The International Energy Agency (IEA) projects global primary energy demand could grow by 55% from 2005 to 2030 Meanwhile climate change is a growing concern withenormous pressure to reduce CO2 emissions
According to Lord Kelvin (1824 - 1907) "If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it." We need to know how much energy we consume, how much we waste and how much we need in order to become more energy efficient
Energy audit should identify The forms & amounts of energy being used The cost of each energy form The purposes for which energy is being used Energy losses within the system
An energy audit involves measurements of: Inputs: Energy consumed (as reflected on utility bill) Throughputs: Work achieved (operation of machines, lights etc.) Outputs: Energy consumed but wasted (leaks, inefficiencies etc.)
The Bucket Concept:Energy inputs, throughputs and outputs.
Energy efficiency is improved when leaks are plugged, and more efficient lighting and appliances are used
The global average efficiencies of electricity production are: 34% for coal, 40% for natural gas and 37% for oil For all fossil fuels, the global average efficiency is 36%. Wide variations are seen in efficiencies amongst countries, with OECD countries typically having the highest efficiencies.
Buildings Buildings account for 40% of all energy usage in most countries. Therefore, energy efficient buildings are critical in making an impact on CO2 emissions.
Lighting Artificial light production accounts for 8.9% of total global primary consumption and represents approximately 8% of world CO2 emissions. Improving the efficacy of lighting systems can therefore be an important means to lower greenhouse gas emissions (www.iea.org)
CFLs are more expensive than incandescent bulbs However, -CFLs use approximately 5 times less energy than incandescent bulbs -CFLs last approximately 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs Therefore, CFLs actually save money as well as energy and waste
Ideally buildings should: Be well insulated Get natural light Use energy efficient appliances and fittings Avoid energy leakages (outputs) Be kept at a comfortable (rather than cool) temperature Supply some of its own energy needs (e.g. solar panels) Use motion detection sensors which switch off appliances when no-one is there Use cool roofs (reflect sunlight)
A Smartgrid An intelligent monitoring system that keeps track of all electricity flowing in the system. Less power loss Capable of integrating alternative sources of electricity such as solar and wind. When power is least expensive a smart grid could turn on selected home appliances such as washing machines or factory processes that can run at arbitrary hours. At peak times it could turn off selected appliances to reduce demand.
Government role Building codes for new buildings Refurbishments and renovations of older buildings should work towards energy efficiency Standards for insulation and energy efficiency from windows is needed
Electrical appliances Residential appliances, alone, account for over 30% of the electricity consumption in most countries. Effectively implementing energy efficiency regulations for appliances is essential. Standby power represents 2-11% of the residential electricity use in IEA member countries Plasma televisions that remain on for longer periods of time could cause the global energy consumption of televisions to double by 2020. Promoting the most efficient technologies available and stimulating the market to make new technologies commercial will be crucial to achieving energy savings in this sector.
Appliances should be labelled for energy efficiency These labels need to be audited externally to ensure they are accurate
Energy management is part of an EHS management system Firstly, the existing situation must be assessed An Energy Management Matrix is useful to help assess the existing situation