, pε sensing★ Super performance   0.01°C accuracy                      1 ppm ...
Fiber Bragg GratingFBG = in-fiber selective mirror
FBG sensor                               Strain                             Vibrations                              Pressu...
FBG responseStrain: 1 pm/με   Temperature: 10 pm/°C
FBG response          LINEAR response      TEMPERATURE compensationStrain: 1 pm/με       Temperature: 10 pm/°C
Chirped FBGFBG with non-uniform modulation➯ Shortly distributed pressure sensor (2-5 cm)
Chirped FBGPressure                         Spectrum
Chirped FBG  Pressure                           SpectrumDelta pressure                                      d
Evanescent field sensorsInterfacing an optical fiber with surroundingenvironment (gas, chemical, biomedical)>> Hold the tail...
Evanescent field sensors      (1) Side-polish
Evanescent field sensors      (2) Recoating
Evanescent field sensors      (3) Doping
Evanescent field sensorsGas concentration >> refractive index >> transmittance
Evanescent field sensors                                    Single dopant   Interaction                 Interpenetrating po...
Surface plasmon resonance  Multiple SPR
Surface plasmon resonance  Multiple SPR
Dopants                      Dopant            Sensitive to Absorption          Palladium           Hydrogen     SPR      ...
InformationInformation is encoded into spectrumShort bandwidth for FBG/CFBG (1-5 nm)Wide bandwidth for EFT/SPR (50-800 nm)...
Spectrometric LED                        Spectro(white)                      meter            FBG1 ... FBGn               ...
Spectrometric LED                        Spectro(white)                      meter            FBG1 ... FBGn              A...
Spectrometric LED                         Spectro(white)                       meter            FBG1 ... FBGn             ...
Spectrometers                   > $50k                     $5k                    10 pm                    1 pm           ...
IntensityPower detectors do not resolve spectrum>> Need to transduce spectrum into power <<Solution: sweeping laser, synch...
Intensity                                                       $2.2k           !D. Tosi, G. Perrone, “Low-cost, high sens...
Intensity                                                                           Fixed-wavelength                      ...
Intensity                                                    $10.5kD. Tosi, M. Olivero, A. Vallan, G. Perrone, “Weigh-in-m...
Intensity                                                               Swept laser                                       ...
2. The problem
FOS vs WSN(M$)                                 FOS        WSN12001000  800  600   400   200      0               2006 2007...
FOS vs WSN(M$)                                 FOS        WSN12001000  800  600   400   200      0               2006 2007...
The painExpensiveness(Cost ≥ WTP * 5)Scalability(Every sensor is a prototype)
ExpensivenessAccuracy1pε                                       Niche1nε                                  Spectrom.1με     ...
ExpensivenessAccuracy1pε                                        Niche                  Demand1nε                OFS       ...
Scalability                  Every unit is a prototype...   Architecture            Calibration            Packaging      ...
Re-targetting FOS                Target    Commercial    R&D   Strain        1 nε        1 με      0.1 nεTemperature     0...
3. Lab in a fiber
Sensing capabilities      Strain/vibration   +         Temperature     +              Pressure   + Differential pressure  ...
LIFA unitStrain FBG                             SPRTemp. FBG                             EFS   Chirped FBG
Selection - 1Strain + chemical             ...     Strain +   vibrations +     EFS a/or SPR   temperature      1-2 substan...
Selection - 2Biomedical detection  Temperature                  Medical compensation                detection             ...
Selection - 3   Multi-chemical                             Differential  Multiple SPR                pressureChemical dete...
LIFA spectrum                 ...EFS     SPR              Accumulates EFS/SPR              curves of all LIFA units       ...
LIFA spectrum                           ...Discriminates each FBG/   FBG    CFBGCFBG, each encoded bywavelength
Single matrix                      LIFA matrix                ...                ...    .     .                 .    .    ...
Single matrixSwitching                                LIFA matrix                                   ...                   ...
Single matrixSwitching                                LIFA matrix                                   ...                   ...
Double matrixSwitching                              LIFA matrix                                 ...                       ...
Kudos                                        LIFA matrix                                  ...                             ...
Kudos                                         LIFA matrix                                   ...                           ...
KudosSource/receiver is themain cost of singlematrix architectureINTEGRATION        SLED                           Integra...
Kudos                            Lasers wavelength encodedSCALABILITY                               as LIFA (optimization)...
KudosSwitching                              LIFA matrix                                 ...                               ...
KudosSwitching                        LIFA matrix                    ...      Shift COMPLEXITY to                    ...  ...
4. Signal processing
Standard chain        Data   Interpretation     Storage +     Processing   Interrogation        Unit
Abstraction layer                     Data CONCRETE       Interpretation                  Storage +SEMI-ABSTRACT     Proce...
Abstraction layer                     Data CONCRETE       Interpretation                  Storage +SEMI-ABSTRACT     Proce...
IneffectivenessPROBLEM: Data are processed on highlevels of abstraction➙ No use of a priori physical informationSame for W...
Embedded DSP Data               DataFusion       +    Reduction         Processing            DSP                 Interrog...
Closing the gapSOLUTION: Process data onboard➙ Data are processed on low level ofabstractionBEST use of a priori informati...
Frequency analysis         Adaptive filtering                  Processing                     DSP                          ...
Example IFBGIFBG                 Cost = $2.2k; #10 sensors              Stand-alone   RLS + MVE   RLS&Kalman              ...
Example IFBG800m   D. Tosi, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, “Low-cost fiber Bragg grating vibroacoustic sensor for   voice and hear...
5. Applications and   opportunities
Multipoint FOS market               2%             2%             Remote structures            3%              Smart struc...
1.2 skyscrapers/week500Mdata/s/Shanghai                        +15% lifecycle                       +21% prediction
Smart structures    Cloud structures                                             Venezia, Scola Grande                    ...
Gain = ηT - C              Gain = (η+Δη)(T+ΔT) - (C+ΔC) +10% lifecycle+ 10% efficiency    (Vestas)
4D sensors mapping
PerimeterAnti-terrorism  Biohazard
Strain                            Temperature ref.                             Leak/corrosionStrain + Temperature + Oxygen...
VibrationsPropulsionRedundancy
Urodynamic diseases
Fracture healing  monitoring  (Fiberlogix)
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Fiber optic sensors for digital monitoring: Opportunities and challenges

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  • information encoded in spectrum\n
  • section of an optical fiber\ncladding removed - interaction\n
  • section of an optical fiber\ncladding removed - interaction\n
  • section of an optical fiber\ncladding removed - interaction\n
  • section of an optical fiber\ncladding removed - interaction\n
  • Chemical 1st arrow\nOptical 2nd arrow\n
  • section of an optical fiber\ncladding removed - interaction\n
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  • h2s = hydrogen sulfide\ntelomerase - indicator of prostatic chancer\ndntp = deoxi-nucleic-triphosphate \nfitc = fluorescein isothiocanate\n\n
  • Optical spectrum!\n
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  • No do-it-all\n
  • intensity = just detecting power\n
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  • laser = dashed line\nnot much flexibility\nshowcased at Italia degli Innovatori, Shanghai/Nanjing Nov\n
  • Laser moves faster than oscillations\n
  • Laser moves faster than oscillations\n
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  • to show where the problem is I&amp;#x2019;ll plot some market numbers\n
  • wsn missed the $1B milestone\nFOS retraction\n
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  • grouped in a range\ndemand for WSN can&amp;#x2019;t be met by optics\ndepand for FOS - going to the left and mostly important up\n
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  • 1) building blocks - scalabili\n2) da custom made - plurality of systems - to plug&amp;play\n3) da calibrazione full a calibrazione agile\n
  • you won&amp;#x2019;t detect many tumors with .1% accuracy...\nso far, only detect presence with 1-15 min integration time. NOT enough\n#sensors per unit. units can be merged (signal processing...)\n
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  • Fabrication: first side polish, then recoat with metal layer or IPN\nThen hydrogen load (or not) and write FBGs\n
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  • scalability\n
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  • combines FBGA + spectrometer\n
  • combines FBGA + spectrometer\n
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  • looking closer at the encoding\n
  • combines FBGA + spectrometer\n
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  • wsn are closer to their physical limits\n
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  • we know what they (data) are, a priori\nwe can use these straight on the physical layer, not afterwards\nMax performance\n
  • showcased at italia degli innovatori 2011 - shanghai/bejing\n
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  • shanghai skyline\nlifecycle=ageing\n
  • internet of things platforms that allow connecting devices\n
  • vestas installation uk isle of wight\nefficiency and lifecycle determine directly the cost of renewable energy\nlifecycle = strain + vibration mapping and corrosion\nsea installation -&gt; presence of sand\n
  • reservoir monitoring\n
  • changi airport singapore first airport perimeter monitoring with fiber optics\n
  • minnesota pipeline\n
  • virgin galactic prototype for space tourism\n
  • + menzionare applicazioni in integrare fibroscopi x pressione/biomedical parameters\n
  • hematoma - callus - spongy bone - remodelling\n
  • marco polo statue hangzhou\nfirst italian to &amp;#x201C;discover&amp;#x201D; china\n
  • Transcript of "Fiber optic sensors for digital monitoring: Opportunities and challenges"

    1. 1. Daniele TosiFiber Optic Sensors for Digital Monitoring: Opportunities and Challenges Zhejiang University - 17/11/2011
    2. 2. Roadmap1. Technology overview2. The problem3. Lab-in-a-fiber4. Signal processing5. Applications and opportunities
    3. 3. 1. Technology overview
    4. 4. Optical fiber sensorsSensors embedded into optical fiber devicesAll physical parameters transduced into fiber Strain Vibrations Pressure Temperature Distributed strain Chemical concentrations Biomedical parameters
    5. 5. Why optical fibers με, nε, pε sensing★ Super performance 0.01°C accuracy 1 ppm chemical★ Miniature size 50 km distance★ Distribution★ Safety/immunity
    6. 6. Why optical fibers με, nε, pε sensing★ Super performance 0.01°C accuracy 1 ppm chemical★ Miniature size 50 km μm 10/125 distance Lightweight Embeddable★ Distribution★ Safety/immunity
    7. 7. Why optical fibers με, nε, pε sensing★ Super performance 0.01°C accuracy 1 ppm chemical★ Miniature size 50 km μm 10/125 distance Lightweight Embeddable Punctual★ Distribution Multiplexed Distributed★ Safety/immunity
    8. 8. Why optical fibers με, nε, pε sensing★ Super performance 0.01°C accuracy 1 ppm chemical★ Miniature size 50 km μm 10/125 distance Lightweight Embeddable Punctual★ Distribution Multiplexed Distributed EMI compatible★ Safety/immunity Fire-safe Passive
    9. 9. Fiber Bragg GratingFBG = in-fiber selective mirror
    10. 10. FBG sensor Strain Vibrations Pressure TemperatureMechanical strain λ(ε, ΔT)= λ0+kεε+kTΔTThermal expansion
    11. 11. FBG responseStrain: 1 pm/με Temperature: 10 pm/°C
    12. 12. FBG response LINEAR response TEMPERATURE compensationStrain: 1 pm/με Temperature: 10 pm/°C
    13. 13. Chirped FBGFBG with non-uniform modulation➯ Shortly distributed pressure sensor (2-5 cm)
    14. 14. Chirped FBGPressure Spectrum
    15. 15. Chirped FBG Pressure SpectrumDelta pressure d
    16. 16. Evanescent field sensorsInterfacing an optical fiber with surroundingenvironment (gas, chemical, biomedical)>> Hold the tail to whack the dog << Tail Dog Evanescent field
    17. 17. Evanescent field sensors (1) Side-polish
    18. 18. Evanescent field sensors (2) Recoating
    19. 19. Evanescent field sensors (3) Doping
    20. 20. Evanescent field sensorsGas concentration >> refractive index >> transmittance
    21. 21. Evanescent field sensors Single dopant Interaction Interpenetrating polymer network + nanoparticles
    22. 22. Surface plasmon resonance Multiple SPR
    23. 23. Surface plasmon resonance Multiple SPR
    24. 24. Dopants Dopant Sensitive to Absorption Palladium Hydrogen SPR Silver (Ag) H2S Trapping Hydrophobic sol-gel Oxygen (O2) matrix SPR Titanium dyoxide Tyrosine nanoparticlesImmobilization Acetylcholinesterase Clorphyripos (AChE) (pesticide)Enzymatic dep. FITC-labelled dNTP Telomerase
    25. 25. InformationInformation is encoded into spectrumShort bandwidth for FBG/CFBG (1-5 nm)Wide bandwidth for EFT/SPR (50-800 nm)How to demodulate?Cost, sensitivity, frequency
    26. 26. Spectrometric LED Spectro(white) meter FBG1 ... FBGn λ LED Spectro(white) meter EFT1 ... EFTn
    27. 27. Spectrometric LED Spectro(white) meter FBG1 ... FBGn Absorption λ LED Spectro(white) meter EFT1 ... EFTn
    28. 28. Spectrometric LED Spectro(white) meter FBG1 ... FBGn Strain Temperature λ LED Spectro(white) meter EFT1 ... EFTn
    29. 29. Spectrometers > $50k $5k 10 pm 1 pm 1 Hz 1 Hz 2000 nm 40 nmOptical Spectrum Analyzer FBG Analyzer $35k $20k 0.1-1 pm 10 pm 1 Hz - 5 kHz 1 Hz 60 nm 500 nm FBG Interrogator Spectrometer
    30. 30. IntensityPower detectors do not resolve spectrum>> Need to transduce spectrum into power <<Solution: sweeping laser, synchronized photodetectorBonus: cheap $25-100k vs
    31. 31. Intensity $2.2k !D. Tosi, G. Perrone, “Low-cost, high sensitivity, signal processing-enhanced fiber Bragg grating sensing system for condition-basedmaintenance application”, Sensor Letters, 2011
    32. 32. Intensity Fixed-wavelength MHz frequency Laser noise $2.2k !D. Tosi, G. Perrone, “Low-cost, high sensitivity, signal processing-enhanced fiber Bragg grating sensing system for condition-basedmaintenance application”, Sensor Letters, 2011
    33. 33. Intensity $10.5kD. Tosi, M. Olivero, A. Vallan, G. Perrone, “Weigh-in-motion throughfibre Bragg grating optical sensors,” Electronic Letters, 2010
    34. 34. Intensity Swept laser 100 Hz Laser noise $10.5kD. Tosi, M. Olivero, A. Vallan, G. Perrone, “Weigh-in-motion throughfibre Bragg grating optical sensors,” Electronic Letters, 2010
    35. 35. 2. The problem
    36. 36. FOS vs WSN(M$) FOS WSN12001000 800 600 400 200 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2005 2007 forecast
    37. 37. FOS vs WSN(M$) FOS WSN12001000 800 600 400 200 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2005 Real picture
    38. 38. The painExpensiveness(Cost ≥ WTP * 5)Scalability(Every sensor is a prototype)
    39. 39. ExpensivenessAccuracy1pε Niche1nε Spectrom.1με WSNIntensity WSN high1mε low $100 Cost $1k $10k $100k >> Hi-end market overview (no consumer) <<
    40. 40. ExpensivenessAccuracy1pε Niche Demand1nε OFS Spectrom. Demand1με WSN WSNIntensity WSN high1mε low $100 Cost $1k $10k $100k
    41. 41. Scalability Every unit is a prototype... Architecture Calibration Packaging Self-calibration Embedment into Plug&play development compositeCreate LIFA building Agile calibration Packaging of building blocks development blocksRemove wavelength Minimize installation Auto recalibration constraints efforts
    42. 42. Re-targetting FOS Target Commercial R&D Strain 1 nε 1 με 0.1 nεTemperature 0.2 °C 0.5 °C 0.1 °C Bio/chem. 10 ppm ~0.1% ~0.01%Cost/sensor $500 > $5k > $5k Scalability Complete Prototype None # Sensors 20 100 100
    43. 43. 3. Lab in a fiber
    44. 44. Sensing capabilities Strain/vibration + Temperature + Pressure + Differential pressure + Gas/chemicals + Biomedical = Lab-in-a-fiber (LIFA)
    45. 45. LIFA unitStrain FBG SPRTemp. FBG EFS Chirped FBG
    46. 46. Selection - 1Strain + chemical ... Strain + vibrations + EFS a/or SPR temperature 1-2 substance (compensation) detection
    47. 47. Selection - 2Biomedical detection Temperature Medical compensation detection Differential pressure
    48. 48. Selection - 3 Multi-chemical Differential Multiple SPR pressureChemical detection Gas compensation
    49. 49. LIFA spectrum ...EFS SPR Accumulates EFS/SPR curves of all LIFA units on each channel
    50. 50. LIFA spectrum ...Discriminates each FBG/ FBG CFBGCFBG, each encoded bywavelength
    51. 51. Single matrix LIFA matrix ... ... . . . . . . . . ... .
    52. 52. Single matrixSwitching LIFA matrix ... ... . . . . . . . . ... . SLED Spectrom. FBGA
    53. 53. Single matrixSwitching LIFA matrix ... ... . . . . . . . . ... . SLED Integrated Spectrom. LIFA source FBGA
    54. 54. Double matrixSwitching LIFA matrix ... ... . . . . . . . . ... . Laser array Photodetector Laser . controller . .
    55. 55. Kudos LIFA matrix ... ... . . . . . . . . ... . 1 2 N Each LIFA block is encodedSCALABILITY No “custom-made” blocksLOW-COST Ease of fiber fabrication
    56. 56. Kudos LIFA matrix ... ... . . . . . . . . . MORE All EFS/SPR are the same!SCALABILITY Pre-fabrication equal for all blocks
    57. 57. KudosSource/receiver is themain cost of singlematrix architectureINTEGRATION SLED Integrated Spectrom. LIFA source FBGA
    58. 58. Kudos Lasers wavelength encodedSCALABILITY as LIFA (optimization) LOW-COST Laser array Lasers are cheap LaserLaser controller isn’t controller . . .
    59. 59. KudosSwitching LIFA matrix ... ... . . . . . . . . ... . Laser array Photodetector Laser . controller Processing . DSP .
    60. 60. KudosSwitching LIFA matrix ... Shift COMPLEXITY to ... SIGNAL PROCESSING . . . . . . . . ... . Laser array Photodetector Laser . controller Processing . DSP .
    61. 61. 4. Signal processing
    62. 62. Standard chain Data Interpretation Storage + Processing Interrogation Unit
    63. 63. Abstraction layer Data CONCRETE Interpretation Storage +SEMI-ABSTRACT Processing Interrogation ABSTRACT Unit
    64. 64. Abstraction layer Data CONCRETE Interpretation Storage +SEMI-ABSTRACT Processing Interrogation ABSTRACT Unit
    65. 65. IneffectivenessPROBLEM: Data are processed on highlevels of abstraction➙ No use of a priori physical informationSame for WSN, but FOS have higherperformance and margin!
    66. 66. Embedded DSP Data DataFusion + Reduction Processing DSP Interrogation Unit
    67. 67. Closing the gapSOLUTION: Process data onboard➙ Data are processed on low level ofabstractionBEST use of a priori information onoutput data!
    68. 68. Frequency analysis Adaptive filtering Processing DSP AIData fusion Machine learning
    69. 69. Example IFBGIFBG Cost = $2.2k; #10 sensors Stand-alone RLS + MVE RLS&Kalman + KLT/MVEStrain res. 1 με 1 nε <1 pε Min SNR -10 dB -39 dB -69 dBFrequency 25 kHz 25 kHz 25 kHzProc. time 0.1 s 10 s 4 min
    70. 70. Example IFBG800m D. Tosi, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, “Low-cost fiber Bragg grating vibroacoustic sensor for voice and heartbeat detection,” Applied Optics, 2008
    71. 71. 5. Applications and opportunities
    72. 72. Multipoint FOS market 2% 2% Remote structures 3% Smart structures 7% Security 13% 35% Industrial process Seismic Aerospace 15% Military Medical 22% Oil&Gas - Renewables - Biomedical???
    73. 73. 1.2 skyscrapers/week500Mdata/s/Shanghai +15% lifecycle +21% prediction
    74. 74. Smart structures Cloud structures Venezia, Scola Grande Torino, Cappella Guarini I. Ivascu, D. Tosi, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, N. N. Puscas, “Low-cost FBG temperature sensor for application in cultural heritage preservation,”Torino, Passerella Olimpica Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials
    75. 75. Gain = ηT - C Gain = (η+Δη)(T+ΔT) - (C+ΔC) +10% lifecycle+ 10% efficiency (Vestas)
    76. 76. 4D sensors mapping
    77. 77. PerimeterAnti-terrorism Biohazard
    78. 78. Strain Temperature ref. Leak/corrosionStrain + Temperature + Oxygen DTS integrated
    79. 79. VibrationsPropulsionRedundancy
    80. 80. Urodynamic diseases
    81. 81. Fracture healing monitoring (Fiberlogix)
    82. 82. Thank you
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