Types of classroom listening performance (3)
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  • 1. Types of Classroom ListeningPerformance
  • 2. Types of Classroom Listening Performance• Reactive• Intensive• Responsive• Selective• Extensive• Interactive
  • 3. Reactive Listening☻requires little meaningful processing☻This role of the listener as merely “tape recorder” (Nunan, 1991b:18) must be very limited, otherwise the listener as a generator of meaning does not reach fruition.
  • 4. ☻ the only role that this performance can play in an interactive classroom is in brief choral or individual drills that focus on pronunciation
  • 5. Intensive Listening☻ Techniques whose only focus is to focus on components (phonemes, words, intonation, discourse markers, etc.) of discourse☻ Include bottom-up skills ☻ refers to using the incoming input as the basis for understanding the message
  • 6. Examples of intensive listening performance:• Students listen for cues in certain choralor individual drills• The teacher repeats a word or sentenceseveral times to “imprint” it in the student’s mind
  • 7. ☻ The teacher asks students to listen to a sentence or a longer stretch of discourse and to notice a specified element, e.g., intonation, stress, a contraction, a grammatical structure, etc.
  • 8. Responsive Listening☻A significant proportion of classroom listening activity consists of short stretches of teacher language designed to elicit immediate responses.☻The students’ task in such listening is to process the teacher talk immediately and to fashion an appropriate reply.
  • 9. Examples include: ☻Asking questions ☻Giving commands ☻Seeking clarification ☻Checking comprehension
  • 10. Selective Listening☻Task of the student is not to process everything that was said butrather to scan the material selectively for certain information☻Requires field independence on the part of the listener
  • 11. ☻ Differs from intensive listening in that the discourse is in relatively long lengths• Examples of such discourse include:☻speeches☻media broadcasts☻stories and anecdotes☻conversation in which learners are eavesdroppers
  • 12. Techniques promoting selective listening skills could ask students to listen for:☻peoples names☻dates☻certain facts or events☻location, situation, context, etc.☻main ideas and/or conclusion
  • 13. Extensive Listening☻could range from listening to lengthy lectures to listening to a conversation and deriving a comprehensive message or purpose☻aims to develop a top-down, global understanding of spoken language ☻refers to the use of background knowledge in understanding the meaning of a message
  • 14. ☻may require the student to invoke other interactive skills (e.g., note taking, discussion) for full comprehension
  • 15. Interactive Listening☻include all five of the above types as learners actively participate in discussions, debates, conversations, role-plays, and other pair and group work.☻their listening performance must be intricately integrated with speaking (and perhaps other) skills in the authentic give and take of communicative interchange
  • 16. ReferencesHedge, T. (2001). Teaching and learning in the language classroom. New York: Oxford University Press.Richards, J. C. (2008). Teaching listening and speaking from theory to practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.Wallace, T. (2004). Teaching speaking, listening and writing. Switzerland: International Academy of Education.Osada, N. (2004). Listening comprehension research: A brief review of the past thirty years. Retrieved November 24, 2011 from http://talkwaseda.net/dialogue/no03_2004 /2004dialogue03_k4.pdf• Meskill, C. (n.d.). Listening skills development through multimedia. Retrieved November 25, 2011 from http://www.albany.edu/etap/faculty/CarlaMeskill/publicatio n/TESLIST.pdf
  • 17. ***END***Thank You☻ ☻