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  • 1. Cellular Networks & Infrastructure A Brief Overview By Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon MCS (IT/MIS); BE (Electronics) ; PE(PEC) ; BA (Arts) WEB : http : // www.uldhdqpia.webs.com E-Mail : uldhdqpia@yahoo.com
  • 2. Cellular Network Design Issues By Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon MCS (IT/MIS); BE (Electronics) ; PE(PEC) ; BA (Arts) WEB : http : // www.uldhdqpia.webs.com E-Mail : uldhdqpia@yahoo.com CELLUAR TELEPHONY
  • 3. What is a Cell? Cellular Telephony meets demand multiple users in a metropolitan (called the market) by breaking whole market into several smalle regions known as CELLS. Each cell has its own transmissi tower and set of assignable communication channels. A Cell i area covered by a BASE STATION. CELLUAR TELEPHONY
  • 4. Figure showing mobile telephone tower
  • 5. CELLUAR TELEPHONY Question? Why hexagon is us as a cell? Why not triangle? a square a circle?
  • 6. CELLUAR TELEPHONY Answer – Yes Hexagon Because to avoid gaps between cells. If a customer is near the boundary of a cell, it can’t be undertaken by the cell next to it,because of the gap between two cells, therefore communication breakdown occurs. And also to remain equal distance from a base station to a mobile user.
  • 7. FREQUENCY REUSE The same frequency is used by many cell (separated by a distance). Spectral efficiency (or capacity) is greatly increased. See next slide . . .
  • 8. Cellular Network Architect Example of 2G Digital Cellular The Global System for Mobile communication . . . .
  • 9. Network Architecture
  • 10. (
  • 11. Mobile Station (MS) The Cellular (GSM) committee has introduce important powerful innovation by using a S Card in conjunction with a mobile telephone GSM subscribers are provided with a Subs Identity Module card (SIM-Card) with it identification at the very beginning of the s "Confidential information -- may not b or disclosed without permission". The Mobile Station (MS) includes radio e and the man machine interface (MMI) that subscriber needs in order to access the ser provided by the Cellular (GSM) network. Mobile Station (MS)
  • 12. Mobile Station (MS) The mobile station includes provisions fo communication as well as voice. Each mobile station has an International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) th permanently stored in the mobile unit. U request, the MS sends this number over signaling channel to the network. The IMEI is used to identify mobile units are reported stolen or operating incorrect
  • 13. GSM Architecture Year Introduced 1 Access method T Channel Bandwidth 2 1 1 Number of duplex channels 2 Users per channel 8 Speech coding bit rate 1 Data coding bit rate 1 Frame size 4 BS Transmission Band : 935 – 960 MHZ MS Transmission Band : 890 – 915 MHZ 45 MHz 3 4 5 6 7 F1 F2 F1' F2' Frequency 8