Waste - classifications Household waste is that which arises from houses, flats, labour camps, schools, universities and prisons. Commercial waste comes from premises used for trade, business, and entertainment such as malls, shops and recreation areas. Industrial waste is that which arise from a factory or industrial process. Agricultural wastes comes from premises used for agriculture such as fruit and vegetable growing, seed growing, dairy farming, camel farming and other livestock breeding. Medical waste comes from hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, dentists, surgeries etc. Wastes constituted wholly or partially of human or animal tissues, blood or other body fluids or excretions or drugs or other pharmaceutical products or bandages, needles, syringes, sharp medical objects or any other contagious, chemical or radioactive wastes produced by medical or nursing activities, treatment or health care, dentistry or veterinary and pharmaceutical practices or manufacturing, research, teaching, sample taking or storage. Marine waste comes from boats and ships visiting or working. Packaging waste comes from products made to be used for containment, protection, handling, delivery and presentation of goods from the producer to the consumer. Hazardous wastes comprise of residues or ash of different activities and operations containing properties of hazardous substances.
Local problems with waste Uncontrolled dumping Significant litter Limited recycling Limited education . Knowledge amongst population
Hazardous materials (HAZMATs) Hazardous substances can be: Ignitable, e.g. gasoline Corrosive, e.g. acids Reactive (substances that are chemically unstable and may explode in water), e.g. concentrated sulphuric acid Toxic (substances that can cause illness when ingested or inhaled), e.g. chlorine
Managing hazardous waste Convert to less hazardous substances Absorption (e.g. with charcoal or ground coffee) Immobilization (e.g. in ceramics or glass) Distillation to separate from water Incineration Chemical transformation (e.g. addition of chlorine to PCBs makes it less harmful) Bioremediation (microbes, plants can remove, absorb or metabolise toxins) Permanent retrievable storage Secure building Bedrock cavern Secure landfills
What goes into landfill?
What materials can be removed from landfill?
Used motor oil contains heavy metals and other toxic substances, and is considered hazardous waste. One quart (1/4 gallon) of oil can kill fish in thousands of gallons of water. Used motor oil can be recycled.
Problems with organic waste in landfill Leaching –groundwater contamination Greenhouse gases –CO2 & CH4
Solution to organic waste in Australia The organic waste produced by the hospitality classes a college in Sydney is disposed of using the Pulpmaster Pro. This converts organic waste into bio fuel. Each year, use of the Pulpmaster Pro at this small college produces power that: prevents 476 tonnes of CO2 from entering the atmosphere is equivalent to running 109 cars or 700 houses. prevents the disposal of over 25,000 plastic bags.
Hazardous wastes Hazardous wastes have the potential to harm humans or the environment, either now or in the future. Examples of hazardous waste are: Radioactive substances Medical waste (e.g. blood products) Heavy metals (e.g. cadmium, lead, mercury) Asbestos
The average household stores many hazardous substances. Examples of household hazardous waste include: Solvent-based paints Pesticides and other garden chemicals Batteries (for example car, mobile phone or regular household batteries) Motor oils (for example from cars or mowers) Petrol and kerosene Cleaning & polishing chemicals Swimming pool or spa bath chemicals Pharmaceuticals (all medicines) Obsolete computer equipment.
What is in a computer? On average a computer is: 23% plastic 32% ferrous metals, 18% non-ferrous metals (lead, cadmium, antimony, beryllium, chromium and mercury) 12% electronic boards (gold, palladium, silver and platinum) and 15% glass. Only about 50% of the computer can be recycled, the rest is dumped. The toxicity of the waste is mostly due to the lead, mercury and cadmium. Much of the plastic used contains flame retardants, which makes it difficult to recycle.
Incineration Incineration is usually done for 3 reasons: 1. the destruction of waste 2. the production of energy from waste 3. the disposal of hazardous waste (scheduled waste) An incinerator is used to burn waste until it is reduced to ash.
Heat generated from incineration can be used to produce electricity (energy recovery). Advantages Produces no methane, unlike landfill A renewable source of energy Reduces the volume of waste for final disposal by about 90% Yields five times greater useful energy per tonne of waste than energy recovery from landfill Converts organic wastes to biologically less active forms Suitable for many hazardous materials which should not be sent to landfill Disadvantages Costs are generally higher than landfill Some emissions contain pollutants A volume of material, which may be toxic, may still require disposal. Highly toxic ash Fine particles are emitted into the atmosphere
Code of Practice 16: Waste Management
Litter Minimisation Packaging Recycling Reusing
Generator of waste is to: Minimise waste Classify waste (hazardous / non-hazardous) Segregate waste into recycling bins Ensure appropriate storage on site Identify appropriate waste management location to dispose of the waste Keep receipts from final destination (waste management facility) for 3 years
A permit must be held by: A generator of hazardous waste A collector / transporter of waste Anyone who handles medical waste Permits to be issued by EAD or Sector Regulator
Before waste can be moved from homes and businesses to a landfill, be burned in an incinerator to make energy, or be recycled or treated, it needs to be properly and safely packaged for transportation. The waste collector / transporter must: Ensure all vehicles are constructed to prevent spillages Ensure all containers are well secured on the vehicle Have insurance to pay for clean-up in the event of an accident Incompatible wastes are not to be mixed
Mixed waste… non-hazardous Should be sorted into: Food / organic waste Recyclables Non-compostable waste
Landfills Must have controls over vermin, wind-borne litter, dust, leachates and gases
Government The government shall organise regular programs to collect household rubbish which is potentially hazardous, e.g. paints, oils, expired pharmaceuticals
A manufacturer of HAZMATs must keep a detailed manifest of all movements of substances for 3 years.