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  • 1. NEMES BOSCO - SYSTEMThe NEMES-BOSCO SYSTEM is a highly advanced computer-controlled system of training. Itworks in the following way: Acceleration in itself is an extremely intensive stimulus. At afrequency of 30 Hertz, for example, each pulsation is given an acceleration of 54m/s. In ourexample, it is applied 30 times per second. The frequency and the acceleration at an amplitudeof about +/- 4mm results in a myotatic reflex or stretch reflex.This reflex activity is also referred to as a "Tonic Vibration Reflex" or TVR. It is thismechanism which ensures an optimal increase in power.The effect per pulsation is like that of the knee jerk reflex, which means activation of allmuscles fibers (agonist and antagonists) in a way it does not exert any physical stress or loadon the musculoskeletal system. It decreases the threshold of the type II muscle fibers, thus,they are recruited at the beginning of the desired motion and act together with the type I toachieve a tremendous change in the explosive power which mean a quick and strong desiredmotion.All this is achieved in up to 10 repetitions of 1 minute. The same synchronisation of the centralnervous system happens after passing the hard work of about one-month of intensive weighttraining. This muscle activity can be measured by electromyography (EMG). For example, inone repetition maximum effort, the muscle(s) involved are activated voluntarily at 100%. Butwith Vibration Training on the NEMES BOSCO-SYSTEM, the muscles work at 200% - 300% ofthis 1RM activation...! But in order to get this result the user needs to know his/her exactvibration training frequency. A simple electromyography (EMG) test prior the training sessionwill give the information which frequency to use. The NEMES BOSCO is the ONLY vibrationtraining machine world wide, which can determine the training frequency of its user.Scientific basis of vibrationsThe facilitation of the excitability of the spinal reflex has been elicited through vibration of thequadriceps muscle (Burke et al. 1996). Lebedev and Peliakov (1991) have aIso suggested thepossibility that vibrations may elicit excitatory inflow through muscle spin dle-motoneuronsconnections in the overall motoneuron inflow.It has been demonstrated that vibration drives alpha-motoneurons via the la loop producingforce without decreasing motor drive (Rothmuller and Cafarelli, 1995). Although it has beensuggested that the vibration reflex, like the tendon jerk reflex, operates predominantly orexclusively on alpha motoneurons and does not utilise the same cortically originating efferentpath- ways as are used when performing voluntary contractions (Burke et al. 1976). It cannotbe excluded that vibration treatments can also affect voluntary movements. These suggestionsare supported by the present findings. In fact the EMG recorded in the biceps brachii of theexperimental group in the study conducted on boxers showed a significant enhancement(P<0.001) of the neural activity during the treatment period, as compared to normalconditions (Bosco et al. 1999a).It has been shown that the vibration-induced activation of muscle spindle receptors not onlyaffects the muscle to which vibration is applied, but also affects the neighbouring muscles(Kasai et al. 1992).A mechanical vibration (10-200 Hz), applied to the muscle belly or tendon can elicit a reflexcontraction (Hagbarth and Eklund, 1965). This response has been named "tonic vibrationreflex" (TVR). It is not known whether it can be elicited by low vibration treatment (30 Hz),even if it has been suggested to occur during whole body vibration at frequencies ranging from1 to 30Hz (Seidel, 1988).
  • 2. The improvement of the muscle performance after a short period of vibration training has beenquoted (Bosco et al. 1998) to be similar to what occurs after several weeks of heavy resistancetraining (e.g. Coyle et al. 1981, Hakkinen and Komi 1985). In fact the improvement of themuscle functions after resistance training has been attributed to the enhancement of theneuromuscular behaviour caused by the increasing activity of the higher motor centre (Milner-Brownet al., 1975). The improvement of muscle performances induced by vibration training(VT) suggests that a neural adaptation has occurred in response to the vibration treatments.In this context, the duration of the stimulus seems to be both relevant and important. Theadaptive response of human skeletal muscle to simulated hyper gravity conditions (1.1g)applied for only three weeks, caused a considerable improvement in the leg extensor musclebehaviour (Bosco 1985).Thus it is likely that both neural adaptation and the length of the stimulus seem to play animportant role in the improvement of muscle performances (e.g. Bosco, 1985). During the VTutilised for the research conducted on the boxers, the elbow flexors were stimulated for a totallength of time of 300 seconds. The duration of the treatment was similar to that required toperform an elbow flexion for 600 repetitions with a load similar to 50/0 of the subjects bodymass. Such an amount of repetitions would generally otherwise be distributed over 3 sessionsa week with 50 repetitions per time, taking one month to complete. The large initial increasesnoted in muscle strength observed during the earlier weeks of intense strength training can beexplained through increases in maximal neural activation (e.g. Moritani and De Vries, 1979).To explain how the increased neural output may occur is not as simple as how to explain theintrinsic mechanism of neural adaptation. Furthermore, a net excitation of the prime movermotoneurons could result from increased excitatory input, reduced inhibitory input or both(e.g. Sale, 1988).After the VT period the EMG activity was found to be rather lower or to be the same ascompared to the pre-treatment conditions even if, during the vibration, period an increment ofneural input to the muscle occurred. In this respect the decrease in the ratio between EMG andmechanical power (EMG/P) demonstrated that VT induced an improvement of theneuromuscular efficiency of the muscles involved in the vibration treatment. Vertical jumpingability has been shown to increase following vibration treatment (Bosco et al. 1998; Bosco etal 1999). These improvements have been attributed to an enhancement of neural activity inthe leg extensor muscles, together with an enhancement of the proprioceptors feedback.During vibrations, the length of skeletal muscles changes slightly.The facilitation of the excitability of spinal reflexes has been shown to be elicited by vibrationsapplied to the quadriceps muscle (Burke et al. 1996).Once again, the influence of vibrations on the neural drive of the la loop can play a crucial partin enhancing jumping performance following vibration treatments. Even if the adaptiveresponses of neuromuscular performance as measured by vertical jump tests cannot be fullyexplained, it is important to consider that the effectiveness of the stimulus can have bothrelevance and importance. The adaptive response of human skeletal muscle to simulated hypergravity conditions (1.1 g), applied for only three weeks, caused a drastic enhancement of theneuromuscular functions of the leg extensor muscles (Bosco 1985). The regular use ofcentrifugal force (2 g) for 3 months has initiated conversion of muscle fibre type (Martin andRomond, 1975). In the experiments conducted, the total length of the WBV application periodwas not very long (from 7 minutes to 100 minutes), but the disturbance to the gravitationalfield was quite consistent (5.4 g).
  • 3. An equivalent length and intensity of training stimulus (100 minutes) can only be reached byperforming 200 drop jumps from 60 cm, twice a week for 12 months. In fact, the time spentfor each drop jump is less than 200 ms, and the acceleration developed can barely reach 3.0 g(Bosco 1992). This means stimulating the muscles for 2 min per week for a total amount inone year of 108 minutes.In a few words, vibrations can stimulate the biological system of athletes in the same way asstrength training or explosive training and this stimulation can be applied in a much shorterperiod of time as compared to the time needed to perform traditional training sessions.It opens a new window in sports science and gives coaches and scientists new possibilities forstudying and enhancing human performance.Biological effectsThe NEMES BOSCO-SYSTEM is very effective. The reason of this is because while mosttherapies, methods of treatment or training, only work on a certain number of tissues ororgans, the vibration given by the NEMES, which is also referred to as Whole-Body-Vibration(WBV), actually vibrates the whole body.NEMES has a powerful positive effect on: muscle tissue, nerves, blood vessels, bones, fattissue, cartilage, hormones and neurotransmitters.MusclesThe effect of vibration results in what scientific literature calls Tonic Vibration Reflex or TVR.That is a repeated myotatic reflex or stretch reflex. This means that the vibrated muscle has towork very hard, while the subject or player using the NEMES does nothing other than balanceon the platform. The effect per pulsation is like that of the knee jerk reflex. This muscleactivity can be measured by use of electromyography (EMG). For example, in a one repetitionmaximum effort, the muscle(s) involved are activated 100% voluntarily. However, withvibration training on the NEMES the muscles work at 200 to 300% of this 1RM activation. Thisis an ideal way to train, especially when the muscle does not function properly, for examplewith weakened muscles in the elderly, or after injuries.HormonesResearch shows that after vibration training (just one session!), there is a high excretion ofTestosterone and Growth Hormone. There is also a drop in the stress hormone Cortisol. Thiscombination has favorable effects on muscle protein synthesis. In addition, increase in GrowthHormone excretion also results among others in a reduction of fatty tissue.Effect of Vibration training on Hormones:Testosterone: + 7%Human Growth Hormone: + 460%Cortisol: - 32%(Source: Bosco et al 2000)Increases in Testosterone and Growth Hormone are important in the functioning of both bodyand mind. Many complaints of the elderly can be traced to a decrease in these hormones. It isessentially these hormones, together with the female hormone estrogen, which are used tocombat geriatric complaints so that it is possible to still enjoy life and vitality even when onehas reached old age.
  • 4. BonesBone decalcification (osteoporosis) is one of the biggest health problems especially in theelderly and women population. Many elderly people break their bones more easily when theyfall because of bone decalcification; the hip is the most notorious in this respect. The onset ofosteoporosis is partly due to a lack of movement, which causes muscles to gradually weaken,the circulation to diminish and the bones to be inadequately used. In addition, as a result ofthe ageing process, the body produces fewer hormones such as testosterone, estrogen andgrowth hormone. Yet it is exactly these hormones, which play such an important role in themaintenance of strong bones.The advice usually given to sufferers of this disease is to take more exercise, but that isdifficult when muscles are weak, particularly in the legs. The NEMES BOSCO-SYSTEM offers agood alternative to vigorous impact exercise: through vibration the muscles automaticallybecome stronger and regain their tone. The circulation improves because the blood vessels inthe legs are wide open due to the vibration. At the same time, the pulsation gives a directstimulus to bone tissue, which in turn stimulates the production of new bone tissue.Scientific research shows that vibration training can help against osteoporosis. Recent findingsshow that even after only one vibration treatment, there is an increase in the hormonetestosterone and growth hormone, which are so essential for strong bones.NeurotransmittersParkinsons Disease is an example of a deficiency in dopamine, which is the reason that L-Dopais given as medicine. It is also recognized that serotonin plays a role in our mood, or frame ofmind. A shortage of serotonin in the brain can lead to depression, which is the reason thatProzac is given as a medicine in order to increase the serotonin content in the brain. Fromresearch, it appears that vibration training also influences the neurotransmitters and the wayin which they work. Vibration training increases the serotonin content in the brain, which couldpossibly explain why one feels so well after vibration training.Blood vesselsThe effect of vibration training on the blood vessels is clear to see and to feel. After training,one often sees that the skin of the lower leg is colored pink. This is a sign that the bloodvessels in that area are wide open. It also explains the feeling which many describe as: cominghome after a snowball fight with your bare hands, and then putting your hands in a bucket ofwarm water. A tingling feeling, which indicates that your blood vessels are wide open. InGermany, the effect of vibration training is used as therapy for a disturbed peripheralcirculation, particularly in the lower legs, such as in chronic venous insufficiency.Nervous system"By means of nerves, the pathways of the senses are distributed like the roots and fibers of atree." - Alessandro Benedetti, 1497The effect on the muscles is reflexively activated via the nervous system. With vibrationtraining, it seems as if pulsations awaken the nerve tract, which could explain the positiveeffects of vibration training in partial paralysis. In fact, good results have been reported in theexperimental treatment of, for example, MS patients.Cartilage
  • 5. It is already recognized that intermittent pressure stimulates optimal functioning of thecartilage. This causes the synovial fluid, or synovia, to be repeatedly pumped between thecartilages, just like a sponge, which is constantly squeezed under water. This intermittentpressure maintains and improves cartilage function.Training effectsFani Chalkia 400mH 2004 Olympic Gold Medallist Power training for top athletes has madegreat advancement, and is still a source of dynamic development in top sport. The increase inpower/force is very much dependent on the intensity (=the weight and the velocity of theload), and the volume, (=the total amount of the load or the duration of the load). In order tomake power training more effective and efficient, efforts are often made to find ways ofincreasing the intensity. That usually results in increasing the load, which is maybe optimal foradapting the muscle tissue, but this is often accompanied by problems with the passivemovement apparatus, for example, in the form of knee complaints or problems in the lowerpart of the back. Many top athletes, however, train on the edge of their physical limits. And alltoo often, top athletes and their coaches, are confronted with strength or speed barriers. Manysport careers are also disrupted because of chronic overtraining or injuries.The benefits of using NEMES-BOSCO SYSTEM in sports training is unique. Athletes and coachesof different sports such as soccer, volleyball, basketball, track and field, boxing, tennis, skiing,baseball and more will find new ways to improve skills such as speed, power, strength,flexibility etc.Vibration training can be applied simultanously with other training methods in every stage ofthe preparation. Vibration training can be used in addition to the regular power training, or asa safe alternative to power training. It can also be used as a warming-up, to prepare for powertraining or in combination with technique training and/or speed-training.Katerina Thanou 100m 2000 Olympic Silver MedallistA problem area in top-sport is training theexplosive power, such as jumping power or throwing-power. Use is often made of brutaltraining intensities and high peak loads. This could be with heavy power loads of hundreds ofkilos of weights, plyometric loads or drop-jumps. These unfortunately often result in injuries.Some examples are foot injuries, "Achilles" tendon injuries, knee injuries (jumpers knee) orback complaints. Vibration training is the key solution in these conditions.Another issue is that the muscles become stronger after many years of training, but not thepassive movement apparatus, like tendons, ligaments, joints and bones. Certainly for athleteswho have reached the limits of their physical limits, it is extremely difficult to find effective andsafe training methods. Vibration training allows the muscles to work very hard withoutoverloading on the ligaments, tendons, joints and vertebra. This is not only to the benefit oftop athletes, but also for young athletes, who are not able to take on strength training becauseof growing problems e.g. Osgood-Schlatter or M. Scheuermann, both disorders in bone growththat often appear in the teen years.VIBRATION TRAINING CAN BE USED IN A NUMBER OF WAYS Supplementary to the normal power training An alternative for power training, when there is injury or rehabilitation (for example:instead of power training, replace with vibration training) In preparation for power training (for example: first vibration training, and afterwardspower training) In preparation for other types of training, such as technique training or speed training
  • 6. In preparation for competitions, as a warming-up; during track and field events, we oftensee the sprinters jumping or hopping up and down before they take up their positions in thestarting blocks Cooling-down after training and contests, because of the positive effect on the bloodcirculation and the hormones, which helps the athlete to recover fasterSome more information...Kosmatopoulos Papadopoulos Sailing 470, 2004 Olympic FinalistsStrength(Issurin et al 1994) showed that it enhances strength dramatically. Over a 3 week trainingperiod maximum strength increased by 49.8% as a result of Vibration training compared witha 16% increase with conventional weight training methods.SpeedBosco et al (1990) showed improvements of 5.7% in power and 6.4% in speed after only onevibration training session. Conventional training did not show any performance improvementafter one session. This improvement is typically only evident after at least 4 weeks oftraining!!!FlexibilityWithin a few sessions on the machine, significant increases in flexibility are noted (Issurin et al1994).PowerIncreases in power are noticeable after a minimum of three sessions using the machine. Jumppower and height achieved improved by 12% after a 10 day training programme usingvibration training while no change was observed in the control group (Bosco et al 1998). Inanother study Bosco and colleagues (1999) found a 25% increase in arm power ininternational boxers following one vibration training session. Again the control group did notshow any improvement and this type of gain is only evident from conventional training afterseveral weeks. It is estimated that 100min vibration training is equal to 200 drop jumps from60cm height, twice a week for 12 months!!!InjuriedS.Lucchesi (2004) “ Integration between vibration and other methods to build physicalstrength in high level sport practice” showed that NEMES has, in addition to helping thedevelopment of force, took part in a decisive way to limit to only three the number of muscleinjuries throughout the season, in a high level team.Research PapersUsed by NASA and ESA in the preperation phase of cosmonauts, vibration training is becomingday by day a new trend!!! Neuromuscular disorders, osteoporosis, and other conditions canalso be treated in order to enhance rehabilitation.There are many studies done around the world, on the positive effect of vibration training onhuman body. The literature bibliographies show there are sufficient scientific publications inleading journals about this training methodology. All of them prove that it effects positively not
  • 7. only the muscle performance, but also the peripheral vascular system, bone metabolism andclinical conditions. Prof. Bosco presented one of the most dramatic results due to hisimplementation of his discoveries. The wide range of scientific researches and publicationsprove that the NEMES-BOSCO SYSTEM has a wide scientific basis.Below you can find some selected research papers related to the benefits of vibration training: Bosco, C; Cardinale, M; Tsarpela, O; Locatelli, E:New trends in training science: The use of vibrations for enhancing performance; New Studiesin Athletics, Vol.14, No.4, 1999, pg.55-62. Bosco C, Iacovelli M, Tsarpela O, Cardinale M, Bonifazi M, Tihanyi J, Viru M, De Lorenzo A,Viru A.:Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000 Apr;81(6):449-454. Bosco C, Cardinale M, Tsarpela O.Influence of vibration on mechanical power and electromyogram activity in human arm flexormuscles. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1999 Mar;79(4):306-11 Bosco C, Colli R, Introini E, Cardinale M, Tsarpela O, M Iacovelli, Tihanyi J, Viru A, S.P. vonDuvillardAdaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to vibration exposure. Clin Physiol. 1999Mar;19(2):183-7. Bosco C, Colli R, Cardinale M, Tihanyi J, von Duvillard S.P. Viru AThe Influence of Whole Body Vibration on the mechanical behavior of skeletal muscle. Biologyof Sport, Vol 15, No 3 1998 p. 157-164 Bosco C, Iacovelli M, Tsarpela O, Cardinale M, Bonifazi M, Tihany J, Viru A,( 1999)Effect of acute whole body vibration treatment on mechanical power, electromyogram andhormonal profile of male athletes. In: Proceedings of the 4th Annual Congress of the EuropeanCollege of Sports Science. Pp. 279 Issurin V.B. , Tenenbaum G.Acute and residal effects of Vibratory stimulation on explosive force in Elite and amateurathletes. J. Sports Sciences, 1999, nr. 17 p 177 – 182 Cardinale M.The effects of Vibration on human performance and hormonal profile. Abstract of the Ph.D.Thesis, Budapest 2002 Cardinale M, LIM J.The acute effects of two different whole body vibration frequencies on vertical jumpperformance. Med Sport 2003;56:287-92 Delecluse C., Roelants M., Verschueren S.Strength increase after Whole Body Vibration compared with resistance training. Medicine andScience in Sports and Exercise, 2003, 1033-1041 Rittweger J., Beller G., Felsenberg D.Acute Physiological effects of exhaustive Whole Body Vibration exercise in man. Clin. Physiol.,2000 nr. 20 p. 134-142 Rittweger J., Mutschelknauss M ., Felsenberg D.Acute changes in neuromuscular excitability after exhaustive Whole Body Vibration exercise ascompared to exhaustion by squatting exercise. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging Torvinen S. et al.Effect of Vibration exposure on muscular performance and body. Randomized cross-over study.Clin. Pgysiology and Functional Imaging 2002 nr. 22 p. 145-152 Rittweger J, Just K, Kautzsch K, Reeg P, Felsenberg D.
  • 8. Treatment of chronic lower back pain with lumbar extension and whole-body vibrationexercise: a randomized controlled trial. Spine. 2002 Sep 1;27(17):1829-34. Kerschan-Schindl K, Grampp S, Henk C, Resch H, Preisinger E, Fialka-Moser V, Imhof H.Whole-body vibration exercise leads to alterations in muscle blood volume. Clin Physiol. 2001May;21(3):377-82. Rittweger J, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D.Oxygen uptake during whole-body vibration exercise: comparison with squatting as a slowvolontary movement. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2001, Dec;86(2):169-73 Ishitake T. Miyazaki Y., Ando H., Mataka T.Suppresive mechanism of gastric motility by Whole Body Vibration. Int. Arch Occup. EnvironHealth, 1999, 72:469-474 Gianoutsos, et al.The effects of Whole Body Vibration on reflex-induced standing in persons with chronic andacute Spinal Cord Injury". New York School of Medicine at the AAPMR Runge M.Balance training and exercise in geriatric patients. Musculoskeletal Interactions 2000, nr 1p.54-58 Flieger, J.; Karachalios, Th.; Khaldi, L.; Raptou, P.; Lyritis, G.Mechanical stimulation in the form of vibration prevents postmenopausal bone loss in ovari -ectomized rats. Calcif. Tissue Int. Vol. 63., 1998, pg. 510-514. Tylee M., M.R. Popovic, S. Yu and C. CravenHuman responses to Vibration Therapy. University of Toronto, Canada Clinton Rubin, Gang Xu, and Stefan JudexThe anabolic activity of bone tissue, suppressed by disuse, is normalised by brief exposure toextremely low-magnitude mechanical stimuli. FASEB J. 15, 2225-2229 (2001) Clinton Rubin, Robert Recker, Diane Cullen, John Ryaby, Joan McCabe, Kenneth McLeodPrevention of Postmenopausal Bone Loss by a Low-Magnitude, High-Frequency MechanicalStimuli: A Clinical Trial Assessing Compliance,Efficacy and Safety. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. Volume 19, Number 3, (2004) Warman G, Humphries B, Purton J.The effects of timing and application of vibration on muscular contractions. Aviat SpaceEnviron Med, Feb;73(2):119-27 (2002) L Ahlborg, C Andersson, P Julin - Department of Rehabilitation Medicine Stockholm, Danderyd University Hospital,Stockholm, Sweden - Department of Neurotec, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenWhole Body Vibration Training compared with resistance training: Effect on spasticity, musclestrength and motor performsnce in adults with cerebral palsy. Journal of RehabilitationMedicine. Volume 38, Number 5, (2006), :302 - 3082010 S.Lucchesi, F Cappuccio 2010, Allenare la forza con le vibrazioni (Howtrain the stranght with vibration), Sport & Medicina(Italian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports) , November- December 2010, no. 6, pp. 47-51.