•• Controls air infiltration •• Can also be the weather barrier •• Permeable to water vapor but not to liquid or air Air barrier is a white polyolefin sheet material, usually acting as a weather and air barrier.
•• Attics are ventilated to allow water vapor to escape and to keep houses cooler in the summer. •• Ventilation prevents ice dams from forming in winter and reduces heat transmission of hot air in the attic to the interior of the building. Soffit Vents Soffit Vents or Frieze Vents are intake ventilation, while ridge vents are part of exhaust ventilation. Ridge Vents Air Intake
Roof Turbines and Gable Vents also function as exhaust ventilators.. Adequate ventilation of the attic requires cross ventilation; warm air rises so exhaust ventilation is required at higher level in the attic. Roof Turbines Gable Vents
Width of bucket: 1’ 4” Backhoe A piece of excavating equipment consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm and are used primarily for digging and moving dirt, gravel and sand.
Temporary frame built just outside the corner of an excavation; used to establish the precise location of a building site. Strings are stretched across the batter boards and, using a plumb, lines are painted on the ground or stakes are driven into the ground. It is important to make sure the corners are square (forming a 90 degree angle).
A Roman Arch A Gothic Arch
Arch with keystone A Jack Arch A Roman Arch
Flemish Bond Headers Soldiers Rowlocks Running Bond Stretchers
A bulldozer is a caterpiller tracked tractor equipped with a metal plate called a blade. It is used to push large amounts of soil, rubble and sand during construction work.
Cladding is defined as the exterior wall enclosure of a building. An example of exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS). Stucco - a portland cement plaster which is strong, economical and fire resistant.
Wood Shingles Wood shakes •• Wooden shingles and shakes differ in that shingles are sawn on both sides so that the faces are relatively smooth. •• Wooden shakes are split from the short section of log called a “bolt”. •• The sawn face is its underside while the upper side appears rough and irregular.
Stone Wood Boards
Tread width: 11 in Riser Height: 7 in Stair Code Requirements: 11 in minimum Tread 7-3/4 in maximum Riser 4 in minimum Riser These stairs meet code because its measurements fall within the range stated by the IBC Code.
Height: 31” Width: 34” Sill Height: 7” IBC Window Code Requirements: Minimum width= 20” Minimum Height= 24” Maximum Sill Height= 44” This window meets code requirements because the measurements fall within the range stated in the code.
A concrete or control joint is defined as a man-made linear discontinuity in concrete designed to form a plane of weakness where cracking is likely to occur over time. Concrete joints are made to minimize cracking elsewhere in the concrete. Concrete joint failure Concrete joint
The height of a standard 8” high CMU is equal to 3 courses of modular brick Concrete masonry units, commonly referred to as concrete blocks are usually 8x8x16
6 ‘’ CMU Block Standard 8” CMU CMUs come in a variety of thicknesses
Split Block alternating with 3 courses of standard CMU blocks CMUs can be manufactured with a variety of textures and patterns intended for use on exterior walls.
A six-panel door Panel Lock rail Top rail Stile Bottom rail 1 2 3 4 5 6
Sidelights-a tall, narrow window alongside a door Transom- a small window directly above a door
Duplex Receptacle Transformer box meter Service Panel
1. Anchor Bolt
2. Sill Plate
3. Floor Joist
6. Sole Plate 7. Stud
8. Top Plate 9. Ceiling Joist
10. Rafters 11. Roof Decking
Front end loader •• Has a front mounted, wide, square bucket connected to the end of two arms to scoop up loose dirt, sand or gravel, and move it from one place to another. •• Differs from a bulldozer in that it moves material without pushing the material across the ground. •• Commonly used to move stockpiled material from ground level to a waiting dump truck.
Gypsum Board Gypsum board is an interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core sandwiched between paper faces. Also called drywall or plasterboard
A device that utilizes a refrigeration cycle either to heat or cool a building by passing air or water over either the condensing coils or the evaporating coils.
Purpose of Thermal Insulation •• To retard the passage of heat through exterior surfaces. •• To keep a building cool in the summer and warm in winter. •• To moderate the temperatures of inside surfaces. •• To reduce the energy consumption of heating and cooling.
Batt Insulation Loose Fill (not typical) but a smaller example of foamed-in-place Rigid board
A lintel is a beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or opening. Lintel
•• Oriented Strand Board (OSB) is a non-veneered building panel composed of long shreds of wood fiber oriented in specific directions and bonded together under pressure. •• The fibers are glued together and compressed in 3-5 layers.
Water Closet or bathroom Lavatory Plumbing Vent Drop –in Sink
•• Veneer (graining)-a thin layer, sheet or facing. Sheets used are from rotary sliced wood. •• Plywood Panels are made of thin wood veneers glued together; the grain on the front and back runs in the same direction. •• They always have an odd number of layers which equalizes the effects of moisture and movement
A reflective foil placed adjacent to an airspace in roof or wall assemblies as a deterrent of infrared energy
•• Rebar is short for reinforcing bars. Rebar is used in concrete or masonry. •• The deformations rolled into the surface of rebar help it bond, strongly, to concrete. An example of a #5 rebar = The diameter is 5/8 of an inch
Gutter- a channel that collects rainwater and snowmelt at the eave of a roof; the water then drains into the downspout. Downspout- vertical pipe for conducting water from a roof to a lower level; connected to gutter. Splash block-small precast block of concrete or plastic used to divert water at the bottom of a downspout.
Underlayment is a layer of waterproof material between roof sheathing and roofing.
Clay Tile Roof
Wood Shingles Shingle- a small unit of water resistant material nailed in overlapping fashion with many other shingles to render a wall or sloping roof watertight. uninstalled Asphalt Shingle
Preformed Metal Roof -this type of metal roofing is commonly used on commercial buildings -low-cost to install; metal panels are pre-fabricated offsite using mainly screws and a polymeric coating for finishes. -can be insulated
Hip Roof Gable Roof Mansard Roof
B A A . Ridge- the level intersection of two roof planes in a gable roof B. Valley- a trough formed by the intersection of two roof shapes C. Rake- the sloping edge of a steep roof D. Eave- the horizontal edge at the low side of a sloping roofE E. Fascia-the exposed vertical space of a eave F. Soffit- the underspace of a horizontal element of a house D E F C
Random rubble Coursed ashlar Random ashlar
Random ashlar Coursed rubble
The vapor retarder is installed on the warmer side of insulation. Many batt insulations are furnished with a vapor retarder layer of treated paper already attached.
Waterproofing is applied over CMUs that will be under ground This type of waterproofing is a fully adhered kind. It is less likely to permit water to travel under the membrane should a leak occur.
•• A weep hole is a small opening whose purpose is to permit drainage of water that accumulates inside a building component or assembly
Welded Wire Fabric- a grid of steel rods welded together, used to reinforce a concrete slab
Double Hung windows- have two moving sashes that slide up and down in tracks in the frame of the window Single Hung windows- have one moving sash that slides on a track