Student’s first lesson on Tsunami.
Miss Rita is an inexperienced
She scaffolds her teaching
through higher order questions.
She assumes that the students
have prior knowledge.
She thought pictures, videos and
news report were sufficient to
trigger the student’s thinking.
Problems in the scenario
1. We need to understand the learner’s
behavior and needs
2. We need to apply the appropriate
theories to the leaner’s learning behavior
and needs to enhance the learner’s
thinking for the 21st Century.
students are in
based on concrete
Understanding the Learner
Students are able to
link the destruction
shown in the video
to other natural
new theories and
build onto existing
Learning is an active process.
Based on self discovery,
students will be able to learn
more in a meaningful context.
Learning should be whole,
authentic and real.
Children are limited by their
own experience, so Ms Rita
should actively involve
students in her teaching.
Problems surfaced during
I showed them pictures and video clips of
the devastations before the lesson. Wasn’t
that more than enough?
using Piaget’s Theory
Simulation and Animation
and Cultural Context
Do not assume
that the students
have the general
Aisha usually reads up before the lesson.
She said that it’s due to volcanic
eruptions, but could not elaborate.
Overcoming the problem
using Vygotsky’s theory
Scaffolding through guiding questions
Eg With regards to Aisha’s question,
she could have asked, “Oh, what do
you think might happen when the
volcano erupts?” “What are the
possible effects?” “Does it only affect
its immediate environment?”
Collaborative learning through interaction
Eg Group discussion or group learning.
Qualities of Good
Tap on their prior
Encourage students to
Stimulus was not good enough to
gain student’s attention. She only
showed the effects of Tsunami
Show the causes of Tusnami first
before showing them the effects of
She did not stimulate the
recall of students’ prior
No meaningful learning took
place as students were
unable to make sense of what
Miss Rita was teaching.
Solution1. Find out the prerequisite for the topic,
2. Tap on the students’ prior knowledge on
other natural disaster like Volcanoes and
3. Introduce new information on Tsunami.
Learning Guidance was not provided
Problem: Only higher order thinking
questions were asked during lesson.
Solution: She could provide more
guidance to the students by asking
knowledge-based questions before
proceeding to ask higher order thinking
Construction of knowledge should be
done in a systematic manner.
Assessment of students’
understanding was not properly
Problem: She was in disbelief when
students gave the wrong answers
Solution: She should give
constructive feedback to the students
and help them to understand why
their answers were incorrect.
Retention and transfer of information was
No task was given to the students to
ensure the retention of information.
to be retained in
student can be
asked to draw a
based on what
they have learnt.
PBL learning Task
Interesting learning task to excite the
Students will drive the learning of task.
They can generate their own questions
What causes a Tsunami?
How are Tsunamis and Earthquakes
What should we do during a Tsunami?
Students can draw their own links from the
Motivation creates intentions and
goal-seeking acts. (Weiner’s)
Achievement can be attributed to.
Level of Task Difficulty
Problem: Students may think that the
assignment is difficult.
Solution: Students need to know that it is
easy to study the formation of Tsunami.
Miss Rita can provide an intermediate level
of difficulty for the PBL assignment for the
Something that is within the capability of
Change their mindset.
Confidence in one’s
Students can ask
questions on Tsunami
and do their own self-
directed research to the
It can increase the
confidence level of the
Act, reflect and learn
Confidence and Experience