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  • Explicit: manuals, formulas,guidesTacit (açık olmayan, sessiz) :Examples of tacit knowledge at work would be the technician who can tell the health of a machine from the hum it generates, or the bank manager who develops a gut feeling that a client would be a bad credit risk after a short conversation with the customer. Since tacit knowledge is experiential and contextualized, it cannot be easily codified, written down or reduced to rules and recipes.
  • Governor: düzenleyici, yönetici

Strategic training Strategic training Presentation Transcript

  • Strategic Training By Sinem Bulkan PhD in Organisational Behaviour Marmara University 1
  • Why Strategic Training?• Business StrategyIt is a plan that integrates the company’s goals, policies, and actions.• GoalsWhat the companies hope to achieve in the medium and long term future.• The strategy influences how the company uses o Physical capital (plants, technology and equipment) o Financial capital (assets and cash reserves) o Human capital (employees) 2
  • Why Strategic Training? Training Business Strategy and Goals skill development positive work environment motivating and retaining current employees attracting talented employees • The business strategy helps direct the company’s activities to reach specific goals. 3 View slide
  • Why Strategic Training?Strategy impacts training with a strong influence ondetermining:• The amount of training devoted to current or future job skills.• The extent to which training is customized for the particular needs of an employee or is developed based on the needs of a team, unit, or division.• Whether training is restricted to specific groups of employees or open to all employees. 4 View slide
  • Why Strategic Training?Strategy impacts training with a strong influence ondetermining:• Whether training is planned and systematically administred, provided only when problems occur, or developed spontaneously as a reaction to what competitors are doing.• The importance placed on training compared to other HRM practices such as selection and compensation. 5
  • The Evolution of Training’s Role 6
  • The Evolution of Training’s Role• LearningThe acquisition of knowledge by individual employees or groups of employeeswho are willing to apply that knowledge in their jobs in making decisions andaccomplishing tasks for the company.• KnowledgeHuman and social knowledge (what individuals or teams of employees knowor know how to do) and structured knowledge (company rules, processes,tools and routines) o Types of Knowledge • Explicit Knowledge: Knowledge that can be formalized, codified, and communicated. • Tacit Knowledge: Personal knowledge based on individual experience that is difficult to explain to others. 7
  • The Strategic Training and Development Process 8
  • The Strategic Training and Development ProcessIdentify the Company’s Business StrategyThree factors influences the company’s business strategy:• Mission, Vision and Values o Mission: The company’s reason for existing. o Vision: What company wants to achieve o Values: What the company stand for.• SWOT analysisAn anaysis of the company’s operating environment to identify opportunitesand threats as well as an internal analysis of the company’s strengths andweaknesses.• Competition 9
  • The Strategic Training and Development ProcessIdentify the Company’s Business StrategyDecisions a company must make about how to compete to reach itsgoals:• Where to compete? - In what matkets (industries, products, etc.) will we compete?• How to compete? - On what outcome or differentiating characteristic will wecompete? Cost? Quality? Reliability? Delivery? Innovativeness?• With what will we compete? - What resources will allow us to beat the competition? How willwe acquire, develop, and deploy these resources to compete? 10
  • The Strategic Training and Development Process 11
  • The Strategic Training and Development ProcessIdentify Strategic Training and Development Initiatives that Support theStrategyStrategic training and development initiatives are learning-related actionsthat a company should take to help it achieve its business strategy.• Vary by company depending on a company’s industry, goals, resources and capabilities.• The initiatives are based on the business environment, an understanding of the company’s goals and resources, and insight regarding potential training and development options.• Provide the company with a road map to guide spesific training and development activities.• Show how the training function will help the company reach its goals. 12
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  • The Strategic Training and Development Process 14
  • The Strategic Training and Development ProcessProvide Training and Development Activities Linked to StrategicTraining and Development InitiativesThese activities include developing initiatives related to use of• new technology in training• increasing access to training programs for certain groups of employees,• reducing development time• developing new or expanded course offerings. 15
  • The Strategic Training and Development ProcessProvide Training and Development Activities Linked to Strategic Training andDevelopment InitiativesAnalysis to Align Training with Business Strategy (SunU)• CustomersWho are our customers and how do we work for them?• OrganisationWhat is the nature of practices required to compete our mission?• Products and ServicesHow do we ensure that our products and services meet strategic requirements?• Research and DevelopmentHow do we stay current in the training and learning fields and use our knowledge in these areas?• Business SystemsWhat are the processes, products, tools, and procedures required to achieve our goals?• Continuous LearningHow do we recognise that learning is continuous, is conscious and comes from many sources?• ResultsHow do we obtain results according to our customers’ standards? 16
  • The Strategic Training and Development Process 17
  • The Strategic Training and Development ProcessIdentify and Collect Metrics to Show Training Success Business Trainee Related Satisfaction outcomes 18
  • The Strategic Training and Development ProcessIdentify and Collect Metrics to Show Training SuccessBalanced ScorecardA means of performance measurement that provides managers with achance to look at the overall company performance or theperformance of departments or functions from the perspective ofinternal and external customers, employees, and shareholders. 19
  • The Strategic Training and Development ProcessIdentify and Collect Metrics to Show Training SuccessBalanced ScorecardFour different perspectives are considered:• Customer (time, quality, performance, service, cost)• Internal ( processes that influence customer satisfaction)• Innovation and Learning (operating efficiency, employee satisfaction, continuous improvement)• Financial( profitability, growth, shareholder value) 20
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence Training• Roles of Employees and Managers• Top Management Support• Integration of Business Units• Global Presence• Business Conditions• Other HRM Practices (Staffing Strategy, HR Planning)• Extent of Unionization• Staff Involvement in Training and Development 21
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingRoles of Employees and ManagersEmployees High- Traditionally Performance • Perform their jobs • Managerial duties according to the managers’ direcitons • Responsible for the quality of products and services 22
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingRoles of Employees and ManagersManagers 23
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingTop Management Support – CEO is responsible for:• VisionA clear direction for learning• SponsorEncouragement, resources, and commitment for strategic learning• GovernorTaking an active role in governing learning, including reviewving goals and objectivesand providing insight on how to measure training effectiveness• Subject-matter expertDeveloping new learning programs for the company• FacultyTeaching programs or providing resources online• LearnerServing as a role model for learning for the entire company and demonstratingwillingness to constantly learn.• Marketing agentPromoting the company’s commitment to learning by advocating it in speeches,annual reports, interviews, and other public relations tools 24
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingIntegration of Business Units• The degree to which a company’s units or businesses are integrated affects the training.• In a highly integrated business, employees need to understand other units, services and products in the company.• Training likely includes rotating employees between jobs in different businesses so they can gain understanding of the whole business. 25
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingGlobal Presence• Training is used to prepare employees for temporary and long-term overseas assignments.• Companies need to determine the training will be conducted and coordinated from a central facility or will be the responsibility of overseas facilities. 26
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingBusiness Conditions• Unemployment is low and/or business growing. (Training – motivating)• Unstable business environment (mergers, acquisitions, disinvestment). (Training- to correct skill defficiencies) 27
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingOther HRM PracticesConsist of the management activities related to:• Investments (time,effort,and money) in staffing (determining how many employees are needed, and recruiting and selecting employees).• Performance management• Training• Compensation and benefits 28
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingOther HRM PracticesThe type of training and the resources devoted totraining are influenced by the strategy adopted for twoHRM practices:• Staffing• Human Resource Planning 29
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingOther HRM Practices - Staffing StrategyRefers to the company’s decisions regarding• Where to find employees• How to select them• The mix of employee skills and statuses (temporary, full-time etc.) 30
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingOther HRM Practices - Staffing StrategyTwo aspects of a company’s staffing strategy influencetraining:• Assignment FlowThe criteria used to make promotion and assignmentdecisions• Supply FlowThe places where the company prefers to obtain thehuman resources to fill open positions 31
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingOther HRM Practices - Staffing Strategy 32
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingOther HRM Practices - HR PlanningIncludes:• identification• analysis• forecasting• planningof changes needed in the HR area to help the company meetchanging business conditions. 33
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingOther HRM Practices - HR PlanningHR Planning• allows the company to anticipate the movement of human resources in the company because of turnover, transfers, retirements, or promotions.• can help identify where employees with certain types of skills are needed in the company. 34
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingOther HRM Practices - HR PlanningTraining can be used to prepare employees for:• increased responsibilities in their current job• promotions, lateral moves, transfers• downward job opportunities that are predicted by the human resource plan. 35
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingExtent of UnionizationJoint union-management programs ensure that allparties (unions, management, employees)• understand the development goals• are commited to making the changes necessary for the company to make profits and for employees to both keep their jobs and share in any increased profits. 36
  • Organisational Characteristics That Influence TrainingStaff Involvement in Training and Development• If managers are not involved in the training process, training may be unrelated to business needs.• Training’s potential impact on helping the company reach its goals may depend on the manager’s attitude towards it (Realising what can be achieved, rewards..).• Continuous learning philosophy 37
  • Training Needs in Different Strategies 38
  • Models of Organising the Training Department• Faculty Model• Customer Model• Matrix Model• Corporate University Model• Business-Embedded Model 39
  • Models of Organising the Training DepartmentCentralized Training means that training and developmentprograms, resources, and professionals are primarily housed inone location and that decisions about training investment,programs, and delivery methods are made from thatdepartment. 40
  • Models of Organising the Training DepartmentAdvantages of Centralized Training• The ownership of training to one organisation and the elimination of the course and program variation and duplication in the training system.• Helps drive stronger alignment with business strategy• Allows development of a common set of metrics or scorecards to measure and report rates of quality and delivery• Helps to streamline processes• Gives the company a cost advantage in purchasing training from vendors and consultants.• Helps companies better integrate programs for developing leaders and managing talent with training and learning during the times of change. 41
  • Models of Organising the Training DepartmentFaculty Model 42
  • Models of Organising the Training DepartmentFaculty ModelTraining departments look like the structure of a college.Advantages• Training staff are clearly experts in the area they train in.• The training department’s plans are easily determined by staff expertise.Disadvantages• A training function that has expertise that does not meet the needs of the organisation.• Trainers may be unaware of business problems or unwilling to adapt materials to fit a business need.• Skill and knowledge emphasized in programs may not match the needs of the company. 43
  • Models of Organising the Training DepartmentCustomer Model 44
  • Models of Organising the Training DepartmentCustomer ModelResponsible for the training needs of one division or function of the company.Advantages• Training programs are developed more in line with the particular needs of a business group.• Selection, training and compensation, and development are all based on a common set of knowledges, skills, abilities, or competencies.• Trainers are expected to be aware of business needs and to update courses and content to reflect them.Disadvantages• Trainers have to spend considerable time learning the business function before they can be useful trainers.• A large number of programs covering similar topics may be developed by customers.• It may be difficult for the training director to oversee each function to ensure that o A common intructional design process is used o The company’s quality philosophy is consistently emphasized in each program. 45
  • Models of Organising the Training DepartmentMatrix Model 46
  • Models of Organising the Training DepartmentMatrix ModelTrainers report to both a manager in the training departmentand a manager in a particular function.Advantages• It helps ensure that training is linked to the needs of the business.• The trainer gains expertise in understranding a spesific business function.• Because the trainer is also responsible to the training director, it is likely that the trainer will stay professionally current.Disadvantages• Trainers likely will have more time demands and conflicts because they report to two managers: a functional manager and a training director. 47
  • Models of Organising the Training DepartmentCorporate University Model (Corporate Training Universities) 48
  • Models of Organising the Training DepartmentCorporate University Model (Corporate Training Universities)The client group includes not only employees and managers but alsostakeholders including community colleges, universities, high schools, andgrade schools.• Offer a wider range of programs and courses than other models.• Important culture and values tend to be emphasised more often in the training curriculum of corporate universities than the other models.• Centralizes training to make sure that ‘best training practices’ that may be used in one unit of the company are disseminated across the company.• Enables the company to control costs by developing consistent training practices and policies. 49
  • Models of Organising the Training DepartmentBusiness Embedded Model 50
  • Marketing the Training FunctionTactics to Market the Training Function• Involve the target audience in developing the training or learning effort.• Demonstrate how a training and development program can be used to solve spesific business needs.• Showcase an example of how training has been used within the company to solve spesific business needs.• Identify a ‘champion’ who actively sports training.• Listen and act on feedback received from clients managers and employees 51
  • Marketing the Training FunctionTactics to Market the Training Function• Advertise on e-mail, on company websites, in employee break areas.• Designate someone in the training function as an account representative between the training designer or team and the business unit that is the customer.• Determine what financial numbers top-level executives are concerned with and show how training and development helps improve those numbers.• Speak in terms that staff understand. Translate jargon. 52
  • Outsourcing TrainingOutsourcing – the use of an outside company that takes complete responsibility and control of some training ordevelopment activities takes over all or most of a company’s training includingadministration, design, delivery and development.Business Process Outsourcing – the outsourcing of any businessprocess such as human resources management, production and training. 53
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