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  • 1. GLOBAL SOUTH#1 1 , Oct 201 2, A development quarterly Development MagazineISSN: 1 799-0769, www.silcreation.orgInitiatives and People Inspiring Action and Promoting Sustainable Development from Around the World
  • 2. Letter to the editorGlobal Editorial Team Microfinance needs institutions and evenGlobal South Development Magazine is a quarterly magazine an overhaul individuals involved inpublished by Silver Lining Creation, Finland. The magazine covers a I read your investigative microfinance activities.wide range of developmental issues primarily of the developing world feature about microfinance in In soand is an initiative of freelance writers and development activists from Bangladesh, and based on my manydifferent parts of the world. own experience with discussions I Microfinance, I can say that always ask:Editor-in-Chief you made a good diagnosis of MicrofinancManoj Kr Bhusal so many complexities attached e is reallymanoj.bhusal@silcreation.org to it. for whom ? In my opinion, microfinance And thatAssistant Editor should be carried out in a instantlyIoulia Fenton makes me holistic manner, but that seems like an odd charater inEditorial Assistants very hard because it requires otherwise a smooth story.Carolynn Look almost a complete overhauling Ramon M., Rangpur,Dinesh Poudel of the system. There are BangladeshSuraj Chand idealogical issues ofRegional Editors Women of the democracy in the region. I am not very pessimistic,Lingson Adam (East Africa) evolution ! but it will take a significantKhalid Hussain (South Asia) Your latest issue was a good amount of time and effort toNoah Marwil (Latin America) read. But I would have called it properly establish womensCatriona Knapman (The Middle East) women of the evolution rights in the region and mereEdvin Arnby Machata (West Africa) instead of women of the legal provisions and seasonal revolution as women revolutions wont be enoughtSpecial Correspondents empowerment in the Middle for that.Mary Namusoke (Women’s issues in Africa) East has a long andRoxanne Irani (Global environmental issues) Fatima M, Cairo EgyptSandeep Srivastava (Climate change) evolutionary history.Aliza Amlani (Global Health) The Arab Spring was notDeanna Morris (Livelihood & Global Economic Affairs) fought forAparna S Patankar (Global Education) womens rightsKate Kardol (Development Aid & Conflict States) per se, but just toHriday Sarma (South-to-South Development Cooperation) bring downIrene Nyambura Mwangi (Development & Democracy in Africa) reckless dictators.Debora Di Dio (Food Soverignty and Rural Livelihoods) The movement wasnt caused byCountry Correspondents Twitter orVictoria Lucy Peel Yates (Argentina) Facebook either.Tithe Farhana (Bangladesh) Neither it wasDr. Lykke E. Andersen (Bolivia) particularly aimedMarita Haug (Brazil) at consolidatingJames Belgrave (Burundi)Gareth Mace (Cambodia) Focus more on citizen NGO/INGO workers, but in myMeerim Shakirova (Central Asia) opinion, GSDM shouldFady Salah (Egypt) journalismEmily Cavan Lynch (DR Congo) I have been reading Global promote citizen journalism andDr.P.V.Ravichandiran (India) South Development Magazine encourage the locals toas far as writeAlphonce Gari (Kenya)Jaya Jung Mahat(Nepal) for a while now and I love it. about themselves, and I have understood, theSamuel Adikpe (Nigeria) However, like many other magazine is all about that.Ricardo Morel (Peru) development publications, Even in the developingMohamud Hassan (Somalia) GSDM faces the danger of world, selecting unbiased,Moses C Masami (Tanzania) parachute journalism. independentKimbowa Richard (Uganda) There reporters is aJasen Mphepo (Zimbabwe) seem to be quite a few daunting task local, citizen as many journalists people do have Published By writing about their own Silver Lining Creation ry-Finland their own personal interests and Email: globalsouth@silcreatioin.org issues, but hidden info@silcreation.org many of agendas, but I http://www.silcreation.org GSDM think in any ISSN 1799-0769 reporters case they can Subscribe the magazine for free at seem to be western do a better job www.silcreation.org www.gsdmagazine.org NGO workers working in the to reporting theirwhen it comes local developing world, and at times communities, problems they the reporting seems very face and the solutions they have shallow. found. Nothing against the Sujata C. New Delhi, India
  • 3. Global South Development Magazine, Founded in 2010 October 201 2 ISSUE 1 0 WWW.SILCREATION.ORGInitiatives and People Inspiring Action and Promoting SustainableDevelopment from Around the World- Page 114 Introduction: Unsung Heroes and Inspiration for Change5 South in the Frame: Photos from Mali and Afghanistan6 News Analysis: Global South7 Photo Essay: Life in Post-War Nicaragua27 Country Profile: The Republic of Singapore29 Tips from the Field: Improving Education Means Investing in Educators31 Gender & Development: Can Family Work as a Human Rights Defender in theDeveloping World?32 China: Graffiti on the Great Wall: the Hidden Street Art Culture of Beijing34 Food Security & Nutrition: Rural Women in Bangladesh: the Key to Food Security &Nutrition37 Women Entrepreneurship: Helena Lutege: A Female Entrepreneur Transforming theLives ofThousands in Tanzania38 Refugees: The Worlds Largest Refugee Camp- What is the Future for Dadaab?40 Latin America: Honduras: Violence, Repression and Impunity Capital of the World42 Development in the News
  • 4. Introduction GSDM Inspiration Issue By PAULA FYNBOH GSDM guest contributor While watching the U.S. Presidential Senator on a Citizen’s Lobby Day I was debates last week, a friend of mine asked working on several years ago. The me an interesting question: “If you woman was so nervous to have a became the First Lady, what would be conversation with her elected official that your platform?” Beyond thinking about she was visibly shaking. I tried to re- the issues I care most about, I found assure her that she didn’t need to have all myself day-dreaming about what it the answers; she just needed to tell her "It’s easy to feel would be like to have the power to story. Her personal story was more influence an entire country, focus their compelling that any pie graph I had paralyzed by all the collective will and really make a dent in stuffed away in my brief case. world’s problems and improving the lives of people around the world. While this is a noble goal, it’s As we began the meeting, the volunteer advocate (I’ll call her Kris) think that there is no also a seductive trap. Very often we feel forgot all her talking points, but way we, as everyday like we need to either know everything proceeded to pull out her family photo individuals, can begin to about an issue or be in a recognized high- album and showed the Senator the people profile position to enact change. in her life that lost their lives to cancer. make an impact" However, real people everywhere are A brother. A nephew. A mom. A best proving this wrong. friend. I think about the anger, apathy and The bill that we were advocating for confusion that Ioulia Fenton mentions eventually passed. The piece of "This month, as we hear feeling after reading countless legislation and all the elected officials about overwhelming environmental and economic books in her “Be the Change You Want to See” and influential advocacy groups that supported it were hailed in the press, but social problems, let’s book challenge article this month. It’s there was no mention of Kris, a regular, challenge ourselves to easy to feel paralyzed by all the world’s every-day person who did what she could not feel paralyzed by our problems and think that there is no way in 15 minutes of her time to make the we, as everyday individuals, can begin to world a better place, simply by telling seemingly lack of power make an impact. This is a very real her story. No fancy degree, title or facts to affect these feeling and I hear it on a regular basis from the every-day citizens I work with and figures necessary. This month, as we hear about conditions or believe on civil society campaigns across the overwhelming social problems, let’s that we can’t affect globe. We tend to feel that if we can’t do challenge ourselves to not feel paralyzed change without an it all or know all the answers, then it’s by our seemingly lack of power to affect not worth trying. these conditions or believe that we can’t esteemed title or This is the danger that we as NGOs affect change without an esteemed title or credentials. Let’s not and civil society organizations create when we lift up and celebrate only the credentials. Let’s not forget that everyday people matter. forget that everyday best of the best of us. People like Nget After all, if the rural women in people matter" Thy from the Cambodian Center for the Bangladesh, featured in Debora Di Dio’s Protection of Childrens Rights in Gareth article this month are transforming food Mace’s article and Helena Lutege, the security and nutrition for their entire female entrepreneur from Tanzinia in community by fetching water for their Mary Namusoke’s piece certainly families, planting crops and caring for deserve our attention and recognition, but children aren’t waiting to become First so do the many nameless and faceless Lady to fulfill their platform, there’s no among us, like the person who simply reason I need to wait either. asked Chinese Graffiti Artist, Zhang Dali, “Who are you?” and sparked a Paula Fynboh is an independent nation-wide dialogue in Carolynn Look’s contractor and consultant who article: Graffiti on the Great Wall: The specializes in capacity building, story Hidden Street Art Culture of Beijing. telling, civic engagement and I remember bringing a woman with grassroots participation. She can be me to the U.S. Capitol to meet with her reached at paula.fynboh@gmail.com. Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 4
  • 5. Global South In the FrameMalian refugees in Damba camp / Eight years old Abubakrim, lies down on the ground inside the health center in Damba refugee camp with his motherFadmata checking on him. Photo: UNHCR/H CauxWheat fields in Salang, Parwan Province, Afghanistan. In Afghanistan 12 to 15 percent of land is arable. Approximately 1.5 million hectaresconsists of rain-fed land and farmers depend on rains for agricultural production. UN Multimedia/Fardin Waezi. Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 5
  • 6. News Analysis Global SouthPAKISTAN: Qualityeducation still a long way off SEVARÉ, 8 October 2012 (IRIN) - Children as young as 14 are joining military training camps run by militias in southern Mali preparing to fight Islamist groups in the north. At the same time, Islamist groups in the north are recruiting children as young as 11 to man checkpoints, gather intelligence, search vehicles and patrol the streets in Gao, Timbuktu and Kidal, according to aid agencies and human rights groups. Fatoumata Tall, a 16- year-old from Ségou in south-central Mali, had never held a rifle before coming to a militia training camp in Sevaré, in central Mali about 45km from the Islamist-held north. After six months of rigorous training mainly from former soldiers in the Malian army, she is ready for battle, saying she cannot accept the occupation, or the Islamists imposing Sharia in her - 2015 Education MDG in jeopardy country. “I am determined to fight... Our goal is to - 30% of population gets less than 2 years of education liberate the north. Whatever the price, we can’t abandon our people,” she told IRIN. - Policy hinders progress" In Sevaré alone, hundreds of youths and children, many of them 14 or under, are living and training in run-down barracks or school-buildings.ISLAMABAD, 9 October 2012 (IRIN) - As evening attend school, according to a 2011 report by the They spend hours each day learning how to use aapproaches in the centre of Pakistan’s capital Pakistan Education Task Force (PETF), a body gun, simulating hand-to-hand combat, andIslamabad, children gather at a small playground, which includes senior education officials and exercising.chatting and laughing. It is a scene played out in independent experts. Calling themselves the FLN, or the Liberationcountless parks across the country, but the children The UN Education, Scientific and Cultural Front of the North, most are proud to be here andare not here to play after school - they are here to Organization (UNESCO) said in 2010 that 30 many have come without their parents’ knowledgeattend one. percent of Pakistan’s population lives in a state of or approval. “It’s my country and I’m doing For three hours every evening, free classes run “extreme educational poverty” - receiving less than whatever it takes to defend it,” said Fatoumatahere for anyone who wants to attend, with the idea two years of education. Tall, explaining that her parents would force her tobeing that some of the many children who live on “We could clearly see that an emergency was leave immediately if they knew where she was.Islamabad’s streets, or work in its markets and unfolding. Fifty percent of children of primary One camp holds 1,000 youths, another 400,houses, might benefit. school age were not attending school or not according to militia trainer Col Ibrahima Outtara, Mohammad Ayub, who runs the unofficial completing it,” said Shahnaz Wazir Ali, social sector though IRIN was unable to verify these figures.school, began teaching children whose parents adviser to the prime minister and PETF co-chair, The militia are short on arms and have tocould not afford to send them to school in 1988. adding: “We can no longer treat the education sector borrow guns from the Malian army for weapons- Despite the fact that state-run primary schools do with a business-as-usual approach.” training, said leaders at FLN camp just outside ofnot charge fees and many provide free textbooks, PETF reckons the economic cost to Pakistan of Mopti. The government promised food, equipmentother expenses (such as stationery, uniforms and not educating its people effectively translates into and funding but it never materialized, so trainerstransportation) mean that for many poor families, hundreds of millions of dollars in lost productivity. rely on handouts from the local population to getschools are unaffordable. by. “It became quite popular and many parents who None of the youths IRIN spoke to had eatencouldn’t afford a meal - forget education - would A success story more than one meal of rice per day.send their children to my little school in the Many of those who have finished Ayub’s informal One of the drivers behind a military coup thatevenings,” Ayub said. school in Islamabad have gone on to complete high ousted President Amadou Toumani Touré in March The school, which relies on volunteers and school and college, and today have jobs they could was the long-term neglect and marginalization ofdonations, is one of dozens of informal institutions never have dreamed of. Ayub estimates that 20 the Malian army, which needed more manpower,in the capital which are helping to educate children. percent of the students finish grade 10, with around weaponry and better training to take on Islamists in Pakistan has made limited progress in improving 10 percent going on to complete degrees at colleges. the north. In what Reuters described as athe quality and reach of its education system, and Many, like Yasmin Nawaz, a 30-year-old mother of “spectacular own goal” the political havoc in themillions of children are missing out on schooling three who graduated from the school in 1994, south was a contributing factor to Tuareg rebelsaltogether in what the governments of Pakistan and became teachers themselves. and Islamist groups taking control in the north.the UK have termed an “education emergency”. “I finished middle school, grade 8. My parents Tall hopes to join the army when she Despite making education a fundamental couldn’t afford to send me to high school, but “graduates” but Mohammad Maiga, a formerconstitutional right in 2010, Pakistan has no chance Master Ayub said I must,” Nawaz said. “He paid for soldier who directs one of the camps, said heof fulfilling its Millennium Development Goal of my textbooks and my exam registration fee, and in knows recruits will not be accepted as they areachieving universal education by 2015. return, I taught here at the school. I then taught under-age. Over seven million primary-aged children do not elsewhere as well.” Mali is a party to the Convention of the Rights Despite the clear return on this investment and of the Child and its Optional Protocol, barring recruitment of children under 18. Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 6
  • 7. News Analysis Global SouthPakistan’s pledge to spend at least 4 percent of its “After I study here, I understand my lessonsGDP on education, that figure has been decreasing. really well. I don’t forget and do well in tests,”Education spending today stands at less than 1.5 Samuel said.percent of Pakistan’s GDP, according PETF. “The government recognized this problem early Lack of resources not the only problemon. We’ve been working hard, on our own and with Meanwhile, Ayub says: “Do I think theour major partners, especially the British education system in Pakistan has let the children ofgovernment, to improve the situation,” Ali said. this country down? Sure… But the reason for that“Much more needs to be done but the government is not lack of resources. If resources were an issue,has taken some significant decisions and where did they get money for all these schoolimplemented them too.” buildings where teachers don’t teach… There’s just MBABANE, September 2012- The practice of men These efforts include investments in teacher no will to improve the situation.” marrying underage girls - which has been antraining, infrastructure and providing textbooks to Experts agree that just throwing money at the accepted social norm for centuries but has beenstudents, but it is not merely a matter of getting problem will not solve it, and that policy and linked in recent years to the spread of HIV - waschildren into school. The quality of their education governance are issues that have to be dealt with at recently declared illegal in Swaziland.also needs to be addressed, analysts say. the same time to achieve any lasting results. Known in SiSwati as ‘kwendizisa’, the marriage “One of the solutions you hear to the problems “Money is one of the main issues, but there is a of an adult man to an underage girl was consideredin Pakistan’s education sector is for the private problem with how policies are made. And they are a legal “grey area” prior to the promulgation of thesector to step up and fill the gap,” Abbas Rashid, constantly changed, not using the research that has Children’s Protection and Welfare Act of 2012.executive director of the independent Society for been carried out on the sector,” said Fareeha Zafar, According to the 2005 Swaziland constitution,the Advancement of Education, told IRIN. an independent education expert. some customary practices are allowed unless they“Around 30 percent of students are attending conflict with constitutional clauses.private schools, but what kind of education are “Swazi men marrying girls once the girls enterthey getting?” Accountability puberty is not a customary law. It is not mandatory. “There is the issue of governance, there are no It is tolerated because it has always been done. ButPoor quality accountability mechanisms. For example, even if times are changing, and Swaziland has the highestPrivate schools, analysts say, are preferred by you do have sufficient teachers - which we don’t - HIV prevalence rate in the world. This practice hasparents over government schools, despite the if they are not in school, it is not possible to added to the spread of HIV. It is a great victory forhigher fees, but the quality of education at these achieve anything.” public health and for the rights of girl children thatschools is often only marginally better. “The issue Achievement in(LearningSchools) project and The LEAPS Pakistan and Educational this outmoded practice must now end,” AIDSis: better does not necessarily mean adequate,” said PETF estimate that teachers in government activist Sandra Kunene told PlusNews.Rashid. Married adolescents are at greater risk of HIV According to the 2011 Annual State of schools, despite being paid more than their private infection because many of them are in polygamousEducation Report (ASER) compiled by the South sector counterparts and having time. Government unions, face sexual violence or are unable to are not present one-fifth of the greater job security,Asian Forum for Education Development, 45 negotiate safe sex. The girls also tend to have littlepercent of grade 5 students in public schools can schoolaction to protect themselves.connections and contact with their peers, restricted social mobility, union teachers often use politicalonly read a grade 2-level story in Urdu. The low levels of education and limited access to medianumber is only slightly better in private schools - not“Even if a senior officer attending teacher that is and health messages. performing or not even reports a school, it is57 percent. very difficult to take action because they will That parents are concerned about quality is involve the unions or go to an MNA [member ofreflected by the fact that many of the students at the National Assembly],” said Zafar.Mohammed Ayub’s school attend government “Even if you get that [teacher accountability],schools in the morning. Seven-year-old RimshaSamuel goes to a government primary school in the the all of this needs to be of textbooks,not an issue. quality of education, ismorning, and after lunch, heads to Ayub’s school Sospent on education, butconsidered, just what is how.” (IRIN)for further classes.BANGKOK, October 2012- Food losses in edible wasted food to people; turning it intoAsia due to disasters or poor storage, packing energy and agriculture inputs; andand delivery are set to worsen, and developing new technology to separate food KATHMANDU,September 2012governments are ill-prepared to stem the waste from other rubbish. Policymakers need Government oversight is preventing localwastage, according experts recently to take a “total supply chain approach” or communities from reaping economic benefitsconvened by the Centre for Non-Traditional else risk breaking Southeast Asia’s fragile from forests they have spent decades re-Security Studies in Singapore. food system, said the experts. generating, activists say. Possible solutions include redistributing “It is likely that the region wastes Communities “cannot make [the] best use approximately 33 percent of their available resources because of the of food, but accurate restrictions imposed and a complicated estimates are not available process of getting approval for harvesting of due to a dearth of any timber and non-timber forest products,” quantitative information.” Ganga Ram Dahal of the Rights and Increasing urbanization Resources Initiative (RRI), a global coalition means food will tend to promoting forest land tenure reform, told travel farther, something IRIN. that could exacerbate the The challenge is“safeguarding the rights” food waste problem. of communities, Bharat Pokharel, forester Governments need to better and deputy country programme director in fund the tracking of food Nepal for the Swiss development agency waste (especially fish, Helvetas, explained at a recent regional vegetables and rice), they workshop on forestland tenure held in the said. capital, Kathmandu.Today, community forestry covers 1.6 million hectares, or a quarter of all forestland in Nepal. Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 7
  • 8. Photo Essay Aftermath of a warNicaragua is the second poorest By DIEGO CUPOLOcountry in the western hemisphere. The Text & Photosgoverning political party, FrenteSandinista de Liberación Nacional(FSLN), was brought to power afteroverthrowing longtime dictatorAnastasio Somoza in the 1979revolution. In the 1980s, the FSLN beganimplementing social programs aimedat reducing illiteracy and hunger, butwas soon forced to divert scantresources to fight Contra Wars againstU.S.-armed militias, which werenotably composed with Somoza’sformer guardsmen. Today, the nation is still recoveringfrom decades of violence and manyresidents, known as “Nicas”, lack basicfood items as they watch local cropsget shipped overseas. The following isa compilation of thoughts andconversations from the rural areas inthe northern Nicaragua one monthbefore the 2011 elections.Corinas story help farmers. We spent four days in a tunnel once. But we weren’t allowed to do that.During the war, the Sandinistas used Señor Reagan started the Contra War afterunderground tunnels to get from one house Somoza fell. He armed Somoza’s formerto another. It was a good way to trick military men, trained them in Honduras, andSomoza’s men and escape. there were always battles near the border. At one point they were bombing Esteli. It was a very hard time. "Now we’re back inThe military was all over the city. Soldiers The U.S. put an embargo on us, just like power. We havewould radio each other before bombing raids the one in Cuba, and they didn’t stop it until Daniel. He’s not soand say “take cover, we’re going to drop the FSLN lost power in 1990.candy.” Now we’re back in power. We have Daniel. great, but we don’t Twenty of us had to stay in a small tunnelfor four days during a period of very heavy He’s not so great, but we don’t have a better choice. He’s the least evil of our choices. have a better choice.bombing. I was the only one that would go Who else am I going to vote for? The Reds? He’s the least evil ofout in the street to see what was happening. I’m Sandinista. our choices. Who elseHow did we eat? We didn’t eat, it’s that It’s been hard ever since the revolution, am I going to votesimple. We had one bucket for piss and that sure. We’re in a transitional faze. I guess it’swas it. normal. for? The Reds?" The war was terrible, but it felt good to But the worst part, the absolute worstfight for something we believed in. I was a part about everything I’ve experienced innurse through most of the revolution. We my life is how the U.S. always gets involvedwent out in the mountains and gave aid to in our lives. They never leave us alone. Theyguerrillas in their camps. After the war I was want to control the world and here, in poora teacher in Esteli. We won the war and our little Central America, they really show it.main goals were to educate the poor and It’s like we’re their children. Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 8
  • 9. Photo Essay Aftermath of a war El Viejito “He’s waiting to die,” she said. “He’s lived more than a hundred years and he lost his vision three months ago.” “He worked hard all his life. He was a tough man, but now he just stays in his room all day because he doesn’t want anyone to see him so old and so blind.” “He says he doesn’t like being with people anymore because he can’t see them. It makes him uncomfortable.” “He’s funny, though. Last night he was yelling for me to make him coffee. It was four in morning. He can’t see so he doesn’t know what time it is anymore. Night and day are the same for him.” “You know, he met Sandino in person when he was a teenager. After that, he went on to do a lot of work for the FSLN.” “Is he dead yet?” A voice asked from the kitchen. “No, I checked on him this morning, but maybe he’s dead now.”Javier stay in power. Not many people will speak badly help from Chavez lately, but he’s the same. ChavezNo, I’m not voting in the elections. about them. It’s dangerous to speak against them. yells and screams about U.S. imperialism, but inI already know who’s going to win. They don’t kill you or torture you like Somoza, but the end, he sells most ofVenezuela’s oil to the U.S.Daniel. they’ll ruin your life. It’s the same story in every Latin American There’s no real opposition and the FSLN has all You know, they have offices in every town country. We seem to copy each other, dictators andthe money. It’s corruption. where they give you a special document saying all.Let me give you an example. We have special you’re a Sandinista. If you’re against any of their Me, I just want to make a little money andofficers that count the votes in every election. policies they take this document away from you support my family.Normally, each party has their own officer, but all and this is important because most places require it It’s hard living here on the farm. We loose a lotof the officers are now part of the FSLN. Basically, when they hire you. of money and we don’t even have enough peoplewe have people counting votes for the parties Daniel is looking more like a dictator every to work the land anymore. Everyone’s moving tothey’re running against. year. the cities thinking they’ll have better lives, but they People know our government is corrupt, but It’s a shame really. The FSLN started with good just find more problems. You have to buythey don’t do anything about it. They think intentions: help the poor, vaccinations, health everything in the city and most of it’s purechanging our politics means another war so they services, education in rural areas. Now things garbage.don’t complain much. With the revolution not so changed. We’re not getting anywhere. I don’t know what to do, really. I feel stuck.far in the past, most people just want peace. Daniel always criticizes the U.S. in his speeches, Maybe something will change later, but for nowThe FSLN knows this and it’s part of how they but then he signs trade deals with them when he we have Daniel and Daniel promises everything gets back to his office. We’ve been getting more anddeliverslittle. "People know our government is corrupt, but they don’t do anything about it. They think changing our politics means another war so they don’t complain much. With the revolution not so far in the past, most people just want peace" Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 9
  • 10. Photo Essay Aftermath of a warDoña Maria We couldn’t come back home until the late 80s. Fifteen years after weThe war was horrible. We never had ran away. When we arrived the FSLNenough to eat. had stolen parts of my father’s landIt was worse for the children though. and gave it to other people. It wasThey suffered the most. Children and part of their anti-poverty campaign.old people. Anyone who couldn’t run But we were lucky. We got to keepfast enough. This was my family’s land, but we most of our land. Other people came "The war was horrible. Wehad to move to Managua during the back and found new families living in their houses. I knew a woman, the never had enough to eat.war. It was too dangerous here nearthe border. There were troops FSLN took her house and she had to It was worse for the childreneverywhere. They passed by every move to Canada as a refugee. She had three children up there and stayed though. They suffered theday. They’d take people away and wewouldn’t see them again. there. I guess she’s doing well. most. Children and oldWhat happened to them? They killed Us, we have to stay here. This land is what we have. It’s not good land people. Anyone who couldn’tthem of course. They killed mymother. and not much can grow in it, but it’s ours. We grow coffee. That’s what we run fast enough" That’s what they did. It was worse do.during the Contra War. They came to At least we have peace now. That’spoor villages on purpose. They knew all I want.no one would notice. No one was Do you want something to eat?watching. They did what they wanted I get worried when you don’t eat.to us. Silcreation offers a range of free distance learning courses every year. For 2012 and 2013, we are offering an exciting course: Want to apply? Keep checking silcreation.org/distancelearning Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 1 0
  • 11. Cover Story Development Inspirations 201 2Initiatives and People Inspiring Action and PromotingSustainable Development from Around the World Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 11
  • 12. Cover Story Development Inspirations 201 2 By IOULIA FENTON GSDM Assistant EditorI tend to get pretty depressed after readingmany economic, international development and Doctrine—a carefully researched and documented behind-the-closed-doors story of is a revelation of practical action that "throughenvironmental books—factual, fiction or how American “free-market” policies have individuals and serendipity moreotherwise. If you do not know what I mean, I come to dominate the world through communities—inclu than plan, I beganhighly recommend reading Daniel Quinn’s exploitation of disaster-shocked peoples and ding children and to slowly see1992 novel Ishmael. Set up as a conversation countries—had a similar, sinking effect. I youths—are makingbetween a teacher and student, where the simply felt powerless to be able to affect a in their fight for a things differently.former happens to be a hyper-intelligent,talking Guerrilla, the book slowly takes the change when so many of the world’s inequalities and injustices seemed to be better world. My most recent Living andreader through environmental philosophy purposely orchestrated by a powerful few that foray into Fred working inreasons for how we have managed to get are unreachable to so many of us. Magdoff’s and John differentourselves into the present day environmentalmess. Upon turning over the last page I felt And there are many more book examples like that—all with one thing in common: I felt Bellamy Foster’s 2011 What Every countries likeempty and angry at everyone, especially worse than before and immobilised after Environmentalist Bolivia, Thailand,myself. Being on vacation in El Salvador and reading them: I had no idea where to start. Needs to Know Nicaragua andstaying in an air-conditioned hotel room with Then, through serendipity more than plan, I About Capitalism Guatemala, foran outdoor pool, which already felt pretty began to slowly see things differently. Living also surprised me as,uncomfortable, all of a sudden felt like a and working in different countries like Bolivia, after a long example, I sawridiculous extravagance that was killing the Thailand, Nicaragua and Guatemala, for description of how many hardships,planet. I immediately understood why one example, I saw many hardships, but also many things have gonereviewer had said: “From now on I will divide small victories that ordinary people were wrong, the book but also manythe books I have read into two categories -- the winning by improving their lives and the lives ends with a long small victoriesones I read before Ishmael and those readafter.” of others. The sheer passions and determination that Edwin showed—a gentle giant of a man, chapter on what activists, academics, that ordinary The simple lack of available information or an artist and a teacher who found a dream job policy makers and people weretransparency around the use and effects ofchemicals in every product that surrounds our working for an educational NGO in Guatemala—was simply inspiring. He worked normal people should and can winning bylives—as well as more blatant and grievous long hours and weekends, through harsh demand to help improving theirreleases of chemicals into the environment by weather,illness and personal trauma, not change things lives and the livesarmy weapons testing and otherindustries—exposed by Yale Professor John because he has to got to work, but because he wants to help his indigenous Maya community. around. As I began to get of others"Wargo in his 2011 book Green Intelligence left My recent involvement with Worldwatch more and moreme feeling paralysed. The massive private Institute’s Nourishing the Planet project was inspired, the wordsefforts to shut the public out and the inadequate also enlightening. Recognising that the current ofpolicies and regulations in place to hold global systems are not sustainable and are, in Ghandi—recounted to me by a closebusinesses responsible for polluting the fact, destroying people and the planet, it friend—really helped put things in perspective.environment and human beings to the point of highlights individuals, initiatives and “Be the change you want to see,” he said when,disease and death was devastating—I just had organizations that are striving to make a in turn, quoting his own grandfather. So I haveno idea what I could do. difference. The projects are often small, started decided to make a pledge to no longer be The 2004 Confessions of an Economic Hit on someone’s spare time, with little funding inactive or feel paralysed because the size ofMan was one of only two books that ever made but a ton of commitment, enthusiasm and the problem seems too big for me to make ame literally weep upon finishing it. I remember heart. Yet, they are making huge differences in difference. We can all make small changes and,the moment vividly as I shrank deep into my people’s lives and in improving the as part of the GSDM inspiration issue, I pledgelong-haul flight airplane seat and quietly environment. to do everything I can—within the time that Isobbed on my route to do fieldwork in I also began reading books and works with can spare and within the confines of theGuatemala. The book is a personal life history the objective of looking not only for problems, changes that I can realistically make—to makeexposé by John Hopkins that claims that he, but good, practical suggestions on how to solve sure that my life reflects my ideals as much asand many people like him, were used to them. For this issue I reviewed Ecoliterate: possible. I will carry a thermos flask to makeconvince the political and financial leadership How Educators Are Cultivating Emotional, sure I never buy a bottle of water or take myof underdeveloped countries (often using false Social and Ecological Intelligence, written by coffee to go in a throwaway paper cup. I willprojections) to accept enormous development Daniel Goleman, Lisa Bennet and Zenobia carry a reusable shopping bag to make sure Iloans from institutions like the World Bank and Barlow of the Center for Ecoliteracy. It tells never use a plastic one. I will not buy clothesUSAID that saddled them with an impossible eight stories that start by outlining problems of unless I absolutely need them and I know thatdebt and perpetual under-development—while injustice, corruption and pollution that pertain they are sourced and made responsibly. And,the developing countries had to pay back loans to such things as the awfully destructive locally, I will work to improve my communitywith interest to U.S.-dominated institutions, mountaintop mining; poverty and unfairness in and be a greater advocate for sustainability,they were contractually obligated to use U.S. distribution of resources and quality of social justice and the future of humanity. Joinfirms for the projects that were the purposes of education in schools; and environmental and us, feel inspired and feel empowered to make athe loans to begin with, thus making sure that social destruction of oil drilling in indigenous change. After all, as the zen saying goes:internal development would not, in fact, occur. people’s traditional home environments. Yet, “Happiness if when what you think, say and do Naomi Klein’s 2008 The Shock the bad news only sets the scene and the book are in harmony.” Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 1 2
  • 13. Cover Story Development Inspirations 201 2By IOULIA FENTON & ADAM NELSONThe world’s global food and additional people, while one billion ofagriculture system is not working. On their neighbors in the South face "Although thethe one end, the Green Revolution hasconverted much farmland into crippling problems of severe under- nutrition. The problem is complicated situation may seemindustrial agricultural production that by the fact that—as a result of an dire, there isuses man-made chemical pesticidesand fertilizers instead of methods that industrial food business system geared towards longer shelf-life and bigger something thatare more harmonious with nature. This sales and due to poor policy and everyone can do tohas led to the loss of biodiversity astillage and use of pesticides have killed individual decisions—much of the food that does reach both rich and poor make a difference.off or deterred other plant and animal consumers is highly processed and Fortunately,species. It has also helped fuel climatechange as more and more forests are loaded with salt, sugars, and fats, while lacking even the basic nutrients. individuals,cut down for conversion to agriculture, This has led to widespread obesity communities, andwhile chemical pollution has furthered throughout advanced and developing organizations aroundair, water, and land pollution. It hasalso led to the sprouting of a multi nations and more deaths are now attributed to related non-communicable the world are takingbillion dollar a year genetically diseases—heart attacks, type 2 action—big andmodified crops industry with plantsengineered in genetics labs to be diabetes, osteoporosis, and the like—worldwide than to any other small—to addresscompatible only with certain cause. different challengescompanies’ chemical agriculturalinputs. Far from delivering the Although the situation may seem dire, there is something that everyone along the food andpromised gains in yields and greater can do to make a difference. agriculture chain. Asincomes for developing countryfarmers, it has led to pesticide Fortunately, individuals, communities, and organizations around the world are part of the inspirationdependency and spiraling cycles of taking action—big and small—to issue, we bring you 12debt and death as smallholders fail tokeep up (see GSDM April 2012 issue address different challenges along the food and agriculture chain. As part of tales of such nuggetson Farmer Suicides in India for more the inspiration issue, we bring you 12 of positivity that provedetails). tales of such nuggets of positivity that that the scale of the On the other end of the system,every year the world produces enough prove that the scale of the problem need not cause depression, paralysis, problem need notfood to adequately feed and nurture and inaction. Rather, that taking on cause depression,every human being on the planet. Yet,already huge disparities in access keep smaller, focused chunks of the issue can lead to impressive results and real paralysis, andgrowing as advanced nations waste impact on the health and lives of inaction"enough food to feed three billion others. Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 1 3
  • 14. Cover Story Development Inspirations 201 2 funding from the Johannesburg Development Agency (JDA) to create the first garden on a building rooftop donated by the city’s Affordable Housing Tlhago Cooperative’s Rooftop Harvest (Photo Credit: Tshediso Company (Afcho). The organization’s goal is to languages and so far, through tackle climate change (CC) by outreach and educational activities, it educating youth and community has transferred urban gardeningTlhago means nature in Afrikaans. members about its causes and skills to more than 100 people fromAnd it is nature that the Tlhago effects. It also teaches them how local communities. Since itsPrimary Agricultural Cooperative urban gardening can be part of the conception in July 2010, thehas brought to the roof-scape of solution to environmental problems, cooperative’s six organizers haveJohannesburg, South Africa. The while minimizing unemployment, planted two rooftop gardens at theproject was started in 2010 by poverty, and malnutrition. heart of the metropolis and theyTshediso Phahlane and his The cooperative does much of its dream of one day greening the entireenthusiastic team-mates by securing teaching in the communities’ own metropolis. Sustaination, organic baby PepsiCo U.K. is working towards a truly sustainable business model thanks to the or individual problems, but, in fact, work ofForum for the Future (Photo Credit: Forum for the Future) food producer Ella’s represent significant risk factors asForum for the Future—a global Kitchen, and Fair Trade-focused far as profitability and viability ofindependent non-profit that seeks Cafédirect—to help them see the PepsiCo itself.system-wide solutions to global world differently. The There is a big difference betweenchallenges—believes that, by PepsiCo Global Scenarios and being a little greener and being trulyfundamentally changing their Strategy 2030 project, for example, sustainable, and the ultimate visionoperating models, businesses can be included interviews with more than of the Forum is to help companiesthe key to future sustainability. They 100 experts from within and outside become the latter. For example, onework with major and smaller the industry and a series of of the Forum’s pioneer partnersindustry players—like PepsiCo, workshops to engage key people Kingfisher—a non-food retailer thatTarget, Unilever, supermarket chains across the business. It illustrated to sells things like lawnmowers andMarks and Spencer and Tesco, and leaders that things like obesity and paint—has developed a vision ofsmaller, dynamic enterprises like the climate change are not merely public becoming a net-positive company infarmer’s networking platform sources of healthy food options. Chicago’s West side. The bus has Their vehicle of choice? A converted been converted with multiple vertical city bus operating as a mobile rows of fruit, vegetable, and greens- greengrocer’s. filled greengrocer baskets on the inside (over 40 different products in total) and painted in crimson-red with ripe bananas, carrots,Sheelah Muhammad is the co- and watermelons on thefounder of Fresh Moves—a project outside. The produceworking for food justice in offered is as seasonal andChicago’s poorest areas. The local as possible—theorganization employs five people project sources goods fromfrom the communities in which they Chicago’s urbanoperate—prioritizing difficult-to- agriculture initiatives, suchemploy individuals who struggle to Today, under the slogan “No more Growing Power, andCity Harvest and as Windy The Fresh Moves Bus (Photo Credit: Fresh Moves)find work elsewhere—to bring fresh food deserts. The drought is over!” African-American farmers outside supportsfruit and vegetables to communities Fresh Moves operates a weekly route the city.that lack greengrocers or other stopping in 12 different locations in Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 1 4
  • 15. Cover Story Development Inspirations 201 2 curriculum is implemented in the Ak’Tenamit boarding school, serving as an academy and practical training village. It houses an on-site restaurant and handicraft shop where students from hundreds of differentSteve Dudenhoefer is the founder rural communities receive some ofofAk’Tenamit, an indigenous-run their 3,000 hours of practical trainingnon-governmental organization in leadership, sustainable tourism,(NGO) in Guatemala. They sustainable agriculture, andrecognized early that the country’s community well-being, instead ofeducation system was de-linked training as accountants orfrom the potential job market and secretaries. Students also learnover the years have developed Ak’Tenamit’s 2010 Graduates (Photo Credit: Ak’Tenamit) about, preserve, and identify withtheir own methodology providing their Mayan language and culture,appropriate vocational training for their communities and generators of something that has been activelyindigenous boys and girls from rural their own wealth. Set in a remote suppressed throughout much ofareas to become future leaders in location on the Rio Dulce, the Guatemalan history. something about that. Initially going out alone, under the cover of darkness, he began to slowly flat in a large, grey, and secretly 1970s purpose-built, ex- reclaim the darkest of spaces by council authority block. planting grasses, shrubs, and flowers Unfortunately, as with on abandoned grim lots. most cities around the world, this relative He called it Guerilla Gardening, affordability comes at a blogged about it, and soon found that price—the surroundings he was not alone—at the last count tend to be as grey as the of his followers, there were more buildings themselves. than 83,000 gardening guerillas As a frustrated gardener around the globe causing gorgeous who grew up in the green havoc with nothing but green Richard Reynolds: Advertiser by Day, Guerrilla Gardener by Night (Photo Credit: Richard Reynolds)Richard Reynolds lives in a countryside, he decided to do fingers, a handful of seeds, clippers,relatively cheap, small, inner city and spades.In the Mukono District of Uganda, childDeveloping Innovations in School malnutritionCultivation (DISC) has set out to in the village.educate the next generation in hopes DISC Project DISC is helping to improve health and nutrition ofentire communities in Uganda. (Photo Credit: Project DISC)of continuing Uganda’s agriculturaland culinary traditions. At Kisoga coordinators, Edward Mukiibi and resort, but are starting to see it as aSecondary School in Kampala Roger Sserunjogi, have also been viable alternative with which tostudents are being taught to manage improving young students’ views make money and assist theira sustainable school garden that towards agriculture. Due to their communities. With recent supportproduces fresh fruits and vegetables. work in reversing stereotypes, form Slow Food International, DISCFood from the garden, served at students no longer see agriculture as has expanded its original program tolunch, has significantly decreased a burden, punishment, or a last 15 other schools. Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 1 5
  • 16. Cover Story Development Inspirations 201 2 the aguadas, filtered for consumption with connecting silting tanks, they represent a manageable way to provide water for agricultural, drinking, and other needs. Now Dr. Akpinar Ferrand hasThe borders and teamed up withsurrounding regions of ethnographer Dr.Mexico, Guatemala, and Betty Faust on anBelize were once home to appliedmillions of people who project—reconstrumanaged to thrive despite cting an ancientthe area’s poor soils, canal irrigationclimate variability, and system with raisedpronounced wet and dry agricultural fieldsseasons. To this day, the to help thearea has never been struggling Mayanoccupied to the same farminglevels, partly because community ofmodern technology has not Pich, a village ofbeen able to practically 2,000 inhabitantsresolve these problems. In in the state ofan attempt to find a Campeche, Mexico. If Ancient Mayan sites like Tikal in Guatemala hold technological secrets that could help solve today’s problems. (Photo Credit: Ioulia Fenton)solution, Dr. Ezgi Akpinar made ponds called aguadas—that successfully reconstructed, thisFerrand—a Turkish researcher were lined with locally-sourced system would help nourish theworking at Southern Connecticut natural materials such as surrounding land, increase incomeState University—started conducting impermeable clay, plaster, and and water security, and be a modelresearch on a relatively simple stone—as an alternative to moreancient Mayan system of human- modern agricultural practices. With for other populations living in the plentiful water reserves collected in area. Popkin launched the U.S Beverage Guidance Panel, which successfully brought the discussion over the problem of sugary intake to nutritionists and policy makers in the U.S and around the world. He has gone on to contribute significantly toFollowing in the footsteps of the Mexican Beverageadvanced nations, much of the Guidance Panel, too,developing world is which eventually led toundergoing the nutrition 20 million people ontransition—rapid changes in government-funded foodthe types of foods that are programs to switch fromavailable and consumed that whole milk to 1.5lead to diets shifting from percent milk and totraditional plant-based and schools cutting outhome-cooked foods to meat- sugary beverages. Toderived and processed help governmentsproducts. This is accompanied measure the impact ofby an epidemiological the problem, Dr. Popkin Professor Barry Popkins has been dubbed the “Nutrition Transition King” for his work in food and health research and policy.transition from infectious to (Photo Credit: UNC) has conducted Nationalchronic, non-communicable diseases like theNutrition at theProfessor ofof Health and Nutrition Surveys in Global distinguished Universitysuch as obesity, diabetes, and North Carolina’s School of Public China, the Philippines, while also and thecardiovascular disease, which are Health, Dr. Barry Popkin, the United Arab Emirates,now killing more of the world’s solution lies in changing public advising decision-makers on nationalpeople than anything else. healthy food and drink policies and One culprit is the growth of the policies to make healthier options programs in South Africa, Spain, andsugary drinks industry, and for many, more widely available and easily accessible to the public. In 2006, the United Kingdom. Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 1 6
  • 17. Cover Story Development Inspirations 201 2 addres sing the issue bySahel Eco is a non-profit continuing the work oforganization helping to improve the SOS Sahel Internationallives of those living in Mali’s desert UK. Members of Saheland semi-desert regions. Eco are showing farmersDesertification due to deforestation that proper treerepresents the biggest threat to management will protectMalian lifestyle, where 70 per cent soils and provideof the population lives on less than a economic benefits Sahel Eco is helping farmers re-green dessert soils (Photo Credit: Sahel Eco).dollar a day and depends heavily on through timber, fuel, forests, Sahel Eco has been buildingrainfall to water their fields and animal feed, fruits, herbal medicines, support for and improving localanimals. Working predominately in and even raw material for mats, knowledge of tree management tothe Mopti, Segou, and Koulikoro baskets, and hats. Through dramatically impact the encroachingregions of Mali, the organization is demonstrating the benefits of agro- desertification in Mali. urine. Then, a series capacity. This, in return, means of filtration systems Sakthivel spends less time and effort separates solid matter, re-working soils hardened by which is used for Mr. Sakthivel is turning animal dung into organic fertilizer gold (Photo Credit: The Hindu) chemical fertilizers, while increasingG. R. Sakthivel, an Indian sugarcane biogas production. his income. The system has thefarmer and a member of Erode’s The remaining nitrate-rich, organic potential to save farmers up toorganic farmers’ federation, has liquid is used as fertilizer and Rs.27,000 (about $500) per acre anddeveloped an ingenious way to filter dispersed through a drip irrigation promises to work for other crops,cattle waste to create higher system. The natural fertilizer not too. Already ten sugarcane farmerssugarcane yields while decreasing only increases yields, but also have adopted the system in thehis labor input. The system first increases the presence of earthworms Sathyamangalam region and otherscollects and mixes cattle dung and and the soil’s water-retaining are following suit with great results.Though generally not consumed by valuablemodern populations, the Maya Nut shade andhas historically been a vital and protectionnutritious staple of the Central from rainAmerican Maya. Incredibly andnutritious, it is high in calcium, fiber, erosion alliron, folate, potassium, antioxidants, yearand can be eaten by both people and around.livestock. It also provides many Now,ecosystem services to rainforests and with thepeople—it protects watersheds and help of thebiodiversity and the Maya Nut tree is Maya Nut The Maya Nut is transforming people’s livelihoods and benefiting the environment all across Central America. (Photo Credit: Maya Nut Institute) prepare the nut to produce savoryperfect for reforestation by providing Institute—which teaches rural and sweet foods, drinks, baked communities over 100 ways to Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 1 7
  • 18. Cover Story Development Inspirations 201 2goods, sauces, and condiments that communities across Guatemala, impacts on the lives of women too.they can consume or sell—it is also a Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Since its conception, 17,000 womenvaluable source of income to and Mexico. have been trained resulting in theindigenous populations across By running workshops on how to establishment of 20 separate woman-Central America. To date, the cook and market their own goods, run businesses that produce andinstitute has reached over 1,200 the institute has made considerable market Maya Nut products across agricultural lands becoming less productive due to salinization, HEALTH: New Lawton has provided a system that not only restores soil TB vaccine nutrients, but one that is also economically and on theFounder of the PermacultureResearch Institute ofAustralia, environmentally beneficial. From innovations that work at horizonGeoff Lawton, has embarked on a the local community levels tonew mission to regreen the those helping change howJordanian desert. For the task, he businesses operate and thehas developed a basic system of policies that shape ourpermaculture—a philosophy of environment, the world is full ofworking with, rather than against inspiring examples that show thatnature in all human everyone can do something toendeavors—he calls an “anti- make a difference. We thankevaporation” design. The system guerilla gardener Richard Reynolds in London, rooftop LONDON, October 2012 - A research climate change team at Oxford University in the UK is very close to determining the efficacy of changer Tshediso their new tuberculosis (TB) vaccine. If Phahlane in South current clinical trials are successful, it will Africa, youth be the first new TB vaccine in almost a century. engagers Edward The urgent need for a new vaccine is Mukiibi and Roger emphasised by research showing that Sserunjogi in extensively drug-resistant (XDR) forms of Uganda, organic the disease are rapidly spreading. Today, most babies in the world are waste-filterer Mr. immunized with the old Bacille Calmette- Sakthivel in India, Guerin (BCG) vaccine, first used in 1921. the global food The leader of the Oxford research team, Helen McShane, says it saves childrens policy fighter BarryThe Jordan demonstration site is showing hundreds offarmers how to re-green the dessert. (Photo Credit: lives, but beyond infancy its effects are Popkins, andPermaculture Research Institute) limited. everyone else for "We know that when BCG is given atrestores the productivity of the their continuous efforts in making birth, it does work well to protect against tubercular meningitis and theSahel dessert soils that are too the world’s food and agriculture disseminated disease that has spreadhigh in salt content for system more productive, outside the lungs… What we also know isagricultural production; it utilizes healthful, and environmentally that BCG is very variable in protectingmulching, compost beds, and sustainable. against lung disease, which is where the burden of the disease is, particularly insunken, shaded garden beds to adults and adolescents,” she said.increase organic matter while Ioulia Fenton leads the food and Oxford’s vaccine, known as MVA85A,reducing salt buildups. agriculture research stream at the is designed to boost the effects of BCG. By using a 3,000 square meter Center for Economic and “Its that efficacy against severe disease which is the rationale behind keepingdemonstration site in Jordan, Environmental Modeling and BCG and making it better,” McShaneLawton has been able to show Analysis (CEEMA) at the Institute said. Clinical trials are taking place inlocals how to work and practice ofAdvanced Development Studies South Africa, following 3,000 babies, allhis anti-evaporation system. By (INESAD) in La Paz, Bolivia. of whom received BCG; half of them also received the new booster vaccine. Trialsdoing so, he is restoring the soils Adam Nelson is a research and of the vaccine’s effectiveness in adults arefertility and turning the Jordanian communications intern with taking place in both South Africa anddesert back into an oasis. With INESAD. Senegal, with results expected in the first quarter of 2013. (PlusNews) Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 1 8
  • 19. Book Review Development Inspirations 201 2 Ecoliterate inspires practical action towards sustainability IOULIA FENTON GSDM Assistant EditorOne of the hardest things to do for 2,000 miles of streams since the 1980s.anyone interested in issues of The far-reaching, invisible effects of theenvironmental sustainability is to mining were made visible to a group oftranslate ideas and complaints into students from Spartanburg Day School,practical, positive, change-making South Carolina. The kids went on aaction. For those who try to teach the “Power Trip” to Kentucky. Thenext generation of environmental and excursion contrasted an on-the-groundsocial leaders in schools, in visit to a largely undisturbed, lusciouslycommunities, or even online, this is even green part of the mountain range with anmore important—merely talking about airborne view of fractured earth andproblems is likely to inspire only the sludge ponds of the heavily mined Blackstudents’ depression and frustration at Mountain. The children felt such a stronglack of solutions. Luckily, Ecoliterate, a emotional response from an innatenew book by psychologist Daniel empathy with the natural world that theyGoleman and Lisa Bennett and Zenobia were propelled into a range of practicalBarlow of the Center of Ecoliteracy—an actions, including publishing stories inorganization that supports and advances local media and starting school andeducation for sustainable living—is a community-based environmental clubs.deep well of ideas for those seeking The third story tells the tale of theinspiration. Gwich’in people’s resistance to oil The book is based on the premise that drilling in Alaska—an intrusive practicebeing successful at any endeavour that threatens to destroy the environmentrequires more than a good IQ. Drawing and their very way of life. Image Credit: Center for Ecoliteracy)on co-author Goleman’s seminal books, The fourth narrative talks about Kids A woman in the village ofEmotional Intelligence and Social Rethink New Orleans, a student Njama in KailahunIntelligence, it explores the importance organization that is fundamentally District, Sierra Leoneof developing the ability to manage one’s reshaping schools’ lunches,own emotions and maintain goodrelationships with others. It describes environments, and general sustainability for the better. "Ecoliterate is a very timelythese capacities as key to improved Next, the reader is introduced to Dr. contribution to a growing movementacademic success and the cultivation ofecoliteracy, which is the understanding Aaron Wolf whose research into cross- border management of common water that is aiming to secure a sustainableand caring about the connectionsbetween humans and other aspects of the resources, such as rivers and lakes, has shown that cooperation is best achieved future for upcoming generations "natural environment. when emotional, ecological, and even The authors also introduce five spiritual dimensions of importance ofecoliterate practices: different parties are addressed.1. Developing empathy with all forms oflife by recognizing that human being are Then the story of the Students and Teachers Restoring a Watershed "The book is based on the premise thatnot separate to the rest of nature.2. Embracing sustainability as a (STRAW) program illustrates how, through emotional, social, and ecological being successful at any endeavourcommunity practice involving otherpeople. intelligence, over two decades more than 30,000 kids have engaged in positive, requires more than a good IQ"3. Making the invisible negative effects ecosystem restorative action.of environmental destruction visible for Through the tale of the La Semillaall to see. Food Center, Anthony, New Mexico—a activists and leaders will certainly “there is nothing easy about it, it is4. Better anticipating unintended grassroots organization that is leading the draw from Teri Blanton—one of something you do every day. Andenvironmental consequences of human charge against obesity and hunger in the main advocates against if everybody does it, it will becomeactions. local communities by forming Youth mountaintop removal mining—and a way of life.”5. And a better understanding of how Food Policy Councils and youth farming her views on effective leadership: Overall, Ecoliterate is a verynature sustains all life. opportunities—the reader learns how “don’t lead through anger,” she timely contribution to a growing Believing that teachers “are ideally vital building connections can be in says, “reach people on a human movement that is aiming to securesituated to lead a breakthrough to a new inspiring community-wide action.These level through stories, foster a sustainable future for upcomingand enlightened ecological sensibility”, and two other stories carry powerful dialogue instead of debate, [and] generations. And because of thethe authors spend the rest of the book messages and inspiring examples of speak from the heart.” Others relevance of the grassroots casetaking an in-depth look at six eight real- practical action taken by adults and would find truths in the words of studies it covers, the myriad oflife case studies that embody these five children all around the United States. Sarah James—an indigenous inspiring wisdoms to be found inpractices. Complete with lesson-planning guides woman leading the Gwich’in the words of the stories’ The first, for example, is a story of a for each chapter and a professional (Caribou) people’s stand against oil propagators, and the generalcommunity’s fight against Mountaintop development plan, the book is written development in Alaska—too. accessibility of the writing, it is acoal mining in the Appalachians—a specifically for educators. However, it “There is nothing hard about it,” must read for anyone interested inpractice that has destroyed 500 will strike a chord with anyone interested she says when talking about making or seeing a change frommountaintops, 1mn acres of forest, and in sustainability. Aspiring and current reducing, reusing and recycling, the bottom up. Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 1 9
  • 20. Cover Story Development Inspirations 201 2 A university on the eastern slopes of the Andes in rural Bolivia is providing an avenue f or students to obtain prof essional skills and lead sustainable development in their own communities, something that was unattainable prior to its f ounding in 1993.By RACHEL SATTERLEE The Unidad Académica Campesina- and rural tourism. The students practiceCarmen Pampa (UAC-CP), a college offering service-learning through community serviceundergraduate degrees to men and womenfrom Bolivia’s rural area, was founded by projects that benefit the College itself and surrounding rural villages. Classroom " Tuition and housingSister Damon Nolan, a missionary Franciscanwho has worked in education in the tiny studies, community outreach, research methods, production activities, the focus on at universities in largeAndean community of Carmen Pampa since peace and justice, an emphasis on gender cities like Bolivia’s1980. She witnessed the lack of access tohigher education, absent from most rural balance, and a group of dedicated professors and administrators are all part of the capital city of La Pazareas in Bolivia, and recognized that youngpeople –especially girls – had very few College’s unique curriculum that give students the footing they need to succeed are unaffordable foropportunities to become professionals inorder to help advance their own after graduation. One example of success is a 1999 young people fromcommunities. Tuition and housing atuniversities in large cities like Bolivia’s Agronomy graduate named René Villca. Villca is the executive director of a honey rural areas and accesscapital city of La Paz are unaffordable for processing association called FUNDACOM, to higher education isyoung people from rural areas and access tohigher education is limited, even if they have based in the town of Coroico, near the College. FUNDACOM was founded in 2005 limited, even if theypersonal motivation and moral support fromtheir families. In addition to economic by a group UAC-CP graduates who continue to manage the budding enterprise. Five out have personalobstacles, attending a university in a largecity takes young people away from their of six of his current employees are UAC-CP alumni (see photo), and Villca manages the motivation and moraltraditional communities, separates them from intake and processing of honey from many support from theirtheir communities’ livelihoods, and rarelyoffers the experience needed in order for small, rural indigenous farmers from across the entire region. Startup funding was families"them to return to their communities and help provided by the Horning family fromstimulate local development . Washington, D.C., and now FUNDACOM The UAC-CP is fulfilling this need, receives funding and support fromoffering undergraduate degrees in agronomy, FONADAL, an E.U.-supported institutioneducation, nursing, veterinary/animal science that “promotes integral development Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 20
  • 21. Cover Story Development Inspirations 201 2processes by financing projects prioritized by Villca has tremendous gratitude for hislocal stakeholders and beneficiaries…in the education and the support that he received atareas of ​economic, social, and environmental[development].” With this support, Villca’s The Unidad Académica Campesina-Carmen Pampa. He grew up in Charazani in an "The UAC-CP isbusiness is able to provide 98 percent of its indigenous Quechua family, with his four fulfilling this need,supply of honey to the Subsidio Prenatal yLactancia program of Bolivia, which is the siblings, and parents who never had the opportunity to go to school. His father did offering not contribute to the family, and his mother earned the equivalent of less than one dollar undergraduate degrees per day. His mother encouraged her children to pursue education, and with her moral in agronomy, support he graduated from high school. education, nursing, Villca later became the first person in their family to enroll incollege. With two veterinary/animal scholarships from Catholic missionaries, he was able to pursue a degree in agronomy at science and rural the UAC-CP. It is clear that Villca regards all of his tourism. The students success with much grace and appreciation, as does the FUNDACOM staff. He says that practice service- without his college education at the UAC-CP learning through and the scholarships that he received, he could not have studied beyond high school. community service He knows his education has not only completely changed his role within the projects that benefit community, both in terms of leadership and acceptance, but also his own perception of the College itself and himself and a pride in his culture and rural surrounding ruralequivalent ofWIC (Women, Infants and community. He is grateful to be able to support his wife and kids on an income that provides a living wage. villages"Children) food assistance in the United As more students enroll in degree programsStates. FONADAL pays FUNDACOM a at the College, and as more students graduate,market rate for the honey that they provide there continues to be more and morefor free to poor families in Bolivia. The inspiring stories similar to that of Renéremaining two percent of their honey is sold Villca. And one thing will never be in doubt:in the general market. education in rural areas creates positive When asked what FUNDACOM’s role is change for some of the world’s mostin supporting sustainable and deserving people.environmentally friendly livelihoods for ruralpeople, Villca responds that, “We generate Rachel Satterlee is pursuing a Master ofArtsdevelopment that supports the protection of in Sustainable International Development atnatural resources. Beekeeping is an activity Brandeis University and is completing her 6-that requires a healthy environment.” month work practicum at UAC-CP. She is FUNDACOM provides technical support implementing a survey ofgraduates, the datato the beekeepers that work with them, from which she is organizing into a databasehelping farmers solve problems, and giving and into an interactive online map andadvice about how to increase production. In graphics.this way, Villca hopes that the association cancontribute “con un grano de arena [with agrain of sand], helping to fulfill the missionof College, to empower the neediest people.” Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 21
  • 22. Cover Story Development Inspirations 201 2 VICTORIA PEEL YATES GSDM Argentina Cacerolazo, Buenos Aires, 2001 Photo: possible futures project Last year’s “Occupy” movement strongest to one of the weakest. was as polarizing as it was Faced by sudden and extreme ubiquitous. From its beginnings unemployment, poverty, and on Wall Street, the protest spread homelessness, ordinary across the world, even as far as Argentineans put on a display of " Argentineans put on Burundi, and was largely incredible resourcefulness and influenced by the events of the resilience as they carved out a a display of incredible Arab Spring, which had taken new society from what was left of resourcefulness and place earlier in the year. People were protesting against the power the old. Barter systems, community-run kitchens and even resilience as they of the so-called “1%”, accused of an alternative currency quickly carved out a new causing the global financial crisis rose from the ashes of the old society from what was through reckless and irresponsible decision-making. Ordinary people system, while protesters took to the streets with such force that left of the old. Barter across the world bore the brunt of they ousted five successive systems, community- the repercussions caused by these presidents within two weeks. run kitchens and even actions, and, in an unprecedented show of solidarity, took to the Factory workers occupied their places of work out of sheer an alternative streets to voice their outrage at desperation, under the slogan currency quickly rose being left to pick up the pieces. “Occupy, Resist, Produce”. from the ashes of the But for many Latin Americans, this movement, Whether the social movements in Latin America directly inspired old system, while though new to many peoples the Occupy movement of 2011, it protesters took to the around the world, couldn’t have is hard to say, but the parallels streets with such force been more familiar. One could even argue that tactics and between them are striking. They share a common enemy in the that they ousted five philosophies surrounding the global banks, international successive presidents movement drew inspiration from lending institutions, and within two weeks" similar movements in Latin America, such as the occupation multinational corporations, who are arguably largely to blame for of factories during Argentina’s the crises of both 2001 and 2008. economic crisis. Moreover, both have sought to In 2001, economic disaster make revolution a part of struck Argentina and transformed everyday life and to challenge the its economy almost overnight status quo. from being one of the region’s Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 22
  • 23. Cover Story Development Inspirations 201 2 By DANIELLE NIERENBERG Director, Nourishing the Planet Danielle Nierenberg is the Director ofthe Washington D. C. -based Worldwatch Institute’s Nourishing the Planet project, which highlights innovations around the world that are working to help alleviate hunger and poverty while also protecting the environment. Danielle recently travelled to more than 30 countries in Africa and Asia to meet with individuals and organizations that are driving small and big initiatives with huge impacts on the lives ofthe people in their communities and the world. To mark International Day ofRural Women (October 15th) and the GSDM October 2012 Inspiration issue, she describes members ofthe fairer sex who deserve praise and recognition.Throughout September 2012, Worldwatch Institute access markets and smallcelebrated the crucial role that women and youth loans, and grow enough foodplay in ushering in the just and environmentally to feed themselves and theirsustainable future that we’re working hard to bring families. SEWA also providesabout. Even in the 21st century, women own less micro-credit loans through itsthan 15 percent of the world’s land, earn 17 percentless than men on average, and comprise two-thirds own women’s bank andof the world’s 776 million illiterate adults. In the insurance policies, whilehope to also inspire GSDM readers, I would like to women can learn about newhighlight ten amazing women from all over the farming practices and improve their reading andglobe who have been ongoing sources of writing skills at its training centersinspiration to myself, Nourishing the Planet, andothers: 3. Anna Lappé1. Nany Karanja Anna Lappé is co-founder of the Small PlanetNancy Karanja is a professor of soil ecology at the Institute, ademocracy organization dedicated to furthering non-profit and equitable developmentUniversity of Nairobi. From worldwide. Lappé is the co-2005 to 2009, Karanja was the author of Diet for a Hotsub-Saharan Africa regional Planet: The Climate Crisis atcoordinator for Urban Harvest, the End ofYour Fork andan initiative to enhance urban What You Can Do About It.agriculture’s potential and Lappé is also a foundingfood security in Kenya. She principal of the Small Planethas led a number of studies onnutrient harvesting from urban organic waste, the Fund and hasafor more thanthe growing decade been key force in areuse of urban wastewater for vegetable international movement for sustainability andproduction, and the assessment of health risks justice in the food chain.associated with urban livestock systems.2. Rema Nanavaty 4. Sue EdwardsRema Nanavaty is General Secretary of the Self- Sue Edwards is Director ofEmployed Women’s Association (SEWA), the the Institute for Sustainablelargest union of informal sector workers in India. Development, an organizationFounded in 1972, SEWA now has 1.3 million working to influencemembers, including small farmers, forest workers, Ethiopia’s governmentalsalt farmers, artisans, and entrepreneurs. SEWA policies on education,helps its members get fair prices for their produce, agriculture, and the environment, so as to create Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 23
  • 24. Cover Story Development Inspirations 201 2awareness and promote sustainable development. 8. Sunita NarainShe has lived in Ethiopia for more than 40 years. Sunita Narain is the DirectorBoth Edwards and her husband Tewolde Berhan General of the Centre forGebre Egziabher are passionate about the role that Science and Environment, asmallholder farmers can play in creating a New Delhi-based public interest,sustainable future for all living things, from the research, and advocacygreatest to the smallest, from the most appealing to organization that researches andthe most appalling. lobbies for sustainable and5. Stephanie Hanson equitable development. Narain also heads the Stephanie Hanson is the Director Society for Environmental Communications, and of Policy and Outreach at One publishes the fortnightly science and environment Acre Fund. From 2006 to 2009, magazine, Down tobetween theresearch has focused on the relationship Earth. Her environment and she covered economic and political development in Africa development, sustainable development. about the vital need for and has raised awareness and Latin America for CFR.org,t he website of the Council on 9. Marceline OuedraogoForeign Relations. In 2008, she won a News andDocumentary Emmy for ‘Crisis Guide: Darfur’, an Marceline Ouedraogo is President of Burkinawhich Faso’sinteractive media guide that explores the history and rural women’s association, Songtaab-Yalgré,context of the crisis in the Darfur region of Sudan. is the first group certified organic produce and sell in the country to6. Elizabeth Katushabe shea butter. When she startedElizabeth Katushabe is a Program Officer with the Songtaab-Yalgré door to door and Ouedraogo went in 1990,Pastoral and Environmental Network in the Horn of woman to woman, asking peopleAfrica (PENHA), an international NGO led andinspired by Africans, committed to addressing issues to join. Because many of the women who joined the association were illiterate,of pastoralist concerns from a Ouedraogo developed a program to teach them toregional perspective. read and to write. Today, the association isKatushabe has held meetings composed of over three thousand women in nearly aand workshops with dozen villages, and has 11 centers where theyparliamentary leaders and collect arechete, or shea butter nuts. All of thepastoralists in East Africa, profits from the sale of shea butter—and peanut oil,attempting to bridge the gap soap, and other products the group is nowbetween policy makers andrural communities. Katushabe has also worked with making—are distributed equally among thePENHA to emphasize the role that herders can play members.in protecting the environment, by employing 10. Nely Rodriguezpractices such as rotational grazing. Nely Rodriguez is a mother, farmworker, and key7. Shirley Lewis leader with the Coalition ofShirley “Baglady” Lewis is the Founder of Baglady Immokalee Workers (CIW), aProductions, an organization that works with community-based farmworkerschools, individuals, and the government to put organization based in the southernsustainable behavior into action. Her work includes United States. CIW is comprised ofwriting for newspapers in the more than 4,000 mostly Latino,United Kingdom and Haitian, and Mayan IndianAustralia, magazines and in- members working mainly in agriculture throughouthouse journals, news radio the state of Florida. Rodriguez has been a vital partreporting and presenting for of organizing and inspiring her community to speakthe BBC and the Australian out against injustice in the tomato fields. She is alsoBroadcasting Corporation. She vocal about the hardships and sacrifices womenis most well-known for her make in the fields to put food on the table for theiroriginal campaign to say “no” to plastic bags. families while caring for and raising children. Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 24
  • 25. Cover Story Development Inspirations 201 2 By GARETH MACE GSDM Cambodia “We dont know when we will die, [so] I rescued from trauma.like to do as much as I can. I want to try to Thy, a dedicated husband and a father to "CCPCR was establishedmake a difference.” The words of Nget Thy(pronounced “Tee”), Executive Director of three kids, is as kind-hearted and gracious a man as you could hope to meet. But it is his in 1994 with a mission toThe Cambodian Center for the Protection ofChildrens Rights (CCPCR), could so easily ingenuity and endless endeavour to progress his organisation that really sets him apart ensure that all children andbe passed off as empty platitudes by those from his peers. Thy works seven days a week youth have equal rights insceptical of motives behind success in thedevelopment field. But all it takes is one and cant remember the last time he had a holiday. “I just work—I never have [thought] society and are free frommeeting with Mr. Thy to see that here is aman who is most certainly not in the work of about time. When Im tired I just take a rest or eat some food,” he says. Always putting his all forms of violence andsocial good to further his own ego. His work first, he spends much of his spare time exploitation. It now hasjourney from a poor orphan up through theranks of one of the countrys longest reading documents and articles to generate ideas for CCPCR. active projects throughoutestablished children’s NGOs is certainly notsomething that he feels any need or Undoubtedly what drives and inspires Thy is the circumstances of his own Cambodia—projects likeinclination to shout from the rooftops. “If its childhood—orphaned at a young age, him and the Phnom Penhgood for CCPCR, Im okay [to do it],” hereplied to an interview request. his elder sister experienced desperate poverty and hunger. “It was really difficult. Often we rehabilitation shelter for CCPCR was established in 1994 with amission to ensure that all children and youth would just eat rice and not very much,” he recalls. “Knowing and remembering those girl survivors of abuse,have equal rights in society and are free from struggles has definitely inspired me. I want to exploitation andall forms of violence and exploitation. It nowhas active projects throughout help poor people. I want to help children get [an] education so that they can get [a] good trafficking—that focus onCambodia—projects like the Phnom Penhrehabilitation shelter for girl survivors of job—when they have opportunities, they can do the same as me,” he says. As a result of his key issues like child labour,abuse, exploitation and trafficking—that influence, access to education and trafficking and abusefocus on key issues like child labour,trafficking and abuse through diverse empowerment through vocational training are key to the CCPCR’s philosophy. through diverse activitiesactivities encompassing prevention andcommunity awareness, as well as the Mr. Thys own crucial opportunity came as a young adult in 1992, when he passed encompassing preventionrehabilitation and reintegration of those enrolment examinations to study at and community awareness, as well as the rehabilitation and reintegration of those rescued from trauma" Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 25
  • 26. Cover Story Development Inspirations 201 2Cambodia’s Prek Leap National College of His progress and ability would next take himAgriculture. “It was so great for me!” he to the Philippines. Following CCPCRsenthuses with an infectious smile as he recommendation, he was awarded aremembers the opportunity that a move to the scholarship to study at South East Asia Ruralcapital Phnom Penh presented for him. Yet, as Social Leadership Institute within Seasolinhe would quickly learn, this next chapter Xavier University in Cacaya De Oro City hatwould not be without its challenges. With no gave him the opportunity to leave his homeclose family or any friends in the city he country for the first time in his life to earn ahoped to find shelter at a Pagoda—a Hindu or Diploma in Social Development andBuddhist temple or sacred, many-tiered Leadership. He subsequently re-joined thebuilding characteristic of India, Cambodia CCPCR in 2004, became its Deputy Directorand countries of the Far East. Unfortunately, in 2007 and completed his meteoric rise threetwo residences turned him away because he years later by becoming the top man in thewas a stranger. This distrust was symptomatic organization—the Executive Director.of the time when Cambodia was dominated Regrettably, he did not have the luxury ofby the Pol Pot regime—Pol Pot was a basking in this proud achievement as theCambodian Maoist revolutionary who led the organisation was in the midst of one of theoppressive Khmer Rouge from 1963 until his most testing financial situations it had everdeath in 1998 that was responsible for the known. “Because of the economic crisis,death of more than two million Cambodianpeople (21 per cent of the population). funding became very limited around that time and I had to work so hard to reform and "Mr. Thy’s route from Fortunately, Thy eventually found a homeat a Pagoda close to the University, where he reorganise to allow us to continue our work. It was very difficult,” he says. humble beginnings tolived with other students and assisted themonks with alms collecting, cooking and Even now, funding is an issue rarely off the agenda for long and it can cause anxiety: great successes havehouse work in return for food and lodgings.With the day sometimes starting as early as “When things are going well and I see the direct results of our work and the faces of the not been dominated by4.30 a.m., this experience was exhausting.But Thy worked hard as he was grateful for children we are helping…I love my job so much. Other times its just so stressful,” says personal ambition, butthe opportunity and he understood theimportance of contributing to the spiritual Thy. So what does Thy hope the organisation have been driven by apursuits of the resident monks. Through his work, Thy made a good can achieve while he is at the helm? “Oh so much!” he smiles again. “I would really like heartfelt desire to makeimpression on everyone he met and soon was us to be more [financially] secure. To do this, a difference to theoffered a leadership position in a neworphanage set-up by a wealthy foreigner. “I it would be great if we could own our own shelters, instead of renting them, and to have people of his country.was so lucky! They gave me $50 per month,which was a lot for me at the time. I would our own income-generating business, so we dont have to rely on the donors so much,” he He is a trulybuy vegetables and cook with them,” heremembers. “This job was so important for dreams. Mr. Thy’s route from humble beginnings inspirational figure,me. I learned many things like how to bemore independent and responsible through to great successes have not been dominated by personal ambition, but have been driven whose dedicatedwriting reports and things like that. This waswhen I realised I wanted to work for a by a heartfelt desire to make a difference to the people of his country. He is a truly journey andcommunity organisation,” he says. Following his graduation from Prek inspirational figure, whose dedicated journey and unwavering commitment to children’s unwaveringLeap—and after a handful of low paidstopgap jobs—it wasnt long before Thy rights in Cambodia shines a light of hope where the darkness of poverty and justice commitment tofound himself as an employee of the recentlyestablished CCPCR. He earned himself a dominates. Gareth Mace is the Cambodia country- children’s rights incontract as a case investigator in 1996 and correspondent for GSDM. He is also a Cambodia shines a lightwas promoted to reintegration officer in 1997,before landing the role of Project Manager in Program Coordinator with Village Focus International, an organisation that partners of hope where theKampong Cham Province in 1999 andSihanouk Ville two years later. The with CCPCR on the Phnom Penh rehabilitation shelter project. Photos: darkness of poverty andorganisation had become the ideal home forthis empathetic and hard-working young man. CCPCR Facebook page. justice dominates" Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 26
  • 27. Country Profile Singapore Photo: TIMEBy CAROLYNN LOOKGSDM Editorial Assistant There is a lot more to this tiny country across the region, united by British rule. Both from the Federation. Singapore had expectedthan the fame it receives for its foreign Malaya and Singapore, however, experienced equality for all and saw itself as a partner, notinvestment, spicy noodles and strict ‘no an urged demand for independence during the a component state, while Malays wanted tochewing gum’ policies. The history of Japanese occupation in World War II. In the retain special privileges. Malaysian leadersSingapore is in fact very unique for a former 1950s, when the war was over, Singapore did not want to compromise their superiorityBritish colony. It demonstrates a story of found itself with high levels of deprivation and when the 1964 elections won a seat for asuccess against all odds—political, social and and unemployment. The British tried to Singaporean party “the Tunku” becameagricultural. And although it is a small improve the situation by slowly increasing afraid. Racial tensions were rising and thecountry, it is now known as one of the Four local representation in government, but with economic benefits did not materialize, so heAsian Tigers, having one of the biggest the formation of opposing parties and expelled Singapore because it was “the onlytrading ports in the world. But how did this Britain’s efforts to combat communism, riots way to maintain peace and harmony inTiger get its roar? increased as students of Chinese-funded Malaysia.” Little is known about Singapore before schools felt discriminated against. Lee Kuan Yew, the leader of Singapore atbeing colonized. Formerly known as Singaporean PM David Marshall travelled to the time, had been a faithful believer of theTemasek (“Sea City” in old Javanese), it was London to demand complete independence, merger and was devastated by the separation.part of various local empires and experienced but was turned down with the words “If I He had always believed that Singapore couldits rise under the Sultanate of Malacca in the give you independence, it may fall into the not survive on its own, but he was15th century, before it came under the hands of the communists.” He was devastated determined to prove himself wrong. He saidinfluence of the Malay Sultanate of Johor in and resigned from his position. of his newly born nation “Some countries are1511. As of the 14th century, it was also At the same time, Malaya next door had born independent…we had it thrust upon us."known as Singapura (meaning “Lion City” in already achieved independence under the How did this small country with fewSanskrit), based on a legend that told of powerful Prime Minister known as “The resources survive against all odds? After itsSrivijayan Prince Sang Nila Utama visiting Tunku”. The two countries’ histories and dramatic break-up with Malaysia, the leadingthe island in 1299 and mistaking and economies were deeply interwoven and many party, People’s Action Party (PAP), made anunknown animal for a lion. Malays were already living in Singapore. effort to unite national identity by accepting The commonly viewed ‘founder’ of the Britain acknowledged that a political merger the country’s colonial past. This acceptance,nation was Sir Stamford Raffles, who between these two countries would help rather than the despising that is usually feltestablished a British port on the island in crush communism in Singapore and allowed by formerly colonized countries, made it1819 with permission from the Sultanate of them to declare independence in 1963 to particularly tolerable for foreign investors,Johor. It became part of the British Straits merge with the Federation of Malaysia. who saw that Singapore valued stability. ThisSettlement in 1826 and, unlike its colonized Under this agreement Singaporeans still had is something that is unique to Singapore’sneighbour Malaya, whose people felt more some autonomy and did not automatically history as not all former colonies had asemotional attachment towards the homeland, become Malaysian. Malayans saw the merger strong of a cultural tie to Britain as SingaporeSingapore had more loyalties to Britain. Prior as an economic benefit, but were concerned did at its time of independence.to Raffles’ arrival there were no more than that the racial ratio would be off-balance with On a macro-economic level, Singapore1,000 people on the island, which soon too many Chinese. Sadly, only two years has become hugely successful. However, itsbecame populated by immigrants from all after the merger, Singapore was expelled GDP doesn’t reflect the inequalities that the Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 27
  • 28. Country Profile Singaporecountry’s wealth rests upon. Although 1990, has encouraged this exchange of low- activity is taking its toll on the environment.Singapore is one of the world’s most wage immigrants (mostly female, informal Singapore now faces the challenge ofexpensive cities, it still fails to implement a labour, with very few rights) to work in promoting more socially and environmentallyminimum wage policy, forcing low-wage Singapore’s industries and power the wealth sustainable development policies before theimmigrants to work several jobs in of a few. The population continuously government loses its credibility, which couldunfavorable conditions to make ends meet. criticizes the government for allowing the end the PAP’s almost five decade reign.Furthermore, the Indonesia-Malaysia- income gap between the rich and the poor toSingapore Growth Triangle, established in widen, while the high level of industrialKEY INDICATORS EDUCATION -20% of national budget goes to education spending -described as “world-leading” -compulsory primary school -adult literacy 92.5% (women 88.6%) ROLE OF WOMEN -challenge of balancing traditional with modern-day roles -23.4% women in national parliament -42% of workforce, though this is less based on gender discrimination than on lower academicCapital: Singapore Tamil (official) 3.2%, other qualificationsPopulation: 5.4 million Chinese dialects 1.8%, other 0.9%Area: 697 sq km Ethnic groups: Chinese 76.8%, FREEDOMGeography: Made up of 63 islands Malay 13.9%, Indian 7.9%, other -enforces mandatory death penaltyat the southern tip of the Malayan 1.4% for drug trafficking and homicide,Peninsula. Tropical, humid climate Religion: Buddhist 42.5%, Muslim although the government is movingwith very little arable land and few 14.9%, Taoist 8.5%, Hindu 4%, towards abolishing itnatural resources. Catholic 4.8%, other ChristianLanguages: Mandarin (official) 9.8%, other 0.7%, none 14.8% ECONOMY35%, English (official) 23%, Malay -free-market economy(official) 14.1%, Hokkien 11.4%, Human Development Index: -relies heavily on exports,Cantonese 5.7%,Teochew 4.9%, 0.866; rank 26 out of 187 particularly in consumer electronics, information technology products, pharmaceuticals, and on a growing financial services sector -GDP Growth: 4.9% (2011) -GDP composition by sector: 0% agriculture, 26.6% industry, 73.4% services ENVIRONMENT -industrial pollution -over 85% of coral reefs face wipe- out due to high coastal industrial activity -limited natural freshwater resources -limited land availability presents Map source: Asia Online waste disposal problems Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 28
  • 29. Series Tips from the field You can supply a student with the best texts, the best infrastructure and the best materials, but if the right person isn’t in place to take all of these resources and turn them into something educational, there is no point in investing in education at all. NOAH MARWIL GSDM Latin AmericaThis Quarter’s Tip teachers (i.e. transportation, safety, endeavor and, in turn, discourage parents Teachers are the linchpins that dictate comfort). The Problem from making their child’s education a family priority.whether our children lead successful As opposed to what many believe, Though in many developing countrieslives. deficits in education are largely caused jobs are hard to come by, well-trained, Improving school teacher quality is by an inefficiency of service delivery motivated teachers are still in highan effective and cost efficient way ofimproving education for thousands of rather than The average citizen wants to education. a lack of interest in demand. Teacher training programs are often expensive, time consuming andstudents living in the developing world send their child to school, as they hard to come by. Most teacher trainingand it can be achieved by providingteacher training, creating local teacher correlate higher education with more it facilities are located in largernetworks, instructing teachers on how to lucrative job opportunities. However, is the lack of materials, quality and metropolitan areas, making it difficult for non-city dwellers to attend classes.solicit additional classroom materialsfrom their government and donors and accessible schools and well-trained teachers that make school a feckless As a result, rural villages are often given no choice but to rely upon trainedhelping to alleviate other stressors on Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 29
  • 30. Series Tips from the fieldurbanites to educate their children. increased educational funding. 1)However, since rural conditions areoften quite rugged and unforgiving, Creating a network for teachers in different villages to learn from each "A child’s educationalmany teachers either refuse rural other and mentor one another can create outcome is mostassignments or simply do not show up.The government is subsequently forced a much-needed support system for teachers who feel lost, scared or strongly impacted byto hire poorly trained teachers tocompensate for the scarcity of qualified frustrated. It also provides a venue to share experiences or new teaching the quality of his/hereducators. As stated in the Handbook on methodologies that some may have teachers and, therefore,the Economics of Education , only 62%and 69% of primary school teachers in picked up in training session. 2) Improving sanitation infrastructure is focusing on improvingSouth Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa,respectively, are considered to be relatively inexpensive and highly effective in increasing female teachers teacher quality willtrained. attendance (See Room to Read’s The Relationship between School ultimately improve theThe Theory of Change A child’s educational outcome is most Infrastructure and Educational quality of education"strongly impacted by the quality of outcomes). Not providing a safe,his/her teachers and, therefore, focusing comfortable place to go to the bathroomon improving teacher quality will or change sanitary products during theirultimately improve the quality of menstruation period can lead to higheducation. teacher absentee rates. 3) Finally, There are two factors most affecting holding the teachers accountable forteacher quality—training and their work can be an incrediblemotivation…or lack thereof. Teacher motivator. Having a parent associationtraining includes in-service training as check in on classes during the schoolwell as centralized workshops to day and penalize and/or reward teachersimprove teachers’ classroom based on their in-classroom presence,management, lesson planning and classroom management (i.e. students areresource acquisition (i.e. how to solicit in seats learning as opposed to runningmaterials and equipment from amuck outside) and test scores andgovernment). In addition, sharpening grades could light a fire that somemath and literacy skills—the two developing world teachers soacademic abilities that translate most desperately need. As a rule, people whoclosely into essential life skills—will be know they are being watched tend tovital when looking to make the largest alter their behavior accordingly.gains in education as a cornerstone of Evidence of Efficacydevelopment. In December 2010 the Journal of In addition to skills training, it is Education for International Developmentimportant for teachers to know how to published a paper written by Annaccess educational materials for their Emerson and colleagues from the accountability.students to be used both for in-classroom American Institutes for Research (AIR) The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Actionand at home. For example, the ability to entitled Teacher Peer Learning Groups: Lab (J-PAL) has done studies onpetition a government for more texts or Contributing factors to cluster interventions related to literacy andclassroom furniture can greatly impact a sustainability that takes a look at the teacher training. In their paper titled Astudent’s classrooms experience. benefits of teacher peer learning groups. Better Way to Teach Children to Read?,Furthermore, imparting information to The study suggests that taking advantage teachers trained in a new type of literacystudents regarding where they can check of teacher networks and establishing curriculum produced students who wereout a library book or where to go for regular group meetings increases a more literate and read more. Also, in theremedial classes empowers them to take teacher’s sense of stability, community, paper Pay Based on Studentcontrol of their own education. clarity of purpose, agency and Performance on Tests, teachers whose Equally as important as training a competency. pay was based on student performanceteacher is motivating a teacher. As Camfed, an organization dedicated to increased their students’ learning. Thementioned above, teachers are often the education and empowerment of same was also true if they were offeredassigned to work in remote, rural women in the developing world, prizes for high test scores.villages with run down infrastructure organizes many committees at a variety Conclusionand uneducated, sometimes antagonistic of different levels—some are high-level Investing in teachers is a provenadult populations. Their pay is meager and include Ministry of Education staff; method to affect educational results.and often not remunerated in a timely others are very localized and include Given the proper support and training,manner. It is therefore extremely only parents of students—which has one teacher has the ability to affect thedifficult to ensure not only that a teacher helped in their aim to ensure that lives of hundreds of children. You cangives their full attention to their job, but community voices are heard. In their supply a student with the best texts, thealso shows up for work. report titled Camfed Governance: best infrastructure and the best materials, There are a number of methods of Accounting to the Girl, they demonstrate but if the right person isn’t in place toincreasing teacher motivation that are the child protective powers of take all of these resources and turn themboth sustainable and do not require community involvement and teacher into something educational, there is no point in investing in education at all. Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 30
  • 31. Opinion Gender & Development Merely saying that women are half the sky is not enough, its time to realize their vast space in that sky and happily accept and support By KOMAL POUDEL their existence, movement and progress Guest contributor towards equality and prosperity.When we are talking about an scarcity of When it comes to gender though. While living and working in theinstitutional setups to defend human discrimination and suppression, I West, I do have witnessed differentrights in the developing world, we do not remember a sad event in Nepal which I forms of gender discrimination inoften pay that much attention to one witnessed just after the announcement of families and work places.institution that could possibly do this democracy in 1990. In order to mark the Discrimination and early marriagejob: the family. achievement, a big rally was organized seem to be closely interlinked. As girls The developed developing dichotomy in the district headquarters I was are deprived of education and cannotcan be felt in areas of human rights working in. Like many other, a local stand on their own feet, the societypromotion as many developing countries woman also attended the event, carrying believes the only one way to make lifedo not have sufficient and effective a party flat in her hands. However, in the easier for girls is marriage. There ismechanisms to ensure human rights to evening, her both hands were chopped no guarantee that life is comfortabletheir citizens. Whereas, in contrast, off by her husband for attending a after marriage because if adeveloped nations seem to have political rally. man wants to marry second wife, hemechanisms that ensure their citizens Dr. Bruce, a British doctor, working can leave first wife with children. Thererights and welfare needs. In short, the in the Western Regional Hospital in are numerous women with children ongovernment is the protector and provider Pokhara attempted to cure the streets of developing countries,whoin the developed world, but that job her hands, but it was too late. were abandoned by men.belongs to the family in much of the Consequently, she lost her both hands. So when we see the family as adeveloping world. As many of us have This, however, is just one of extreme defender of human rights and provider ofour own personal experiences as well, examples of women suppression we see basic welfare, we need to look at thethe family works as a decision maker, everyday in many parts of the family authority, that in many cases areopportunity creator, financial regulator, developing world. men. So we have to start working withand welfare provider in our part of the Recently, I was listening to a BBC them, educating them, convincing them,world. interview of a Pakistani woman whose and warning them. They to recognize So far so good, but the problem nose had been chopped off by her that their constructive role can result in abegins when that institution husband, but due to social and cultural perfect family. They have the privilegediscriminates among its members. Often pressure she had been living with that of getting education, employment andwomen members of the family are man for more than 30 years, all the time also have property rights, so theirdeprived of financial and property rights having to cover her nose. On the other commitment and readiness to supportand offered with meagre welfare hand, we do frequently hear about cases women is crucial. Its time to genuinelysupport. Decision making rights for of honor killings, stoning, dowry realize that a family, a society and awomen are rare and due to demands and acid attacks in many, nation with powerless or disempowereddiscrimination and lack of opportunities, primarily, muslim countries. women is not able to make significanttheir talents remain untapped and their Banning girls and women from progress in economic, social andcapabilities unrealized. Still today participating in social events, traveling, political terms. Merely saying thatmillions of women suffer in different visiting relatives and barring their right women are half the sky is not enough,corners of the world, in the name of to choose their life partner independently its time to realize their vast space in thatreligion, for the sake of tradition and seem to be pervasive even in what many sky and happily accept and support theirsuperstition and most of the time to perceive as liberal societies in the south. existence, movement and progressfulfill masculine needs. Women rights violations are not sole towards equality and prosperity. characteristics of developing societies Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 31
  • 32. Going South China By CAROLYNN LOOK Editorial Assistant Beijing, China. Hundreds of peace and love’.” Today, graffiti has buildings tower over the people that come back with renewed strength, and bustle between them every day. Some to fulfil quite a different purpose. get demolished, some get rebuilt, In the past 17 years, graffiti has some just get a fresh layer of paint. become an inspiring field of dialogue between the public and the central But what strikes you as you walk through this eclectic monster of a city Chinese government. Beijing-based artist Zhang Dali opened the city up to "The street art culture is that none of its buildings are covered in tags or graffiti as they are street art in 1995, after spending in Beijing is in fact a in other metropolises. Or so you would think on first sight. several years in self-exile in Italy, where he became familiar with the growing sphere of Coming from the capitol of street techniques of graffiti and its ability to arouse spontaneous communication. artistic expression: art in Berlin, I was astonished to see that Beijing is so “clean”. But moving Upon returning to Beijing, he started hidden, yet away from the centre and beyond the 2nd Ring Road, graffiti starts popping by spraying in the hidden side streets and underpasses of a city that seemed increasingly powerful" up in various neighbourhoods, often more like a gigantic construction site. with local tag artists claiming a certain Later he left his mark on old, run- territory or mobile spray-painted down buildings scheduled for images immortalised (until removed) demolition, claiming back the space on the sides of public buses. The street that had once been important to art culture in Beijing is in fact a people living there. His symbol was growing sphere of artistic expression: his spray-painted profile, appearing hidden, yet increasingly powerful. like a ghost in alleyways and creating The phenomenon is not as new as a mysterious presence, as well as his it first appears. According to the 2005 tag “AK-47”. Several days after China Heritage Newsletter by the spraying for the first time on an Australian National University overpass in Beijing, Zhang walked by (ANU), a 2004 archaeological project and saw that someone had written revealed that graffiti on the Great Wall underneath “What the hell are you was already popular in the 16th doing? Who are you?” He took a century, when “soldiers wives picture of it and titled it “Dialogue”. decorated parts of the wall with Although it wasn’t until three images of clouds, lotus blossoms and years after Zhang started spraying that ‘fluffy balls’ (xiuqiu), ‘symbols of he actually started making a stir, the Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 32
  • 33. Going South China road has been bumpy, often met with mixed reactions by officials. Artists watch in dismay as the government paints over some of the oldest graffiti walls in Beijing to hide their creativity under a thick layer of grey. Some get arrested and put in prison for several "If art has the ability days. Many feel that the government doesn’t care about the “aesthetic of transforming and pollution” that is sometimes created by graffiti, but that they only care inspiring society, this about what the graffiti is trying to express. But mostly the officials must surely be one simply don’t know what to make of it. Street artist Zyko—speaking in a of its greatest March 2012 documentary Spray Paint Beijing—says that the people, on the other hand, are always very curious moments" about what he is doing. They stand by watching, smoking and drinking,effect was that he created a dialogue interested in his message.that soon involved the whole city. In All in all there are only about 30 street1998, several cultural magazines artists in Beijing, of which less thanbegan discussing the cultural half is regularly active. This is quite asignificance of graffiti: whether it low number for a metropolis, but theircould be considered art, its works have had a great impact, if onlycoexistence with urban development, to get observers to question their roleand what the social role of the artist is. in producing and reproducing the cityIn light of the debate, Zhang even they live in. Graffiti is impossible togave up his anonymity to join in, ignore. It is always there on theand—although he was met with opposite wall when you go through contextualized in Chinese culture, usinghostility by the press, who the door in the morning, or in the indirect protest, irony and allusion tocharacterized him as a vandal—he underpass when you’re walking to convey a message, while Westernused the chance to communicate with school. It can be a big detailed mural, movements use ‘louder’, more black andthe Beijing public. or a scribbled tag. No matter the form, white methods such as enemy-targeting and Little did he know that he started it’s impossible not to listen to its solution-finding, which don’t work insomething that would soon transform message, even if one does not agree China. The roles of individual actors arethe entire city. In the years leading up with it. In many ways, graffiti in more ambiguous and less dramatized than ato the 2008 Olympics the government Beijing has been less a criticism Western lens may lead us to believe.gave yet another push for rapid towards the government than towards One could argue that repression of streetmodernisation and, with that, the passivity of the public. It has artists is stronger in the West: A recentdestroyed a lot of the older traditional forced them to literally open their article published in The Huffington Postbuildings to make way for new ones. eyes. was titled “’Beijing Was More Open-The Chinese character chai was one The significance of street art in Minded’: Street Artists Speak Out Againstthat soon permeated traditional China is two-fold. Firstly, it is a London’s Olympic Clean Up”. The facthutongs all over the city. It warned manifestation of creativity and that, in China, graffiti has not led topeople that their homes, schools, originality in a country that is censorship, but rather to an alternative formwork-places and lifestyles would soon criticized for its sole ability to of communication is worthy of recognition.be ‘demolished’, and replaced with replicate and mass-produce. Many say The scene is not only growing inshow-offish skyscrapers, hotels and that the lacking element in the Beijing: The rest of China has taken out itsrestaurants to impress and please Chinese economy is creativity, but spray cans too. Shanghai is quite theforeigners. But this did not quiet the perhaps they have been selecting hotspot for famous street artists, evendialogue that had been created—far entrepreneurs from the wrong places. featuring works by renowned Portuguesefrom it. When the Central Arts The movement proves that Chinese street artist Alexandre Farto that goes byAcademy was relocated because of people are capable of thinking outside the alias Vhils. Chongqing—a major city inthe city’s renewal policies, its students the box, but the ones who end up in Southwest China and one of five statedecided to go around the city and high positions are the ones who capitals—has one of the longest graffitipaste the chai character on the conveniently think inside of it. Sadly, walls in the world, stretching acrossbuildings they didn’t like. This these are the ones who get to decide 1.25km. Spray Paint Beijing a greatmethod of using official discourse as a the fate of the city. resource for learning more about thismethod of resistance created a Secondly, the intricate platform for artistic movement that is on the verge ofsymbolic terrain for residents to dialogue that street art has created exploding.partake in the moulding of their city. counters the West’s overly radicalized If art has the ability of transforming andToday, graffiti is a trend that is on the views of repression in China. It is a inspiring society, this must surely be one ofbrink of exploding in China. But the form of resistance specifically its greatest moments. Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 33
  • 34. Food Security & Nutrition Bangladesh By DEBORA DIO DIO GSDM special correspondent Food Soverignty and Rural Livelihoods The month of October marks of the population living below theInternational Day of Rural Women poverty line, 925 million hungry people(October 15) and World Food Day are still desperately poor and consume(October 16), an opportunity for the less than the minimum dailyinternational community to celebrate the recommended food intake (FAO, 2010).bold leadership and outstanding Under-nutrition among pregnant womencontributions of rural women around the in developing countries leads to 1 out ofworld towards reducing hunger and 6 infants born with low birth weight, andundernutrition. The International Day of poor nutrition plays a role in at least halfRural Women recognizes the critical role of the 10.9 million child deaths each yearand contribution of rural women, (2012 World Hunger). Climate changeincluding indigenous women, in will also pose further risks for the ultraenhancing agricultural and rural poor, accelerating hunger and increasingdevelopment, improving food security the risk of undernutrition and foodand eradicating rural poverty. This insecurity.International Day was established by the The case of Bangladesh is particularlyUnited Nations General Assembly in significant. Bangladesh ranks 129 amongDecember 2007, while World Food Day 169 countries in the 2010 Humanwas established by the Food and Development Index, and 116 among 169Agricultural Organisation’s Member countries in the Gender Inequality IndexCountries at the Organizations 20th (GDI). A joint assessment of Household Photo :CimmytGeneral Conference in November 1979. Food Security and Nutrition conducted in Rural women play a critical role in 2009 by WFP and partners reported thatmeeting the food and nutrition needs of nearly 40 percent of female-headedtheir households and communities, andthey are key to the success of emergency households are estimated to be food insecure compared to 24 percent of male- "Despite impressiveand development programmes. TheUnited Nations’ Secretary-General Ban headed households. Inequality and discrimination against women continue gains over the pastKi-moon said that “Rural women havethe potential to improve the well-being of to have significant impacts on the efforts to reduce poverty. The proportion of ultra two decades, ruralentire societies if given equal access to poor (intake of 1,600 k.cal/person/day) women in Bangladeshresources and set free from thediscrimination and exploitation that hold and extreme poor (intake of 1,805 k.cal/person/day) is higher for female- remain particularlythem back. Countries where women lackland ownership rights or access to credit headed households than male-headed ones. vulnerable to foodhave significantly more malnourishedchildren. By empowering rural women The challenges. Rural women and girls make up a quarter of the global insecurity andwe could end the hidden developmenttragedy of stunting, which affects almost population, yet they routinely figure at the bottom of every economic, social and undernutrition"200 million children worldwide”. Despite political indicator, from income,impressive reductions in the percentage education and health to participation in Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 34
  • 35. Food Security & Nutrition Bangladeshdecision-making. In most parts of the the achievement of the Millennium been playing a key role in promotingdeveloping world rural women Development Goals, and to do so gender equality and women’s rights inparticipate in crop production and development partners implement a wide Bangladesh. The present Awami League-livestock care, provide food, water and range of community-based interventions led Government has promised to restorefuel for their families, and engage in off- that support women. If women’s ability women’s rights to inheritance and to endfarm activities to diversify their families’ to act as economic agents of change in discriminatory laws by implementing thelivelihoods. In addition, they carry out the household can be strengthened, and Convention on the Elimination ofAllvital functions in caring for children, their decision-making authority to use Forms of Discrimination against Womenolder persons and the sick. resources to the familys optimal benefit (CEDAW) and the Beijing Platform of Despite impressive gains over the can be enhanced, women are able to Action (BPFA). In the last few years, thepast two decades, rural women in improve and sustain the food security of Government has strengthened itsBangladesh remain particularly their family members, and potentially the commitment to equality between womenvulnerable to food insecurity and nutritional status too. Empowering and men with the National Policy forundernutrition. They face discrimination women with the resources to help lift Women’s Advancement (first formulatedin accessing assets and resources and are their households and communities out of in 1997, and last revised in 2008) andmore likely to be involved in unpaid poverty can make significant impacts on more recently with the passing of thefamily-related work or in low-paid work. Bangladesh’s efforts to reduce food long-awaited Domestic Violence BillRural women are also at higher risk of insecurit y and undernutrition. (October 2010). Gender considerationsbeing subjected to violence, with far less are a core element of the Nationalaccess to redress for the human rightsviolations they suffer. Due to social "Breaking the cycle Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction II (2009-2011) with specialrestrictions, they face additional barriersin generating income and are more of hunger and emphasis on women’s contribution to the country’s economic development, andvulnerable than men to the consequencesof natural disasters. Low status within poverty at its roots are incorporated in Vision 2021 which presents a specific commitment tothe household and cultural practicesassociated with childbirth and intra- begins with women, mainstreaming gender concerns in all policies and to promoting genderfamily food distribution lead to genderdiscrimination in the allocation of food because in equality in all aspects of society. With the objective to leverage women’s role asespecially for adolescent girls, andpregnant and lactating women. The high situations of decision makers, the Government of Bangladesh has committed to advocatingprevalence of early marriage andundernutrition in mothers and adolescent desperate poverty, for changes in social attitudes and ensuring women’s greater representationgirls contributes to the cycle of access to food is in all aspects of decision-making.undernutrition where neonatal deathsaccount for two-thirds of all infantdeaths. An estimated 30% of adult power" Women are a pivotal force behind achieving a food secure world. The complementarities and synergiesBangladeshi mothers are chronically between increasing women’s access andmalnourished, and at least 39% of The Government of Bangladesh is control of livelihoods and householdwomen suffer from anaemia during committed to attaining the Millennium food and nutrition security are multiple.pregnancy. Development Goal 3 to promote gender For instance, enhancing womens access Michelle Bachelet, the Executive equality and empower women. The to food security and nutritionDirector of the UN Entity for Gender Government acknowledges that inclusion interventions has a direct impact onEquality and the Empowerment of and empowerment of women are key access to food and dietary improvementWomen- UN Women, stated that no thrust areas for improving the long-term for the entire household due to women’senduring solution to the major global food security and nutrition situation of multiple role of producers of food,challenges – from climate change to ultra poor households, and for the managers of natural resources, incomepolitical and economic instability – can development of Bangladesh overall. earners, and caretakers. Therefore,be solved without the full empowerment Gender disparities continue to place increasing knowledge and resources inand participation of women across the constraints on development and the women’s hands leads to gains for ruralworld. Nevertheless, rural women failure to guarantee equal participation of women, their children and family.continue to face considerable social and women in the socio-economic Through employment generation, ruraleconomic hardship in accessing assets development is a price that Bangladesh women enjoy greater participation inand resources, such as, credit and cannot afford to pay. The exclusion or household decision-making, gainagricultural tools. marginalization of women and food and enhanced status in the family and The solutions. Breaking the cycle of nutrition security not only reduces community, and their mobility andhunger and poverty at its roots begins opportunities for growth, stability and community participation also increase.with women, because in situations of cooperation, but it also reduces Because women’s food security anddesperate poverty, access to food is productivity, and economic benefits for nutrition is a life cycle issue, when foodpower. This is the reason why the United the local communities are put at risk to security and nutrition interventions areNations with the major players of food present and future generations. Since the targeted at women they can make anand nutrition security, especially the country’s independence in 1971, the enormous difference on the reduction ofWorld Food Programme, prioritizes Ministry ofWomen and Children Affairs undernutrition, maternal and neonatalwomen and works in innovative ways to (MOWCA) and its corresponding mortality rates, improvement of dietaryensure that rural women are empowered. representation through the Department of choices, hygiene awareness andEmpowering rural women is critical to Women at district and lower levels have practices, and generally higher Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 35
  • 36. Food Security & Nutrition Bangladesh "The exclusion or marginalization of women and food and nutrition security not only reduces opportunities for growth, stability and cooperation, but it also reduces productivity, and economic benefits for the local communities are put at risk to present and future generations"productivity at home and work, thus Governments around the world bycontributing to the prosperity of thesociety as a whole. creating an enabling environment for promoting gender equality and the The health of Michelle Bachelet of UN Womenhighlighted that providing women empowerment of women in addressing food and nutrition challenges. The UN women is a crucialfarmers with equal access to resourceswould result in 100 to 150 million fewer system can support to mobilise additional resources and promote and factor in the healthhungry people, while ensuring that theyhave income, land rights and credit protect women’s rights; eradicate the persistent burden of poverty on rural of children, butwould mean fewer malnourishedchildren. Higher levels of gender women and develop women’s capacity through health and nutrition care. genderequality correlate positively with higherlevels of per capita gross national Furthermore, UN agencies and other development partners can support discriminationproduct. Socially prescribed rolescontinue to limit women’s access to Governments in capacity building objectives, by fostering exchange of leaves womeneconomic resources such as capital,skills, and marketing know-how, at both knowledge and expertise, and helping coordinate and leverage efforts to particularlynational and local level. These samesocial norms limit women’s participation promote and sustain the mainstreaming of food security and nutrition issues in vulnerable toin decision making processes that affecttheir lives, including on food security national plans, policies and budgets. By investing more in women, we disease and deathand nutrition. amplify benefits across families and United Nations agencies and generations.development partners can support Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 36
  • 37. Women entrepreneurship Tanzania By MARYNAMUSOKE GSDM special correspondent Development & Democracy in AfricaMrs. Helena Lutege is an inspiring where she started doing some petty work microfinance institution. Belita nowwomen entreprenuer in Tanzania. including as a shop attendant, keeping serves more than 3,000 clients, of whomComing from a background poultry for business and so forth. It was 75% are women living in the sub-urban,characterised by poverty, she was during this time that she met with her urban, rural and coastal areas of Easterndetermined to work hard to break husband. The husband encouraged and Tanzania. Majority of these people havethrough and live a decent life. Helena is supported her to go for further education small businesses and borrow betweenthe founder of Better Life for Tanzanians (a Diploma in Business Administration). Tzs. 50, 000 (about US$32) to 1,000,000Trust Fund (BELITA), a microfinance After obtaining this diploma, Helena (about $645).organisation which she started eight worked with the Tanzania Revenue Mama Belita, as she is commonlyyears ago to provide financial services to Aouthrity and in 2006, she started her identified by most of her clients says itsmall entrepreneurs, especially women, own business, the present day BELITA has not been a smooth road all the way.in Tanzania. Helena was born about 55 (Better Life for Tanzanians Trust Fund). She recalls facing a lot of resistanceyears ago in Musoma District, Mara Having secured some capital and come from her family who at first did notregion in the Northern part ofTanzania. up with an idea to begin extending small support her engaging in a lendingShe was raised by a single mother, a loans to individuals who needed them, venture or using the home premises. Butmere peasant who struggled to make she utilised the sevant’s quarter at her that did not discourage her. Instead, shesure her children attend school. Helena marital home premises as the office to sought to strengthen her skills: In 2010,made it up to Grade Four (Senior IV) operate her business which has grown Mama Belita completed a post graduateand when she first sat for the Grade IV since then. Begining as an individual diploma in microfinance at thenational examinations she failed but small lender—with no formal University of Dares Salaam. With ainsisted and repeated the class another background in banking and philosophy of Begin, Believe andyear and finally passed. Shen then came finance—with five clients, the venture Become, her vision now is to seeto Dares Salaam, the capital ofTanzania, has now become a full fledged BELITA serve people beyond Tanzania Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 37
  • 38. Refugees Dadaab refugee camp By EDVIN MACHATA GSDM West Africa Editor Alima Ali Abdi, 37, holds one of her three children as she waits in line to be received at the Ifo refugee camp in Dadaab. Photo:USAIDDadaab, the 20-year-old refugee camp to its current size from a sleepyspawned by the Somali Civil War, has unknown village in merely twobecome a perpetual humanitarian decades.disaster, with thousands of peoplemalnourished, without shelter or any Integration? "When we arrived, the policemeans of subsistence. Providing whatlittle health care and social services Melanie Teff at the Guardian’s poverty matters blog suggested that the made us line up facing a wallthere are in the camps still costs the refugees living in Dadaab could be an and said we should ‘thinkKenyan government and theinternational community hundreds of asset in a comprehensive regional development plan. She points to the about never coming back tomillions of dollars. Largely, it is a entrepreneurial spirit of many residents Kenya’. Then police officersproblem without a good solution. While having generously of Dadaab, and research by Cindy Horst, Senior Researcher at the Peace hit all of us three or fouraccommodated the refugees for two Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), and times on the back and headdecades, some Kenyan politicians havestarted to call more aggressively for others have illuminated the many successful ways of coping with life in with a stick. That night therepatriation after the surge of new the camp. Like in most populations Kenyan men in a cell next torefugees following last year’s famine.Sanctioning a military intervention into however, only a small number have had that little extra luck together with ours, which was separatedSomalia in order to establish safe an entrepreneurial spirit to create only by bars, urinated inhavens suitable for relocation has beenpart of this. This in turn has been met something. The majority need jobs available for them to take part in a plastic bags and threw themwith opposition from humanitarian developmental project. at us and cursed at us inagencies running the camps. Whilethey argue correctly that a repatriation This is not to underplay the achievements of the camps’ Swahili all night long"at this stage would likely increase entrepreneurs. A study by theinsecurities for refugees and aid governments of Kenya, Denmark andworkers alike, they do not provide any Norway estimated that as much asconstructive solutions of their own. US$14 million is channelled into the Indeed, the scale of the camp puts region through the agencies in Dadaab,any type of solution to a tough test. and that refugee entrepreneursCurrently 500,000 refugees, mostly themselves turn over $25 million.Somalis, inhabit five camps in an arid This may sound like impressiveenvironment around a village that 20 figures, but even when added together,years ago was home to a mere five and shared only among camp residents,thousand inhabitants. To put that into not local Kenyans, it merely amountsperspective, it’s as if the city of to $78 per person. This is but a fractionLiverpool in the United Kingdom grew Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 38
  • 39. Refugees Dadaab refugee camp than actual desired policy. Solutions? Considering that the staggering challenges with both integration and repatriation are made more difficult by the great number of individuals that need to be taken into account, both integration and repatriation must beof Kenya’s still low $1,800 GDP per less challenging. In spite of Kenya’s employed in acapita, and it highlights a particular claims that their incursion has secured medium to long-term, regional, cross-socio-economic characteristic of most southwestern Somalia from Al- border development strategy. A thirdlate developers: they do not lack Shabaab—the Islamist militia that for option, not explored in detail here, ismanpower, but capital. many years controlled much of southern resettlement to a third country, which hasThus, from a developmental stand point, Somalia—civilians continue to flee the been, and should continue to be, pursuedit seems hard to argue that manpower- area rather than returning. for as many as possible who are willing.rich, capital-poor Dadaab has any value There are many second and even third There are also some positive aspectsto add to a national Kenyan economic generation refugees in the camps that to the situation. As there are significantproject, it merely dilutes the have nothing to return to in Somalia. numbers of Somalis permanently settledgovernment’s scarce capital resources. Also, many more recent refugees have no in Kenya since before independence, the Except for the tough job of funding a close family left across the border, and Somali clan system could be used to havecomprehensive regional development most who used to own property that distant relatives help integrate Somaliplan, there are important political served as a means of subsistence had refugees out of clan solidarity. And, asobstacles. Before its civil war, Somalia these destroyed or violently appropriated. IRIN reported on the 15th of June 2012,had difficult relations with its neighbors. there is some political support for theIt occasionally laid claim to Somali Without support to re-integrate back into integration of a smaller number ofinhabited territory beyond its borders, Somali society, it is likely that a great refugees that have personal ties to Kenya.notably in the Ogaden war with Ethiopia number of immigrants would become In Somalia, the continued militaryin the 1970s and a proxy war in Kenya internally displaced persons (IDPs). offensive against Al-Shabaab has fueled(the so-called Shifta war). Kenya is Merely rebuilding the Dadaab complex some optimism that the main violentworried that if it integrated a great 100 kilometers east makes little threat may soon be defeated. Thenumber of additional Somalis in its east, sense—not even for Kenya, as it would appointment of the moderate Hassansimilar future claims may seem more still be a hotbed for terrorist recruitment Sheikh Mohamud to the presidency givesplausible and be supported by a ‘fifth but with easier access for Al-Shabaab Somalis a more neutral figure to unitecolumn’. operatives. behind. Still there is a long way to go for This worry and the perception of A sudden influx of refugees into the peace and stability.Somali immigrants as taking jobs and politically and economically fragile The combined integration, repatriationdrawing a disproportional amount of Somalia could have devastating effects and resettlement of the refugees need ahumanitarian aid is also fueling strong on the situation. Conflicts over lot of time, money, political will andracist sentiments towards the immigrants. repossessed land and livestock would be long-term security in order to succeed.A 2009 Human Rights Watch report, likely, which would feed into the conflictentitled From Horror to Hopelessnes, between the Somali government and Al-detailed some racist abuse faced by Shabaab.Somali immigrants in detention in The continuing insecurity and the lackGarissa: of opportunities across the border means “When we arrived, the police made us that voluntary compliance is highlyline up facing a wall and said we should unlikely, and without it repatriation is not‘think about never coming back to really an option. Moving the entireKenya’. Then police officers hit all of us population of a large city by force wouldthree or four times on the back and head require too many of Kenya’s police andwith a stick. That night the Kenyan men military forces, leaving other regions andin a cell next to ours, which was possibly safe-zones in Somalia withseparated only by bars, urinated in plastic inadequate security. It would also violatebags and threw them at us and cursed at the 1951 refugee convention, bringingus in Swahili all night long. We international condemnation and possiblycomplained to the police but they did sanctions onto Kenya. With an electionnothing to stop them.” Repatriation? year looming, it is likely that tough calls However, even while integration in for repatriation are more a call for votesKenya seems difficult, repatriation is no Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 39
  • 40. Latin America HondurasBy GRAHAME RUSSELLThere is no end in sight to violence and been descending deeper into a humanrepression in Honduras, nor the impunity rights and security abyss. That abyss isand corruption with which the powerfuleconomic, military and political sectors in good part the State Department’s making. […] According to the United "Honduras has beenact. With American and Canadiangovernments and businesses maintaining Nations, it now has the world’s highest murder rate, and San Pedro Sula, its calledpolitical, economic and military relations “the murder capitalwith Honduras, their support only servesto further empower and legitimize the of the world”, theregime, all the while benefitting from theHonduran government’s subjugation if “journalist killingits people. capital of the world”,A HUMAN RIGHTS AND SECURITYABYSS the “ LGBT killing Since the US and Canadian endorsed capital of the world”, than Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, a center for the “inmate killingmilitary coup of June 28, 2009, which second largest city, is more dangerousousted the democratically electedgovernment, hundreds of pro-democracy drug cartel violence. Much of the press capital of the world”activists have been killed by the state in the United States has attributed thisand its death squads. As a result,Honduras has been called violence solely to drug trafficking and gangs. But the coup was what threw and the “lawyer“the murder capital of the world”, the open the doors to a huge increase in drug killing capital of the“journalist killing capital of the world”,the “ LGBT killing capital of the world”, trafficking and violence, and it unleashed a continuing wave of state-sponsored world”, by the North January 27, 2012 New York Times op-ed American Congressthe “inmate killing capital of the world” repression,” said Dana Frank in aand the “lawyer killing capital of theworld”, by the North American Congress entitled In Honduras, a mess made in the on Latin America, theon Latin America, the Monthly Review, U.S.the Miami Herald, the BBC, and theUnited Nations, respectively. This situation of repression and violence has gotten even worse. On Monthly Review, “[Honduras] is quickly turning into adisaster zone. […] To make matters May 11, 2012, a US-DEA (Drug the Miami Herald,worse in Honduras, there are indications Enforcement Agency) raid in the Ahuas community of northeast Honduras left at the BBC, and thethat elements of the U.S.-backedgovernment are complicit in the violence least four innocent people dead, including two pregnant women. Many United Nations,and criminality. […] The murder rate of82.1 per 100,000 residents […] gives more were wounded. respectively"Honduras the highest homicide rate in EMPOWERING AND LEGITIMIZINGthe world,” said a January 2012 editorial THE ILLEGITIMATEin the Miami Herald entitled Central While the United States receives mostAmerica’s Free-fire Zone. attention regarding its support for the “It’s time to acknowledge the foreign military-backed government ofpolicy disaster that American support for Honduras, Canada has played a majorthe Porfirio Lobo administration in role in empowering and legitimizing theHonduras has become. Ever since the regime.June 28, 2009, coup […] the country has Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 40
  • 41. Latin America Honduras Canada and the U.S. are the only politicians and government officials to since the day of the coup.governments that deemed the violent, take action against the current Honduran The 2013 presidential elections willillegitimate post-military coup elections government. Putting public pressure on pit corrupted pro-coup, pro-oligarchyin November 2009 both ‘fair and valid’. North American governments and parties—that are likely to be backedCanada and the U.S. are the only businesses is vital if we are to stop openly or indirectly by the US andgovernments to have maintained full empowering and legitimizing the Canada—against the LIBRE party, apolitical relations with the military- illegitimate Honduran regime. political movement that has grown out ofbacked regime. Since the coup, both It is equally important to support civil society’s courageous opposition tocountries—particularly Canada—have (with funds, human rights the military coup and on-goingeven expanded business dealings in accompaniment, solidarity delegations, repression.Honduras. etc.) civil society groups in LIBRE would easily win truly In August 2011, Canadian Prime Honduras—many of which are members democratic elections, given the chance.Minister Harper became the first foreign of the National Resistance Front—that However, these elections willleader to actually visit Honduras since are courageously struggling to denounce undoubtedly be characterized bythe military coup (most governments in the abuses and human rights violations, electoral corruption and threats andLatin America today still do not have all the while working to restore their suppression against LIBRE supporters.full political and economic relations with democratic order and to re-found the This is at once a struggle forthe military-backed administration). state and society. democracy and human rights in bothLeading a delegation of politicians and 2013 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS Honduras and across Latin America. It isbusiness executives, Prime Minister Despite this situation, there is a chance also a fight to hold North AmericanHarper signed a free trade agreement for positive political change in 2013. governments, companies and investorswith Honduras that gave international The wife of the militarily ousted accountable for legitimizing thecredibility to the regime, further President Zelaya has been chosen as illegitimate and for empowering aentrenching the rights of Canadian leader of a new political party—LIBRE. repressive and undemocratic regime.maquiladoras (sweat-shops), tourism, Whereas many Hondurans—now in the Grahame Russell is a non-practicingmining businesses and investors in National Resistance Front—were not Canadian lawyer, author, adjunctHonduras. Zelaya supporters before the coup, they professor at the University of Northern OUR PROBLEMS have been moved by the dignified and British Columbia and, since 1995, co- North Americans must pressure and courageous positions that both Mel director of Rights Action.keep on pressuring our elected Zelaya and his wife Xiomara have takenPhoto CornerWomen sort pistachios by hand at a privately-owned factory in Herat, Afghanistan. Photo: UN Multimedia Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 41
  • 42. Development I n th e N ews decline by between 14 and 24 per cent. The predication is based on a study of more than 600 species of saltwater fish, including the Atlantic cod and the North Sea haddock. About half of the shrinkage will be due to changes in the distribution and abundance of fish caused by changes to their environment, and half will be the direct result of living in oxygen-poor water. Species living in tropical and The biggest fish in the intermediate-latitude oceans will suffer the sea could be almost 25 per cent smaller by most, with an average reduction in weight of 2050 because of global warming, according more than 20 per cent, according to the studyThe Supreme Court in Brazil has found a top to a new study. by William Cheung and colleagues at theaide of the former Brazilian president, Luiz Warmer oceans will carry less dissolved University of British Columbia in Vancouver,Inacio Lula da Silva, guilty of corruption. Canada. oxygen, causing fish to grow to smaller sizes Jose Dirceu, Lulas chief of staff from 2003 and forcing them to move to cooler waters, While changes in distribution wereto 2005, was convicted of running a scheme the research published in the journal Nature expected, "we were surprised to see such athat used public funds to buy support from Climate Change claims. large decrease in fish size", Dr Cheung said.opposition parties in congress. Scientists predict that a rise in global "The unexpectedly big effect that climate He denies the scheme ever existed and says temperatures over the coming decades will change could have on body size suggests thatthe allegations are political. cause the average body size of sea fish to we may be missing a big piece of the puzzle Lula, who remains hugely popular inBrazil, was not implicated in the case. The former head of Lulas Workers Party,Jose Genoino, and its treasurer, DelubioSoares, were also convicted by a majority of Despite strong economic growth, food food price spikes, the findings arethe Supreme Court justices. security remains an issue of primary especially significant for areas of sub- They potentially face between two and 12 importance for Africa, according to a Saharan Africa where poverty, armedyears in jail, but the sentences will not be new study by risk analysis company conflict, civil unrest, drought,passed until the whole hearing is concluded. A Maplecroft, which classifies 75% of the displacement and poor governance canlengthy appeal process is also likely. continent’s countries at ‘high’ or combine to create conditions where a Mr Dirceu is a former left-wing rebel who ‘extreme risk.’In the light of recent food crisis may take hold.fought Brazils military government in the1970s and was eventually sent to exile inCuba. Along with Lula, he was one of thefounders of the Workers Party (PT) and wasone of the former presidents closest politicalallies. Mr Dirceu has said right-wing media andpoliticians fabricated the allegations to bringdown the government. The scandal, which erupted in 2005, for atime threatened to engulf the Lulaadministration but he was comfortably re-elected as president the following year. Chinese people commonly feel they have insufficient leisure time because of the countrys stage of economic development, said Wei Xiang, director of the BeijingChinese people have seen a decrease in Only 30 percent of those polled said they International Studies Universitys center forleisure time in the past three years, a new work 40 hours a week, the statutory working China leisure economic research.study shows. hours stipulated by Chinese law.The survey "China is still very much a labor-intensive Insight China, a State-run magazine that found that more than 40 percent spend less economy, and in such a people to its hard to situationlooks into Chinese peoples welfare, polled than 10 hours a week on leisure, and only 8 offer plenty of time for enjoy1,007 people nationwide in August and percent have leisure," he said.September and found that 70 percent said more than 30 "Our study foundthey are unsatisfied about the amount of hours a week that most Chineseleisure time they have. for leisure. people want to earnSixty percent of people surveyed were Chinese money instead ofbetween 23 and 42 years old, more than 70 people have taking vacations," hepercent earn 3,000 to 10,000 yuan ($480 to seen said."When China$1,590) a month, and 60 percent have a decreasing successfully reformsbachelors degree or higher qualification. leisure time its income Nearly 70 percent said they are since 2010, distribution and theoverworked. More than 40 percent said they and more than overall socialwork 40 to 50 hours a week, with 1.3 percent 40 percent of security system issaying more than 80 hours a week. respondents said they have enjoyed less built, the situation will change." leisure time this year than last. Global South Development Magazine Oct 201 2 42
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