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Water Pollution Abu Dhabi
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Water Pollution Abu Dhabi

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  • 1. Water pollution
  • 2. Water covers over 70% of the Earth's surface and is a very important resource for people and the environment.
    Water pollution affects drinking water in groundwater, rivers and lakes all over the world. This consequently harms human health and the natural environment.
    Water pollution also harms marine ecology inc. fishstocks, sea-birds etc.
    http://www.water-pollution.org.uk/
  • 3. Source: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthwherewater.html
  • 4. Source: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthwherewater.html
  • 5. Where does water pollution come from?
    Point source, directly into water, e.g. oil spill from a ship
    Nonpoint source, e.g. indirectly into water, e.g. fertiliser run-off from farms
  • 6. Many activities result in water pollution
    Mining
    Agriculture – e.g. agro-chemicals; manure
    Household cleaning, e.g. phosphates
    Sediment, e.g. Land reclamation; erosion
    Industrial waste
    Oil spillage
    Dumping
    Sewage
    Air pollution settling in water, e.g. mercury (Hg)
    Radioactive pollution
  • 7. Mining
    Exposes heavy metals and sulphur compounds which were previously locked underground
    Discharges contaminated effluent into water
    Relies on large quantities of water to process ore
    Seepage from waste – leaches aquifers, contaminating underground water
    Each tonne of copper extracted results in 99 tonnes of waste material
  • 8. Exposure of sulphur in rocks reacts with water and oxygen to form sulphuric acid. Acid is carried off the mine-site by rainwater or surface drainage and deposited into nearby water bodies inc. groundwater. This severely degrades water quality, and can kill aquatic lifeand make water virtually unusable.
  • 9. Heavy metals from industrial processes can accumulate in nearby lakes and rivers. These are toxic to marine life such as fish and shellfish, and subsequently to the humans who eat them. Heavy metals can slow development; result in birth defects and some are carcinogenic.
  • 10. Agriculture
    Fertilisers used to increase plant growth contain nitrates and phosphates
    These nutrients end up in water, causing an overgrowth of algae. This is known as eutrophication or algal blooms.
    -Algae blocks light to deeper waters
    -As algae dies, its decomposition depletes oxygen from water
    -Reduces life in water (fish and plants)
  • 11. Red tides – overgrowth of phytoplankton
  • 12. Algal bloom / eutrophication
  • 13.
  • 14. The Salton Sea, California. Massive fish deaths are common here due to poor agricultural practices (supported by US legislation).
  • 15. Household cleaners & personal products
    Wash down drain into water system
    Nonylphenol (in detergent) disrupts fish reproduction
    Phosphates cause eutrophication
  • 16. Agriculture-pesticides
    Pesticides are another product resulting in water pollution
    Pesticides are designed to kill unwanted bugs and vermin
    They contain hazardous substances
    Pesticides in water end up in the human body
    Many pesticides are very long-living, and accumulate in the body
    Pesticides cause many health problems inc. hormone disruption, immuno-suppression, behavioural disorders, infertility, cancer
  • 17. Sediment
    Soil, clay, sand, silt and dead organic (plant & animal) material can end up in water
    These particles make the water murky (unclear). This limits photosynthesis of water plants and makes it difficult for fish to find food.
    Sediment contaminates drinking water
    Sediment can carry nutrients thus causing algal blooms
    Sediment can kill fish (by blocking gills) and disrupt reproduction
  • 18. What increases sediment in water?
    Land erosion (from deforestation)
    Construction activities
    Land reclamation
    Dredging
    Rain
    Stormwater
    Hosing of hard surfaces
  • 19. Industrial processes
    By-products of industry such as radioactive waste, heavy metals, dyes
    Much hazardous waste is injected into deep bedrock (beneath water table). Some of these pollutants have found their way into the underground water
    Discharges (cooling waters) from power plants and factories warm the water, causing fish deaths & coral bleaching
  • 20. Healthy coral
  • 21. Bleached coral – caused by sediment &/or increased sea temeperatures
  • 22. Oil
    Oceans are polluted by oil on a daily basis from oil spills, routine shipping, run-offs and dumping.
    Oil spills make up about 12% of the oil that enters the ocean. The rest come from shipping travel, drains and dumping.
    An oil spill from a tanker is a severe problem because there is such a huge quantity of oil being spilt into one place.
    Oil spills cause a very localised problem but can be catastrophic to local marine wildlife such as fish, birds and sea otters.
    Oil cannot dissolve in water and forms a thick sludge in the water. This suffocates fish, gets caught in the feathers of marine birds stopping them from flying and blocks light from photosynthetic aquatic plants.
    Oil persists for a long time.
  • 23. Dumping
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a4S23uXIcM
    Plastic soup - Moving up the food chain
    Animals mistake rubbish for food
    Marine animals often die after becoming entangled in fishing nets and other discarded rubbish
    Street litter often ends up in the ocean via stormwater drains
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26. Dumping at sea
    Dumping of litter in the sea can cause huge problems. Plastic is eaten by marine animals and may result in death.
    Cardboard – Takes 2 weeks to degrade.
    Newspaper – Takes 6 weeks to degrade.
    Photodegradable packaging – Takes 6 weeks to degrade.
    Foam – Takes 50 years to degrade.
    Styrofoam – Takes 80 years to degrade.
    Aluminium – Takes 200 years to degrade.
    Plastic packaging – Takes 400 years to degrade.
    Glass – It takes so long to degrade that we don’t know the exact time.
  • 27. Sewage
    Untreated sewage causes many problems inc.:
    -Rashes
    -Gastroenteritis
    -Hepatitis
    -Ear infections
    -Pink eye
    -Algal blooms
  • 28.
  • 29. Air pollution
    Airborne mercury (Hg) from fossil fuel burning and chlorine and cement industries settles in water
    This Hg accumulates in fish –the bigger the fish, the greater the amount
    Pregnant women and young children are most at risk from this
  • 30.
  • 31. Radioactive pollution
    This is a hazardous material and all handling and disposal must be strictly compliant with government legislation
    Radioactive waste is very long-lived and needs “babysitting” for many millennia
  • 32. Tips for everyday citizens
    • Conserve water
    • 33. Be careful about what you throw down your sink or toilet.
    • 34. Use environmentally household products, such as washing powder, household cleaning agents and toiletries.
    • 35. Take great care not to overuse pesticides and fertilisers.
    • 36. Don't throw litter onto streets or into rivers, lakes or oceans.
    • 37. Limit your purchase of over-packaged items.
    • 38. Become more aware of the overall impact of the products you buy
  • THE END

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