Open Web and Social Frameworks for Libraries

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Presented at the Shanghai International Library Forum, Aug 24-27, 2010 by John Wang and Kevin Rundblad.

Simul8 Group, UCLA Library

This presentation addresses a few key areas of value creation for libraries: (1) a new workflow model for cataloging and special collections; (2) a social framework for opening crowdsourced (social) knowledge in the library online catalog; and (3) the open web architecture using APIs (internal/external) to realize new workflow and user interactions.

Simul8 Group Credits:

Fei Liu
iCon Application Developer, UCLA PhD student
Simul8 Group, UCLA Library

Rajiv Tirumalareddy
iCon Web Developer, UCLA Aerospace Engineering BS student
Simul8 Group, UCLA Library.

Alyssa Anduiza
iCon Interface Designer, UCLA Design & Media BA student
Simul8 Group, UCLA Library.

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Open Web and Social Frameworks for Libraries

  1. 1. Open Web and Social Frameworks: The Libraries’ New Frontier to Accomplish Their Social and Cultural Mission Kevin Rundblad UX and Social Tech Strategist UCLA Library Zheng (John) Wang Head, Web Services UCLA Library
  2. 2. Library Social and Culture Functions
  3. 3. <ul><li>&quot;Separately a book stock and a catalog would be comparatively weak, but together they possess a unique cultural potency.&quot; - Pierce Bulter, Cultural Function of the Library, 1952 </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>True for paper and print paradigm </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>False for the Internet Age </li></ul>
  6. 6. Library Functions are Challenged
  7. 7. <ul><li>HTML brought content and their metadata together onto one web page </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Therefore HTML possesses a stronger cultural potency than OPAC and its book stocks. </li></ul>Digital medium dictates how users consume content
  9. 9. User Expectation <ul><li>Immediate, efficient, and convenient access to information </li></ul>
  10. 10. Library Practices <ul><li>Libraries offers metadata search (OPAC) as a destination on the web </li></ul>Metadata is an means to an end
  11. 11. <ul><li> “… publications that are not instantly available in full-text will become kind of second-rate in a sense… become much less visible to the reader community.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Clifford Lynch, 1997  </li></ul>
  12. 12. Library Content Workflow Model
  13. 13. <ul><li>Manual metadata creation to describe its collections </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Metadata creation speed is slower than content publishing rate </li></ul>Resources intensive Time Consuming Back Logs
  15. 15. Call for a New Library Model <ul><li>for processing and sharing collections in the Digital Age </li></ul>
  16. 16. Case Study: iCon (iContribute) <ul><li>Fast content workflow process, web publishing, and social curation platform </li></ul>
  17. 17. iCon Key Functionalities <ul><li>Automate collection process as much as possible </li></ul>Digital Camera, OCR, indexing engine, and semantic web technologies replacing manual cataloging and metadata creation process
  18. 18. iCon Key Functionalities <ul><li>Automate collection process as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Social Framework </li></ul>Digital Camera, OCR, indexing engine, and semantic web technologies replacing manual cataloging and metadata creation process Collaborate between libraries and among users to fine tune metadata and create new content to aid better discovery experience
  19. 19. iCon as AI Automating Collection Processing
  20. 20. Using digital camera With images And abstracted text iCon
  21. 21. iCon Processing Rate C onservative E stimate   Process Rate (Records/Hour/Person) Original Cataloging 2 Copy Cataloging 6 iCon 12
  22. 22. iCon Processing Rate C onservative E stimate   Process Rate (Records/Hour/Person) Monthly Total (160 Working Hours/Person) Original Cataloging 2 320 Copy Cataloging 6 960 iCon 12 1920
  23. 23. iCon Processing Rate C onservative E stimate   Process Rate (Records/Hour/Person) Monthly Total (160 Working Hours/Person) Yearly Total (1920 Working Hours/Person) Original Cataloging 2 320 3840 Copy Cataloging 6 960 11520 iCon 12 1920 23040
  24. 24. iCon Economics C onservative E stimate   Process Rate (Records/Hour/Person) Labor Cost (Dollar/hour/Person)  Per Record Cost  Original Cataloging 2 $25.00 $12.50 Copy Cataloging 6 $4.16 iCon 12 $10.00 $0.83
  25. 25. iCon as Social Framework Human Computation / Crowdsourcing
  26. 26. Human Computation Human processing for solving computational Tasks that are considered difficult for AI, but nominal for humans.
  27. 27. Crowdsourcing Leveraging a community/group to collectively produce a desired task.
  28. 28. Examples of Crowdsourcing Wikipedia (social knowledge) Youtube (entertainment) Yelp (social sentiment/ratings) StackOverflow (community knowledge) Australian Newspaper Digitisation Program (Human Computation)
  29. 29. Is the Crowd Credible?
  30. 30. Australian Newspaper Digitisation Program National Library of Australia
  31. 31. 12.5 million lines of text corrected by the public in 17 months
  32. 32. Crowdsourcing… ...handles difficult AI tasks, but nominal for human … provides local knowledge input … is perspectival in nature
  33. 33. Crowdsourcing = Unique Knowledge
  34. 34. Expertise is spread across many individuals…
  35. 35. … Rather than focused in one expert.
  36. 36. Crowdsourcing creates favorable probabilities for knowledge creation
  37. 37. Social Knowledge is Local Knowledge
  38. 38. Social Knowledge is Perspectival in Nature
  39. 39. How can Libraries leverage the crowd?
  40. 40. Create Open Library Catalogs to enable social knowledge
  41. 41. Social Framework Example: The Wiki-fication of Online Catalog Records
  42. 42. User Generated Content (UGC)
  43. 43. Book Summaries/Description User Generated Content (UGC)
  44. 44. User Ratings User Generated Content (UGC)
  45. 45. User Reviews User Generated Content (UGC)
  46. 46. Quotes from Item User Generated Content (UGC)
  47. 47. User Tags User Generated Content (UGC)
  48. 48. Related Links: Author/Subject based articles, slides, video, etc… User Generated Content (UGC)
  49. 49. The record becomes the container for aggregating social content… User Generated Content (UGC)
  50. 50. … and user decision point for the value of content. User Generated Content (UGC)
  51. 51. What are the implications of the Wiki Book Record?
  52. 52. User Decision making is enhanced at the record level
  53. 53. User participation builds efficient metadata and partial content
  54. 54. Real-time information sources are created from User Generated Content
  55. 55. Real-time information sources are created from User Generated Content Searching UGC leads to discovering Content via new channels
  56. 56. People like to do/see what others are doing… Concept: “Social Proof”
  57. 57. All UGC From book records is output in real-time feed
  58. 58. Think of it as a Twitter for your Online Catalog
  59. 59. iCon Architecture
  60. 60. iCon Architecture <ul><li>Open Data </li></ul>Programmable by 3 party users
  61. 61. iCon Architecture <ul><li>Open Data </li></ul><ul><li>Programmable </li></ul><ul><li>Open Process </li></ul>Crowdsourcing for processing collections and enrich collections
  62. 62. iCon Architecture <ul><li>Open Data </li></ul><ul><li>Programmable </li></ul><ul><li>Open Process </li></ul><ul><li>Crowdsourcing , User Curation </li></ul><ul><li>Open Platform </li></ul>PaaS and SaaS: allow users to freely add content and provide users with mashup services
  63. 63. iCon Architecture <ul><li>Open Data </li></ul><ul><li>Programmable </li></ul><ul><li>Open Process </li></ul><ul><li>Crowdsourcing , User Curation </li></ul><ul><li>Open Platform </li></ul><ul><li>Open Standards HTML based for scalability </li></ul>PaaS and SaaS: allow users to freely add content and provide users with mashup services
  64. 64. iCon Architecture <ul><li>Open Data </li></ul><ul><li>Programmable </li></ul><ul><li>Open Process </li></ul><ul><li>Crowdsourcing , User Curation </li></ul><ul><li>Open Platform </li></ul><ul><li>Open Standards HTML based for scalability </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source Where Possible use open source software to keep the cost down </li></ul>PaaS and SaaS: allow users to freely add content and provide users with mashup services
  65. 65. Open Web = Library Values <ul><li>Libraries promote free information sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries are places for remixing and recreating content </li></ul><ul><li>Open Web rejuvenates libraries to continue social and culture functions in the Internet Age. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Questions Zheng (John) Wang Head, Web Services Co-Manager Simul8 Group UCLA Library [email_address] Kevin Rundblad UX and Social Tech Strategist Co-Manager Simul8 Group UCLA Library [email_address]

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