SOLAR CONCENTRATING
POWER
Solar Concentrating Power




Concentrating Solar Power is a method of power
generation from solar energy that employs
i...
Focus type

Point focus

Collectors track the sun along a
single axis and focus irradiance on
a linear receiver. This make...
Parabolic Trough Concentrators
Cost and Efficiencies
Case

Baseline

Near Term

Long Term

Project

SEGS VI

SEGS LS-4

SEGS DSG

Factors

No Storage

10...
Investment Cost of a 5 MW Trough plant
with 7 Hours of Storage
Time To Large Scale Commercialization








Parabolic Trough Collector Solar Power Plants are
the most widely deploy...
Machinery






Key parts of a Parabolic Trough Solar Power
Generation Plant are:
The Solar Field
The Power Generation...
Solar Field


Solar Fields are made up of a series of Solar Collector assemblies through
which the heat transfer fluid is...
Power Generation and Thermal
Storage
Subsystem

Systems Used

Current Choice

Future Choice

Thermal Storage
Systems

Dire...
Materials/Resources Required
Sub-Components
Truss

Components

Torque Tube/Box

Parabolic Trough

Support Pylons

Reflecti...
Key Barriers










Size of Plant: CSP cost goes down with capacity and Makes
sense only above 10-20 MW.
Reliabili...
Opportunities for Indegenization





Local manufacture of trusses and Power Block
Design and manufacture of tracking ...
Answers to Questions
Entry into the Power Generation Market


Reasons for late entry into market:
Key components- not yet standardized
 Excep...
CSP vs PV
Parameters

PV costs

Thermal costs

Nominal power MW

50

50

Power efficiency

0.14

0.11

Direct capital cost...
CSP Storage
Types

Method

Materials

Advantages

Lowcost Issues

Direct 2
Tank

HTF storage tanks
part of the loop,
one h...
CSP Storage







Indirect Molten Salt storage is currently the most
explored and feasible option in Trough and tower...
Materials/Resources Required
Sub-Components
Truss

Components

Torque Tube/Box

Parabolic Trough

Support Pylons

Reflecti...
Next Step in CSP








The next technology in CSP is the Solar Power
Tower
It has multiple advantages over Trough ba...
Break Through Technologies








Troughs: Reflective Films on Metal Backing
Receivers: Solel UVAC, Selective coati...
Concentrated solar power in India - an evaluation
Concentrated solar power in India - an evaluation
Concentrated solar power in India - an evaluation
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Concentrated solar power in India - an evaluation

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Work done as a part of internship with Energy Alternatives India. A researched insight into India as an investment site for concentrated solar power generation. Technology explained along with pros, cons, and market conditions.

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Concentrated solar power in India - an evaluation

  1. 1. SOLAR CONCENTRATING POWER
  2. 2. Solar Concentrating Power   Concentrating Solar Power is a method of power generation from solar energy that employs incoming radiation’s thermal energy directly The four major types of CSP Technologies are  Parabolic Trough  Parabolic Dish  Linear Fresnel  Solar Power Tower
  3. 3. Focus type Point focus Collectors track the sun along a single axis and focus irradiance on a linear receiver. This makes tracking the sun simpler. Receiver type Line focus Collectors track the sun along two axes and focus irradiance at a single point receiver. This allows for higher temperatures. LinearFresnel Reflectors Fixed Fixed receivers are stationary devices that remain independent of the plant’ s focusing device.This eases the transport of collected heat to the power block. Parabolic Troughs Mobile Towers (CRS) Mobile receivers move together with the focusing device. In both line focus and point focus designs, mobile receivers collect more energy. P arabolic Dishes
  4. 4. Parabolic Trough Concentrators
  5. 5. Cost and Efficiencies Case Baseline Near Term Long Term Project SEGS VI SEGS LS-4 SEGS DSG Factors No Storage 10 Hr Storage 10 Hr Storage Rated Power MW 30 320 320 Capacity Factor 22/34 % 40% 50% Area/MW Solar Field Overall 6266 21166 11223 39000 10545 34666 Solar To electric Efficiency 10.7% 14.6% 15.3% Capital Cost (USD/KW) 3972 2999 2907 LEC (USD/MWh) 194 101 49
  6. 6. Investment Cost of a 5 MW Trough plant with 7 Hours of Storage
  7. 7. Time To Large Scale Commercialization     Parabolic Trough Collector Solar Power Plants are the most widely deployed and commercialized CSP Systems 11 working commercial installations worldwide and 20 of the 27 CSP Plants under construction are PTCs PTCs using mineral oil HTFs and Rankine Cycle Power blocks are fully commercialized technology Deployment estimated at 15 GW by 2014
  8. 8. Machinery     Key parts of a Parabolic Trough Solar Power Generation Plant are: The Solar Field The Power Generation System Thermal Power Storage
  9. 9. Solar Field  Solar Fields are made up of a series of Solar Collector assemblies through which the heat transfer fluid is pumped.  Key Subsystems Subsystem System Used Current Choice Future Choice Collector Structure LUZ LS 1,2,3; Eurotrough; Solargenix EuroTrough ReflecTech Reflector Surface Thick Glass; Thin Glass; Reflective Film Thick Glass Reflective Film Sun Tracker Geared; Hydraulic Geared Hydraulic Receiver Tubes SchottPT; Solel UVAC; Luz Cermet Schott PTR Solel UVAC Heat Transfer Fluid Mineral Oil; Molten Salt; DSG Mineral Oil DSG Collector Interconnect Flex Hoses; Ball Joints Flex Hoses Ball Joints
  10. 10. Power Generation and Thermal Storage Subsystem Systems Used Current Choice Future Choice Thermal Storage Systems Direct; Indirect Single/Double Tank; Solid Media; Phase Change Media Heat Exchangers; Indirect Double Tank Molten Solar Direct Molten Solar; Direct Solid Media Heat Exchangers DSG Steam Generators DSG Turbine Rankine Cycle; OCR; Combined Cycle Rankine Cycle; Combined Cycle ISCCS Cooling Systems Wet; Hybrid; Dry Wet Cooling Hybrid Cooling
  11. 11. Materials/Resources Required Sub-Components Truss Components Torque Tube/Box Parabolic Trough Support Pylons Reflecting Surface Steel Parabolic Mirror Receiver Aluminum Reflecting Film Silica/Sand Hydraulic Cylinders Receiver Interconnect Tracking System Chemical Coatings Gears Raw Materials Polymers Composites Hose Ball Joints Piping Blading HTF Oils Final Components SCA HTF Piping System Heat Transfer Network Molten Salt Thermal Storage Storage Tanks Power Block Heat Exchangers Cooling System Rubber Structures Water Electronics Steam Generator Oils Power Electronics Steam Network Salts Rotor/Stator Turbine Towers Generator Earthing Cooling Towers
  12. 12. Key Barriers      Size of Plant: CSP cost goes down with capacity and Makes sense only above 10-20 MW. Reliability Of Components: Key parts liable to short term failure. Also most components nto completely proven Cumbersome and Expensive Storage: Needs multiple heat exchangers and piping. Capital cost increase of 18% Shipment and Installation: Suppliers situated in Eur and US. High shipment density and skilled installation required Geographical Location: Plants generally located where powe isn’t required. Transmission is a difficulty
  13. 13. Opportunities for Indegenization     Local manufacture of trusses and Power Block Design and manufacture of tracking system Film based mirrors and installation services Heat Exchangers
  14. 14. Answers to Questions
  15. 15. Entry into the Power Generation Market  Reasons for late entry into market: Key components- not yet standardized  Except Trough Systems, technology is not mature  Limitation- Trough/Tower Systems are financially viable only in large scale >10MW; Dish Systems are expensive  Experimental plants require large investments 
  16. 16. CSP vs PV Parameters PV costs Thermal costs Nominal power MW 50 50 Power efficiency 0.14 0.11 Direct capital cost $/W 5.44 5.6 Indirect capital cost $/w 1.4 1.4 Storage cost$/W 2.2 1,68 O&M% 0.4 4
  17. 17. CSP Storage Types Method Materials Advantages Lowcost Issues Direct 2 Tank HTF storage tanks part of the loop, one hot one cold Mineral Oil; Molten Salt in towers and experimental direct salt systems Simplest System Low storage time, large volumes, High pressure storage needed Indirect 2 Tank HTF Heats secondary material stored in tanks Molten Salt Proven, Long Term High Cost, Heat loss Storage in exchangers, pumping costs Indirect Single Tank Hot and cold media stored in same tank, form thermocline Media heated by radiation, HTF draws heat from it Molten Salt Reduces salt requirement, Lesser cost Thermocline spread, relatively short term Graphite Blocks in power towers Most Efficient, simple Experimental, small storage only, high strength tower required Pipes pass through solid, media stores heat Cement, Ceramic Low cost of media Inefficient, high volumes required due to low ∆T Direct Solid Media Indirect Solid Media
  18. 18. CSP Storage     Indirect Molten Salt storage is currently the most explored and feasible option in Trough and tower systems Cost Trends: In the case of towers, molten salt direct systems are the most efficient If solid media storage works out, it could prove to be the most useful and cost effective Storage technology
  19. 19. Materials/Resources Required Sub-Components Truss Components Torque Tube/Box Parabolic Trough Support Pylons Reflecting Surface Steel Parabolic Mirror Receiver Aluminum Reflecting Film Silica/Sand Hydraulic Cylinders Receiver Interconnect Tracking System Chemical Coatings Gears Raw Materials Polymers Composites Hose Ball Joints Piping Blading HTF Oils Final Components SCA HTF Piping System Heat Transfer Network Molten Salt Thermal Storage Storage Tanks Power Block Heat Exchangers Cooling System Rubber Structures Water Electronics Steam Generator Oils Power Electronics Steam Network Salts Rotor/Stator Turbine Towers Generator Earthing Cooling Towers
  20. 20. Next Step in CSP     The next technology in CSP is the Solar Power Tower It has multiple advantages over Trough based CSP while not having any more disadvantages than PCT The only big problem being that Tower has no track record Towers have already been made with next generation PCT technologies like Direct Salt and Direct Steam generation
  21. 21. Break Through Technologies       Troughs: Reflective Films on Metal Backing Receivers: Solel UVAC, Selective coatings HTF: Low temperature salts, Direct Steam Generation Storage: Solid Storage Media Piping: Ball Joints Power Production: Combined Rankine Cycles

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