Phonemes & Consonant Allophones

4,148 views

Published on

The phoneme can be defined as "the smallest contrastive linguistic unit which may bring about a change of meaning" (Gimson, A.C. (2008), Cruttenden, A., ed., The Pronunciation of English (7 ed.)). This definition can be clarified by a practice called minimal pair which is listing pairs of words which are different in meaning and phonologically distinct only in one phonological element.

Minimal pair can be illustrated in the following examples:

The words "pin" /pɪn/ and "pan" /pæn/ are different only in their middle sounds i.e. /ɪ/ & /æ/. Therefore the sounds /ɪ/ & /æ/ are considered to be different phonemes.

The words "pill" /pɪl/ and "bill" /bɪl/ are different only in their initial sounds i.e. /p/ & /b/. Therefore the sounds /p/ & /b/ are considered to be different phonemes.


An allophone, on the other hand, is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) used to pronounce a single phoneme. It can be considered to be variations of a phoneme and doesn't change the meaning of a word.

e.g. the phoneme /p/ in the word "pill" /pɪl/ can be aspirated [pʰɪl ]. So the aspirated [pʰ] is considered to be the allophone of the phoneme /p/

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,148
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
22
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
162
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Phonemes & Consonant Allophones

  1. 1. Consonant Allophones By : Bayu Jaka Magistra 180120130006
  2. 2. Phonemes • Ancient Greek φώνημα (phōnēma), from φωνέω (phōneō), from φωνή (phōnē) = speech sound • The smallest unit of speech that can be used to make one word different from another word (www.merriam-webster.com) • The smallest contrastive linguistic unit which may bring about a change of meaning (Gimson, 2008)
  3. 3. speech sound, one word different from another, meaning A phoneme is a speech sound that can make one word different from another in meaning. Minimal Pairs
  4. 4. Minimal Pairs • It is somehow considered to be a technique to discover phonemes of a language. • A minimal pair is a pair of words or phrases in a particular language, which is different in only one phonological element…. (Jones, 1944) • The different phonological element makes one word different from another in meaning • Thus the two different phonological elements in the pair of words represent two separate phonemes in the language.
  5. 5. Minimal Pairs in English /pɪn/ Pin /bɪn/ Bin /tɪn/ /kɪn/ Tin Kin /dʒɪn/ Gin /tʃɪn/ /θɪn/ /sɪn/ • These words are different only in the initial sound. Each different initial sound makes a word different from each other in meaning. • So… /p/ /b/ /t/ /k/ /dʒ/ /tʃ/ /θ/ Chin and /s/ are considered to be different phonemes. Thin sin
  6. 6. Minimal Pairs in English /bæt/ /bɪt/ /buː t/ /bet/ /bɔː t/ Bat Bit Boot Bet • These words are different only in the medial sound. Each different medial sound makes a word different from each other in meaning. • So… /æ/ /ɪ/ /uː /e/ and /ɔː are / / Bought considered to be different phonemes.
  7. 7. English Phonemes* Vowels Diphthongs /ʌ/ /ɪ/ /ɑː/ /iː/ /eɪ/ /aɪ/ /eə/ /ʊ/ /e/ /uː/ /æ/ /ɔə/ /ɒ/ /ə/ /ɔː/ /ɔɪ/ /əʊ/ /aʊ/ /ɜː/ /ɪə/ /ʊə/ Consonants /p/ /t/ /k/ /f/ /θ/ /s/ /ʃ/ /tʃ/ /h/ /n/ /r/ /w/ /b/ /d/ /g/ /v/ /ð/ /z/ /ʒ/ /dʒ/ /m/ /l/ /ŋ/ /j/ *Based on Received Pronunciation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Received_Pronunciation)
  8. 8. Allophones • from the Greek: ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound.“ = Other sound • An allophone is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) used to pronounce a single phoneme (Jakobson, 1980). • Allophones do not change the meaning of a word • Allophones happen because of the position of a phoneme and the phonetic characteristics of neighboring sounds
  9. 9. Allophones Allophones are phoneme variations that do not cause meaning change and happen because of its position and the phonetic characteristics of neighboring sounds.
  10. 10. Kinds of Allophones 1 2 3 Aspiration Assimilation Elision
  11. 11. 1. Aspiration • • Characterized by strong explosion of breath or puff. It happens to voiceless plosive consonants ( /p/ /t/ /k/ ) in the initial position. [pʰ] [p] [tʰ] [t] [p] [kʰ] [k] [t] [k]
  12. 12. 1. Aspiration • • Pen Stop [pʰen] [stɒp] aspirated un-aspirated • • Top Bat [tʰ ɒp] [bæt] aspirated un-aspirated • • King Back [kʰɪŋ] [bæk] aspirated un-aspirated
  13. 13. 2. Assimilation • (to) assimilate = incorporate = memasukkan. • Assimilation is the influence of a sound on a neighboring sound so that the two become similar or the same (Salzmann, 2004)
  14. 14. 2. Assimilation Examples • White Pepper /waIt 'pepə/. If we pronounce this phrase rapidly, the phoneme /t/ in the word “white” /waIt / becomes /p/, because of the influence of the phoneme /p/ in the word “pepper”/pepə/. So the phrase becomes /waIp'pepə/ • On the house /ɒn ðə 'haʊs/ If we pronounce this phrase rapidly, the phoneme /ð/ in the word “the” /ðə/ becomes /n/, because of the influence of the phoneme /n/ in the word “on” /ɒn/ . So the phrase becomes /ɒn nə 'haʊs/
  15. 15. 3. Elision • An elision is the omission of a sound for phonological reasons (Algeo, 1999) The next day /ðə ‘neks(t) ‘deɪ/ The last car /ðə ‘lɑ:s(t) kɑ:/ Hold the dog! /’həʊl(d) ðə ‘dɒg/ Send Frank a card. /sen(d) ‘fræŋk ə ‘kɑ:d/ The phoneme /t/ is elided The phoneme /t/ is elided The phoneme /d/ is elided The phoneme /d/ is elided
  16. 16. Quiz peter piper picked a peck of peckled peppers, a peck of pickled peppers peter piper picked, if peter piper picked a peck of peckled pepers, where's the peck of pickled peppers peter piper picked?
  17. 17. Thank You Very Much Bibliography Algeo, J. (1999). Vocabulary. In S. Romaine (Ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language (Vol. IV). Cambridge Univ. Press. Gimson, A. C. (2008). The Pronunciation of English (7 ed.). London , England: Hodder. Jakobson, R. (1980). Structure of Language and Its Mathematical Aspects: Proceedings of symposia in applied mathematics. AMS Bookstore. Jones, D. (1944). Chronemes and Tonemes. Copenhagen: Acta Linguistica. Salzmann, Z. (2004). Language, Culture, and Society: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology. Westview.

×