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1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
1 history of mobile & cellular
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1 history of mobile & cellular

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Lecture Slides & notes for Communication Engineers

Lecture Slides & notes for Communication Engineers

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  • 1. A Brief Overview By Engr.Abdul Razzaque Memon MCS (IT/MIS) ; B.E (Electronics) ; PE (PEC) Web: http://www.uldhdqpia.webs.com E-Mail : uldhdqpia@yahoo.com ; BA (Arts)
  • 2. Communication Technologies:  Acoustical  Optical  Mechanical  Electrical wired wireless By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 3.  Use of light as communication  heliographs, flags (semaphore), ...  150 BC smoke signals for communication; (Greece)  1794, optical telegraph, Claude Chappe  Electromagnetic Wave:  1831-79 Faraday and Maxwell demonstrates electromagnetic induction and theory of electromagnetic fields  H. Hertz (1857-94): demonstrates the wave character of electrical transmission through space By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 4. Attributes of Telecommunication  Speed     - Ability to transmit in real-time Coverage - Regional, National and International Reliability Cost - 1860’s: 20 word telegram $5-$100 Security By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 5. High Tech of 19th Century  1850 – First submarine line  1858 – First transatlantic cable - breaks after 3 month  1866 – Higher quality cable - London to Bombay in 4 ½ mins. 1924 – Telegram around the world in 80 secs. By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 6.  1896 Guglielmo Marconi  first demonstration of wireless telegraphy  long wave transmission, high transmission power necessary ( +200kw)  1907 Commercial transatlantic connections  huge ground stations (30 by100m antennas)  1915 Wireless voice transmission NY - SF  1920 Discovery of short waves (< 100m) by Marconi  reflection at the ionosphere  (cheaper) smaller sender and receiver, possible due to the invention of the vacuum tube (1906, Lee DeForest and Robert von Lieben) By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 7.      1920 First commercial radio broadcast in Pgh. 1928 many TV broadcast trials 1933 Frequency modulation (E. H. Armstrong) 1935 First telephone call around the world 1958, then 1972 A-Netz and B-Netz in Germany  analog, 160MHz, connection setup from the fixed network too (but location of the mobile station has to be known)  1974 FCC allocates 40Mhz for Cellular telephony  1981 Start of Cellular-specification in Europe (Global System for Mobile communication)  1983 Start of the American AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System, Analog)  1984 CT-1 standard (Europe) for cordless telephones By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 8.  1986 C-Netz in Germany  analog voice, 450MHz, hand-over possible, digital signaling, automatic location of mobile device  still in use today (as T-C-Tel), services: FAX, modem, X.25, e-mail, 98% coverage  1991 Specification of DECT  Digital European Cordless Telephone (today: Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) - ~100-500m range, 120 duplex channels, 1.2Mbit/s data transmission, voice encryption, authentication  1992 Start of GSM     fully digital, 900MHz, 124 channels automatic location, hand-over, cellular roaming in Europe - now worldwide in more than 100 countries services: data with 9.6kbit/s, FAX, voice, ... By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 9.  1994 E-Netz in Germany  GSM with 1800MHz, smaller cells, supported by 11 countries  1996 Network) HiperLAN (High Performance Radio Local Area  standardization of type 1: 5.15 - 5.30GHz, 23.5Mbit/s  recommendations for type 2 and 3 (both 5GHz) and 4 (17GHz) as wireless ATM-networks (up to 155Mbit/s)  1997 Wireless LAN - IEEE802.11  IEEE-Standard, 2.4 - 2.5GHz and infrared, 2Mbit/s  already many products (with proprietary extensions)  1998 Specification of GSM successors  for UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) as European proposals for IMT-2000 By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 10. cellular phones satellites cordless phones 1980: CT0 1981: NMT 450 1982: Inmarsat-A 1983: AMPS 1986: NMT 900 1984: CT1 1987: CT1+ 1988: Inmarsat-C 1991: CDMA 1989: CT 2 1991: D-AMPS 1992: Inmarsat-B Inmarsat-M 1992: GSM 1993: PDC 1994: DCS 1800 199x: proprietary 1991: DECT 1998: Iridium analog digital wireless LAN 2005?: UMTS/IMT-2000 By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon 1995/96/97: IEEE 802.11, HIPERLAN 2005?: MBS, WATM
  • 11. Wireless Communication  Transmitting voice and data using electromagnetic waves in open space  Electromagnetic waves  Travel at speed of light (c = 3x108 m/s)  Has a frequency (f) and wavelength (λ)  c=fxλ  Higher frequency means higher energy photons  The higher the energy photon the more penetrating is the radiation By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 12. Electromagnetic Spectrum 104 102 100 Radio Spectrum 104 106 108 10-2 Micro wave 1010 1MHz ==100m 100MHz ==1m 10GHz ==1cm < 30 KHz 30Khz - 300KHz 300KHz – 3MHz 3 MHz – 30MHz 10-4 1012 10-6 IR 10-8 UV 1014 10-10 10-12 X-Rays 1016 1018 10-14 Cosmic Rays 1020 1022 30MHz – 300MHz 300 MHz – 3GHz 3Ghz - 30GHz > 30 GHz VHF UHF SHF EHF Visible light VLF LF MF HF By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon 10-16 1024
  • 13. Frequency Carries/Channels  The information from sender to receiver is carrier over a well defined frequency band.  This is called a channel  Each channel has a fixed frequency bandwidth (in KHz) and Capacity (bit-rate)  Different frequency bands (channels) can be used to transmit information in parallel and independently. By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 14. Frequency & Wavelength of Some Technologies  AMPS Phones:  frequency ~= 800 Mhz  wavelength ~= 37.5 cm  GSM Phones:  frequency ~= 900 Mhz  wavelength ~= 33 cm  PCS Phones  frequency ~= 1800 Mhz (1.8 Ghz)  wavelength ~= 16.6 cm  Bluetooth:  frequency ~= 2.4 Gz  wavelength ~= 12.5 cm By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 15. Simplex/Duplex Communication  Normally, on a channel, a station can transmit only in one way.  This is called simplex transmision  To enable two-way communication (called full-duplex communication)  We can use Frequency Division Multiplexing  We can use Time Division Multiplexing By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 16. What is Mobility  Initially Internet and Telephone Networks is designed assuming the user terminals are static  No change of location during a call/connection  A user terminals accesses the network always from a fixed location  Mobility and portability  Portability means changing point of attachment to the network offline  Mobility means changing point of attachment to the network online By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 17. Degrees of Mobility  Walking Users  Low speed  Small roaming area  Usually uses high-bandwith/low-latency access  Vehicles     High speeds Large roaming area Usually uses low-bandwidth/high-latency access Uses sophisticated terminal equipment (cell phones) By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 18. Need for Wireless/Mobile Networking  Demand for Ubiquitous Computing  Anywhere, anytime computing and communication  You don’t have to go to the lab to check your email  Pushing the computers more into background  Focus on the task and life, not on the computer  Use computers seamlessly to help you and to make your life more easier.  Computers should be location aware  Adapt to the current location, discover services By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 19. Very Basic Cellular/PCS Architecture Public Switched Telephone Network Mobility Database Base Station Controller Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Radio Network Base Station (BS) By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon Mobile Station
  • 20. Mobile Communications Network By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 21. Major Mobile Radio Standards-USA Standard Type Year Intro Multiple Access Frequency Band (MHz) Modulation Channe l BW (KHz) AMPS Cellular 1983 FDMA 824-894 FM 30 USDC Cellular 1991 TDMA 824-894 DQPSK 30 CDPD Cellular 1993 FH/Packet 824-894 GMSK 30 IS-95 Cellular/PCS 1993 CDMA 824-894 1800-2000 QPSK/BPSK 1250 FLEX Paging 1993 Simplex Several 4-FSK 15 1994 TDMA 1850-1990 GMSK 200 1994 TDMA/FDMA 1850-1990 DQPSK 300 DCS-1900 PCS (GSM) PACS Cordless/PC S By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 22. Major Mobile Radio StandardsEurope Standard Type Year Intro Multiple Access Frequency Band (MHz) Modulation Channe l BW (KHz) ETACS Cellular 1985 FDMA 900 FM 25 NMT-900 Cellular 1986 FDMA 890-960 FM 12.5 GSM Cellular/PCS 1990 TDMA 890-960 GMSK 200KHz C-450 Cellular 1985 FDMA 450-465 FM 20-10 ERMES Paging 1993 FDMA4 Several 4-FSK 25 CT2 Cordless 1989 FDMA 864-868 GFSK 100 DECT Cordless 1993 TDMA 1880-1900 GFSK 1728 1993 TDMA 1710-1880 GMSK 200 DCS-1800 Cordless/PC S By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 23. World Cellular Subscriber Growth By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 24. Cellular Networks  First Generation (1G)       Second Generation (2G)      2.5G    Analog Systems Analog Modulation, mostly FM AMPS Voice Traffic FDMA/FDD multiple access Digital Systems Digital Modulation Voice Traffic TDMA/FDD and CDMA/FDD multiple access Digital Systems Voice + Low-datarate Data Third Generation (3G)    Digital Voice + High-datarate Data Multimedia Transmission also By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 25. Data Rates of 1G, 2G, 3G:  2nd Generation GSM -9.6 Kbps (data rate)  2.5 Generation HSCSD (High Speed ckt Switched data) Data rate : 76.8 Kbps (9.6 x 8 kbps) GPRS (General Packet Radio service)  Data rate: 14.4 - 115.2 Kbps EDGE (Enhanced data rate for GSM Evolution) Data rate: 547.2 Kbps (max)  3 Generation WCDMA(Wideband CDMA) Data rate : 0.348 – 2.0 Mbps By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 26. Upgrade Paths for 2G Technologies IS-95 2G IS-136 PDC GSM 2.5G GPRS IS-95B HSCSD EDGE 3G cdma200-1xRTT W-CDMA cdma2000-1xEV,DV,DO TD-SCDMA cdma200-3xRTT By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon EDGE
  • 27. 2G Technologies cdmaOne (IS95) GSM, DCS-1900 IS-54/IS-136 PDC Uplink Frequencies (MHz) 824-849 (Cellular) 1850-1910 (US PCS) 890-915 MHz (Eurpe) 1850-1910 (US PCS) 800 MHz, 1500 Mhz (Japan) 1850-1910 (US PCS) Downlink Frequencies 869-894 MHz (US Cellular) 1930-1990 MHz (US PCS) 935-960 (Europa) 1930-1990 (US PCS) 869-894 MHz (Cellular) 1930-1990 (US PCS) 800 MHz, 1500 MHz (Japan) Deplexing FDD FDD FDD Multiple Access CDMA TDMA TDMA Modulation BPSK with Quadrature Spreading GMSK with BT=0.3 π/4 DQPSK Carrier Seperation 1.25 MHz 200 KHz 30 KHz (IS-136) (25 KHz PDC) Channel Data Rate 1.2288 Mchips/sec 270.833 Kbps 48.6 Kbps (IS-136) 42 Kbps (PDC) Voice Channels per carrier 64 8 3 Speech Coding CELP at 13Kbps EVRC at 8Kbps RPE-LTP at 13 Kbps VSELP at 7.95 Kbps By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 28. 2G and Data  2G is developed for voice communications  You can send data over 2G channels by using modem  Provides adat rates in the order of ~9.6 Kbps  Increased data rates are requires for internet application  This requires evolution towards new systems: 2.5 G By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 29. 2.5 Technologies  Evolution of TDMA Systems  HSCSD for 2.5G GSM  Up to 57.6 Kbps data-rate  GPRS for GSM and IS-136  Up to 171.2 Kbps data-rate  EDGE for 2.5G GSM and IS-136  Up to 384 Kbps data-rate  Evolution of CDMA Systems  IS-95B  Up to 64 Kbps By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 30. 3G Systems  Goals  Voice and Data Transmission  Simultanous voice and data access  Multi-megabit Internet access  Interactive web sessions  Voice-activated calls  Multimedia Content  Live music By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 31. 3G Systems  Evolution of Systems  CDMA sysystem evaolved to CDMA2000     CDMA2000-1xRTT: Upto 307 Kbps CDMA2000-1xEV: CDMA2000-1xEVDO: upto 2.4 Mbps CDMA2000-1xEVDV: 144 Kbps datarate  GSM, IS-136 and PDC evolved to W-CDMA (Wideband CDMA) (also called UMTS)    Up to 2.048 Mbps data-rates Future systems 8Mbps Expected to be fully deployed by 2010-2015  New spectrum is allocated for these technologies By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 32. Interest to 3G Applications Emails City maps/directions Latest news Authorize/enable payment Banking/trading online Downloading music Shopping/reservation Animated images 2.4 Chat rooms, forums Interactive games Games for money Western Europe 4.5 4.3 4.0 3.4 3.5 3.1 3.0 Eastern Europe 4.7 4.2 4.4 3.8 3.4 3.4 3.1 2.7 2.3 2.0 1.8 USA 4.3 4.2 4.0 3.0 3.2 3.2 2.9 2.6 2.9 2.2 1.8 2.2 2.4 1.8 (Means based upon a six-point interest scale, where 6 indicates high interest and 1 indicates low interest.) By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 33. GSM Subscriber Growth By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon
  • 34. By : Engr. Abdul Razzaque Memon

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