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- 1. Educational Psychology PBL Scenario 3
- 2. Student’s first lesson on Tsunami. Miss Rita is an inexperienced teacher. She scaffolds her teaching through higher order questions. She assumes that the students have prior knowledge. She thought pictures, videos and news report were sufficient to trigger the student’s thinking. Problems in the scenario
- 3. Problem Statement: Understanding our students 1. We need to understand the learner’s behavior and needs 2. We need to apply the appropriate theories to the leaner’s learning behavior and needs to enhance the learner’s thinking for the 21st Century.
- 4. 21st Century Skills
- 5. How can we help her?
- 6. Cognitive level: Piaget’s Theory Understand our student’s intellectual level Secondary two students are in concrete operational level Accumulate concepts and logical structures based on concrete references
- 7. Piaget’s Theorem: Understanding the Learner Students are able to link the destruction shown in the video to other natural disaster. Students will accomodate the new theories and build onto existing knowledge.
- 8. Piaget’s Constructivism Learning is an active process. Based on self discovery, students will be able to learn more in a meaningful context. Learning should be whole, authentic and real. Children are limited by their own experience, so Ms Rita should actively involve students in her teaching.
- 9. Problems surfaced during introduction I showed them pictures and video clips of the devastations before the lesson. Wasn’t that more than enough?
- 10. Overcoming the Problem using Piaget’s Theory Simulation and Animation Self-discovery through research
- 11. Understanding Social and Cultural Context Do not assume that the students have the general knowledge with regards to Tsunamis Lack of understanding breeds negligence
- 12. Importance of Scaffolds: Vygotsky’s Theory Awareness of the importance of scaffolds Lack of understanding breeds inflexibility
- 13. Problems surfaced during development Aisha usually reads up before the lesson. She said that it’s due to volcanic eruptions, but could not elaborate.
- 14. Overcoming the problem using Vygotsky’s theory Scaffolding through guiding questions Eg With regards to Aisha’s question, she could have asked, “Oh, what do you think might happen when the volcano erupts?” “What are the possible effects?” “Does it only affect its immediate environment?” Collaborative learning through interaction Eg Group discussion or group learning.
- 15. Overcoming the problem using Information Processing model Assessment of understanding through constructive feedback
- 16. Consolidation Retention of information Concept map
- 17. Qualities of Good Teachers Flexible Patience Reflective
- 18. Introduce New Information Identify the prerequisites of the students Tap on their prior knowledge Introduce new information
- 19. Encourage students to organise information Problem Stimulus was not good enough to gain student’s attention. She only showed the effects of Tsunami Solution Show the causes of Tusnami first before showing them the effects of Tsunami. (Information-processing Theory)
- 20. Problem She did not stimulate the recall of students’ prior learning. No meaningful learning took place as students were unable to make sense of what Miss Rita was teaching.
- 21. Solution1. Find out the prerequisite for the topic, Tsunami. 2. Tap on the students’ prior knowledge on other natural disaster like Volcanoes and Earthquakes. 3. Introduce new information on Tsunami.
- 22. Construction of Knowledge Learning Guidance was not provided Problem: Only higher order thinking questions were asked during lesson. Solution: She could provide more guidance to the students by asking knowledge-based questions before proceeding to ask higher order thinking questions. Construction of knowledge should be done in a systematic manner.
- 23. Constructive Feedback Assessment of students’ understanding was not properly conducted Problem: She was in disbelief when students gave the wrong answers Solution: She should give constructive feedback to the students and help them to understand why their answers were incorrect.
- 24. Problem Retention and transfer of information was not enhanced. No task was given to the students to ensure the retention of information.
- 25. Solution Allow information to be retained in long-term memory. For example, student can be asked to draw a concept map based on what they have learnt.
- 26. PBL learning Task Interesting learning task to excite the students. Students will drive the learning of task. They can generate their own questions such as.. What causes a Tsunami? How are Tsunamis and Earthquakes related? What should we do during a Tsunami? Students can draw their own links from the assignments.
- 27. Motivation Motivation creates intentions and goal-seeking acts. (Weiner’s) Achievement can be attributed to. Effort Ability Level of Task Difficulty Luck
- 28. Task Difficulty Problem: Students may think that the assignment is difficult. Solution: Students need to know that it is easy to study the formation of Tsunami. Miss Rita can provide an intermediate level of difficulty for the PBL assignment for the students. Something that is within the capability of the students. Change their mindset.
- 29. Ability Confidence in one’s own ability Students can ask questions on Tsunami and do their own self- directed research to the answers. It can increase the confidence level of the students.
- 30. Future Actions Act, reflect and learn Confidence and Experience
- 31. The End. Special Thanks to A/P Jessie Ee

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