Overview of ePortfoliosSimon CotterillLearning Technologies for Medical SciencesSchool of Medical Sciences Education Development
Objectives To provide/discuss a general overview: • What are portfolios? • Background/ Drivers • Engagement / Embedding • Brief overview of current Newcastle University context
What are Portfolios ? “..a purposeful collection of student work that exhibits to the student, or others, [their] efforts or achievement in one or more areas.” Arter and Spandel (1991) The Journey – the process of completing the portfolio as a learning experience The end-point – the evidence of learning / competencies Artefacts (eg. essays, logs of experiences, artwork, videos, audits, records of prior-learning/ qualifications).
Diversity of Portfolios Unstructured Structured Formative SummativeFactual / Quantitative Reflective / Interpretive Sample All work Best work Representative Learner Owned Employer Owned Episodic Life-long
ePortfolios: defined by their purpose(s) Portfolio for Presentation Portfolio for Sharing / dialogue Assessment Portfolio for Application Portfolio for Learner’s (job / promotion)Accreditation/ ‘repository’ Revalidation Institutional Data Portfolio for Appraisal Central data: Transcript MIS/ HR data PDP (shared) Programme data: PDP / Reflective Granular assessment data (private) Outcomes / skills sets
ePortfolios at Newcastle: >10 yr experience FDTL-4 JISC ePET project Project FDTL T&L Fund Projects x 2 Mini project TransferabilityJISC EPICS regional Project (Bioscience) Postgraduate Research ePortfolio project Training ePortfolio Mini Projects (Medicine) Teaching Fellowship ePortfolio for appraisal Mobile Hosted Dental portfolio services ePortfolio projects Wide uptake in otherJISC EPICS-2 regional undergraduate courses ePortfolio project
Aims of our FDTL-4 ePortfolio project (2002)• To develop an on-line portfolio system to support a reflective approach to evidencing the attainment of programme outcomes.• To promote the development of the reflective capabilities of medical students, giving greater responsibility for managing their own learning and preparing for aspects of work-based and lifelong learning.• To develop strategies to facilitate assessment of curriculum outcomes that are not amenable to traditional instruments of assessment.
Personal Development Planning (PDP) ‘a means by which students can monitor, build andreflect upon their personal development’.Dearing Review (NCIHE 1997) ‘a structured and supported process undertaken byan individual to reflect upon their ownlearning, performance and/or achievement and to planfor their personal, educational and career development’.(QAA, 2001)Links with other agendas: employability, widening participation
How much structure?• Intrinsic structure – „scaffolding‟ – structure aids assessment • structured skill sets, outcomes and competencies – but too much structure • perceived as ‘form filling’ • risks lower engagement• Extrinsic structure – guidelines / assessment criteria – guidance / direction from tutors & mentors
Changing habits and expectations…Web 2.0• Interactive / participative• Social / conversational• Simple – unstructuredOur response:• Unstructured Blog but with explicit links to skills/outcomes Cotterill SJ et al. Beyond the Blog: getting the right level of structure in an ePortfolio to support learning. Proc. ePortfolios 2007Mobile / Wireless Technologies• Our early pilots of PDAs for logbooks problematic• Successful use in Dentistry – assessment at the point of learning
Factors related to engagement with ePortfolio / blogQuestionnaire results n=163 (30% response rate, 3 subjects – non-medical) EPICS-2 Project http://www.epics.ac.uk Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 High Medium Modest Engagement Engagement EngagementI have a clear understanding of the purpose of the ePortfolio 87% 74% 58%I have a clear understanding of how the ePortfolio is used in my programme 91% 76% 42%I received adequate information on how to use the ePortfolio 58% 50% 58%I had a clear understanding of the skills being evidenced in the ePortfolio 66% 65% 17%The skills included in the ePortfolio are important in studying for my degree 69% 94% 25%The skills included in the ePortfolio are important for my longer-term career 59% 94% 33%The ePortfolio is important for my programme 75% 82% 33%Course handbooks and study guides refer to the ePortfolio 58% 65% 25%Teaching staff regularly refer to the ePortfolio 84% 41% 33%
Embedding in the curriculum = better engagementand effective use of ePortfolios Driessen E et al. Portfolios in medical education: why do they meet with mixed success? A systematic review. Med Educ. 2007;41:1224- 33. Atlay, M. Embedding PDP practice in the curriculum, in Personal Development Planning and Employability, Higher Education Academy, York. 2006… but, what do we mean by embedding?
Atlay (2009) classified ways in which PDP can be associated with curricula:Discrete ‘bolt on’ – optional and additional to + Low cost the curriculum - Risk low engagementLinked Run in parallel to the curriculum but + No disruption to curric. linked to it - Risks low engagementEmbedded Included in specific module(s) + Better consistency of experience - Risks being fragmentedIntegrated Underpins and used throughout the + Becomes integrated part curriculum of staff/student thinking - Difficult to achieve!Extended Integrates activities in the curriculum + Draws together study, along with wider life experiences work & life experiences - Unpredictable outcomes
Project 2012 – University portfolioGovernance: University ePortfolio Steering Group 2011/12 2012/13 2013/14Student evaluation Students will have Students will have the access to an ePortfolio opportunity to use their to support personal ePortfolio in meetingsConsultations with staff reflection and with their Personal Tutor development of to support the student inJan 2012: enhanced employability skills achieving personal,ePortfolio live academic andSemester 2 2011/12 professional goalspilots of ePortfolio use
OpportunitiesSharing and community features• Additional information for tutors + recording of meetings• Channel for additional feedback } opportunity & threat!• Could help support seminar group / peer mentoringIntegration with other systems• Integration with TSE/LSE e.g. SSC supervisors• Viewing released component marks + integrated reflect/plan or feedback• Feeding undergraduate portfolio information on into Foundation portfolio• Portfolio linked to curriculum map (Learning Maps)Feeding information into the portfolio• Longstanding example: PGR workshop attendance records are added to CV• Could feed in assessment and feedback from diverse activities • e.g. Phase 1 ethics: peer assessment / peer feedback • e.g. Facility for staff to add adhoc feedback
Further information Simon.Cotterill@ncl.ac.ukOur InformationPortfolio Service: https://portfolio.ncl.ac.uk (or access via TSE/LSE or Blackboard)Our publications: http://www.eportfolios.ac.uk/docsOver 15 papers, chapters and conference papers e.g.Cotterill SJ, Bradley PM, Stacy R. Using ePortfolios to support annual appraisal in undergraduate medicine.Proc. ePortfolios, identity and personalised learning in healthcare education. 2008 NewcastleCotterill SJ, McDonald AM, Hammond GR, Bradley PM. ePortfolio to support planning, learning andsummative assessment for student selected components in Medicine: 4 years experience. . Proc. ePortfolios,identity and personalised learning in healthcare education. 2008 NewcastleCotterill SJ, Aiton J, Bradley PM, Hammond GR, McDonald AM, Struthers J, Whiten S. A flexible component-based ePortfolio: adapting and embedding in the curriculum. In: In Jafari A, Kaufman C, ed. Handbook ofResearch on ePortfolios. Pennsylvania: Idea Group Inc, 2006.External Sources JISC ePortfolios Toolkit: http://www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk/e-portfolios Centre for Recording Achievement http://www.recordingachievement.org/
10 ‘value added’ featuresof an online approach to portfolios• Sharable / facilitate interaction• Transportable - supporting continuity in LLL• Highly customisable• Multi-purpose eg. formative & summative = reduced duplication• Multiple structures / views• Easier cross-referencing• Searchable• Reduced admin• Secure access from a range of locations• Not left on the bus !