• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Relecture12
 

Relecture12

on

  • 2,826 views

Slides of Chpter 1,2,3 Principles of Management by Sir Anjum Qureshi

Slides of Chpter 1,2,3 Principles of Management by Sir Anjum Qureshi

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,826
Views on SlideShare
2,826
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
54
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Apple Keynote

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • After studying this chapter you will be able to: Tell who managers are and where they work Define management Describe what managers do Explain why it’s important to study management, and Describe the factors that are reshaping and redefining management
  • Three characteristics that identify an organization are its: Goals People , and Structure. Examples of organizations include: Your neighborhood convenience store The Dallas Cowboys football team Fraternities and sororities The Cleveland Clinic, and Internationally known corporations such as Nokia.
  • Here we see three levels of managers whose titles describe their place in the managerial hierarchy: top, middle, and first-line managers.
  • Management is the process of getting things done effectively and efficiently , with and through people.
  • Another way to describe what managers do is by looking at the skills they need for managing. Management researcher Robert L. Katz and others describe four critical skills: Conceptual skills Interpersonal skills Technical skills, and Political skills.
  • Until now, we’ve looked at management as a generic activity. But in reality, a manager’s job varies depending on: The manager’s level in the organization , and Whether the organization is a profit or nonprofit organization. Depending on a manager’s position within an organization, the importance of a manager’s role differs in degree and emphasis . That is, the decisions of a top manager will have greater ramifications than those of a middle manager due to the content of the decision. All managers—whether in profit or nonprofit organizations—make decisions and plan, lead, organize, and control. However, the following variables change based on the manager’s level in the organization: The amount of time a manager gives to each activity is not necessarily constant. For example, as seen in this illustration, as managers move up the organization they spend less time supervising and more time planning. T he content of the managerial activities also changes with the manager’s level . That is, a first-level manager spends the majority of his time leading but a top manager spends the majority of his time organizing. It’s important to note that management performance is measured according to different objectives depending on the nature of the organization: For businesses, profit is the bottom line, but Nonprofits do not exist to maximize profits.
  • How generic or universal are the manager’s roles when it comes to working in a small organization versus a large corporation? What differences might exist? Are the managerial concepts we’ve been discussing transferable across countries? If so, they would apply universally in any country in the world. However, research shows that while concepts transfer easily among many English-speaking countries, managers will likely have to modify their management when dealing with India, China, Chile, or other countries with economic, political, social, or cultural environments that differ from those of traditional Western free-market democracies.
  • As we see here, the importance of managerial roles in small and large businesses differ. For the purposes of our discussion, a small business is an independent business having fewer than 500 employees that doesn’t necessarily engage in any new or innovative practices and has relatively little impact on its industry. The most important role of a small business manager is that of spokesperson, performing externally in meeting with customers, arranging financing with bankers, searching for new opportunities, and stimulating change. The actions of manager in a large organization, however, are directed internally , deciding which organizational units get which and how much of the available resources.. A small business manager is more likely to be a generalist in a less formal, less structured, and less complex environment than his counterpart in a large organization. Managers in both small and large organizations perform essentially the same activities, but how they go about those activities and the proportion of time they spend on each differ.
  • Understanding management offers insights into why some companies get our orders right the first time, why once-thriving organizations no longer exist, and which companies continue to prosper during challenging economic times. Studying management provides knowledge about manager skills and responsibilities, how organizations function, and how people behave in the workplace.
  • Managers everywhere face changing circumstances such as managing workers in both domestic and foreign workplaces, emerging technologies, ethical and trust issues, and global economic uncertainties. As a result, how they manage is also changing and affecting the way they plan, organize, lead, and control. Two important changes to note are: The increasing importance of customers , and Innovation.
  • Organizations need customer to exist. Until recently, customer focus was thought to be the responsibility of marketing, but organizations are now discovering that employee attitudes and behaviors play a big role in customer satisfaction. Managers are recognizing that delivering consistent high-quality customer service is essential for survival and success in today’s competitive environment. They recognize that employees are an integral part of creating a customer-responsive organization where employees are friendly and courteous, accessible, knowledgeable, prompt in responding to customer needs, and willing to do what’s necessary to please the customer.
  • Innovation means doing things differently, exploring new territory, and taking risks. In today’s challenging environment, innovation is critical and managers need to understand what, when, where, how, and why innovation can be fostered and encouraged throughout an organization. Managers need to be personally innovative and to encourage their employees to be innovative.
  • The Egyptian pyramids are proof that projects of tremendous scope, employing more than 100,000 workers for some 20 years, were completed in ancient times. Someone had to plan the project, organize the labor and materials, and to impose controls to ensure that the work was done correctly.
  • At the beginning of the twentieth century, the discipline of management began to evolve as a unified body of knowledge. Frederick W. Taylor, known as the father of scientific management , developed a method of scientifically finding the “one best way to do a job” in his 1911 groundbreaking book, Principles of Scientific Management .
  • Unlike Taylor, who focused on an individual production worker’s job, Henri Fayol and Max Weber looked at organizational practices by focusing on what managers do and what constituted good management. This approach is known as general administrative theory . Fayol first identified five management functions and fourteen principles of management that could be applied to all organizations. Weber, shown here, is known for his description and analysis of bureaucracy, which he believed was an ideal form of organization structure, especially for large organizations.
  • Managers get things done by working with people. From the late 1700s to the early 1900s, several management writers recognized the importance of people to an organization’s success. Some examples are: Robert Owen, who was concerned about deplorable working conditions, proposed an idealistic workplace. Hugo Munsterberg , a pioneer in the field of industrial psychology, suggested using psychological tests for employee selection, learning theory concepts for employee training, and studies of human behavior for employee motivation. Mary Parker Follett recognized that organizations could be viewed from both individual and group behavior perspectives, and argued that organizations should be based on a group ethic rather than on individualism.
  • From 1924 to the mid-1930s, the Hawthorne Studies —conducted at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company in Illinois—were the most important contribution to the behavioral approach to management. Initially designed as a scientific management experiment to measure the effect of various lighting levels on worker productivity, these studies revealed that pressures significantly affect individual productivity and that people behave differently when being observed. The Hawthorne Studies had a dramatic impact on management beliefs about the role of people in organizations and led to a new emphasis on the human behavior factor in organizational management.
  • During the 1940s and 1950s, the quantitative approach provided tools for managers to make their jobs easier. These tools focused on the application of statistics, optimization models, information models, computer simulations, and other quantitative techniques to improve decision-making. Quality experts W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Duran’s ideas became the basis for total quality management, or TQM, a management philosophy devoted to continual improvement and response to customer needs and expectations.
  • Most of the early approaches to management focused on managers’ concerns inside the organization. Beginning in the 1960s, management researchers began to look at what was happening in the environment outside the organization. The systems approach views systems as a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole. Organizations function as open systems, which means they are influenced by and interact with their environments. A manager must efficiently and effectively manage all parts of the system to achieve established goals. In the 1960s, Fred Feildler first popularized the contingency approach, which states that organizations, employees, and situations are different and require different management approaches. Since the 1980s, dramatic changes in information technology have directly affected the manager’s job. Nearly everyone in an organization is connected via technology and managers may manage employees working from home or halfway around the world.

Relecture12 Relecture12 Presentation Transcript

  • 1 Chapter Managers and Management Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Learning Outcomes
    • Tell who managers are and where they work.
    • Define management.
    • Describe what managers do.
    • Explain why it’s important to study management.
    • Describe the factors that are reshaping and redefining management.
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Getting Started: Discuss
    • Give some examples of good managers.
    • Does it matter if the manager is young or old, male or female?
    • Is management necessary in non-profit organizations and small companies like it is in for profit and large companies?
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Who Are Managers? Where Do They Work?
      • Managers work in organizations, which we define as a deliberate arrangement of people brought together to accomplish a specific purpose.
    • Organization
      • The term organization refers to an entity that has a distinct purpose, has people or members, and has a systematic structure.
    • Common Characteristics of Organizations
      • Goals
      • People
      • Structure
    1- Anjum Nisar Qureshi
        • Goals : Every organization has a purpose and is made up of people who are grouped in some fashion.
          • See Exhibit 1-1.
          • This distinct purpose is typically expressed in terms of a goal or set of goals.
        • People : Purposes or goals can only be achieved through people.
        • Structure : All organizations develop a systematic structure that defines and limits the behavior of its members.
          • Developing structure may include creating rules and regulations , giving some members supervisory control , forming teams , etc.
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • How Are Managers Different from Nonmanagerial Employees?
    • Members of an organization can be divided into two categories:
    • Non-managerial employees work directly on a task and do not oversee the work of others.
      • Examples include a cashier in a department store or someone who processes your license at the registry of motor vehicles office.
    • Managers , who direct and oversee the activities of the people in the organization.
        • The distinction between non-managers and managers is that managers have employees who report directly to them.
    1- Anjum Nisar Qureshi
  • Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1- Right or Wrong
    • New York Yankees shortstop Derek Jeter admitted that in a September 2010 game against the Tampa Bay Devil Rays he faked being hit by a pitch in order to get on base. Jeter later scored a run, but the Yankees ultimately lost the game.
    • Questions for students to consider:
    • What do you think? Were Jeter’s actions acceptable (i.e., ethical)?
    • Does the fact that theatrics are part of all sports competitions make it acceptable?
    • Was it the umpire’s “fault” for missing the call?
    • Did the team manager have any responsibility to respond to Jeter’s action?
    • What if the Yankees had actually won the game by one run? Would that make a difference in how you feel about this?
  • 1- Anjum Nisar Qureshi
  • What Titles Do Managers Have?
    • Top managers are those at or near the top of an organization.
      • For instance, a Chief Executive Office (or CEO) often makes decisions about the direction of the organization and establishes policies and philosophies that affect all organizational members.
    • Middle managers fall between the lowest and highest levels of the organization.
      • They often manage other managers and sometimes non-managerial employees, and are responsible for translating the goals set by top managers into specific detailed tasks that lower-level managers oversee.
      • Titles for middle managers may include plant manager, department manager, or project leader.
    • First-line managers are responsible for directing the day-to-day activities of non-managerial employees, and receive such titles as supervisor, shift manager, or unit coordinator.
    1- Anjum Nisar Qureshi
  • Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • What Is Management?
    • Management is the process of getting things done effectively and efficiently , with and through people.
    • Getting things done effectively means “doing the right things,” that is, tasks that help an organization reach its goals.
    • Doing the job efficiently means “doing things right” so that the organization’s resources—its people, money, and equipment—are used to their fullest.
    1- Anjum Nisar Qureshi
  • 1- Anjum Nisar Qureshi
  • Efficiency and Effectiveness
    • In 1911, mechanical engineer Frederick Winslow Taylor’s newly published book, Principles of Scientific Management , described the theory of scientific management as the use of scientific methods to define the “one best way” for a job to be done.
    • Taylor’s experience in the steel industry taught him that:
      • Workers used vastly different techniques to do the same job, and
      • Workers were placed in jobs with little concern for matching specific workers’ abilities and aptitudes with the tasks required of them.
    • As illustrated here, efficiency is concerned with the means of getting things done by:
      • Doing a task correctly
      • Minimizing both resource use and cost, and
      • Getting the greatest output from the smallest amount of inputs.
    • Effectiveness is concerned with the ends , that is, doing the right tasks that result in attaining organizational goals.
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Efficiency and Effectiveness
        • Efficiency and effectiveness are interrelated.
          • It’s easier to be effective if one ignores efficiency. (high use of resources to get the desired results)
          • Good management is concerned with both attaining goals (effectiveness) and doing so as efficiently as possible.
          • Organizations can be efficient and yet not be effective.
          • High efficiency is associated more typically with high effectiveness.
        • Poor management is most often due to both inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to effectiveness achieved through inefficiency.
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • What Do Managers Do?
    • Management researchers have developed three approaches to describe what managers do:
      • By their functions
      • By their roles , and
      • By their skills and competencies.
    • In the functions approach proposed by Henri Fayol, a French industrialist, all managers perform certain activities and functions, such as planning , organizing , commanding , coordinating , and controlling .
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Four Management Functions
    • The four key management functions identified in contemporary management are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
      • Planning , which includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities, ensures that the work is kept in proper focus and helps organizational members keep their attention on what is most important.
      • Organizing and structuring work to accomplish the organization’s goals includes determining which tasks need to be done and by whom, how tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and who will make decisions.
      • Leading means that the manager will direct and coordinate the work activities of the people s/he supervises, motivate employees, select the most effective communication channel, and resolve conflicts among members.
      • Controlling, which is the fourth and final management function, involves monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance.
    1- Anjum Nisar Qureshi
  • What Are Management Roles?
    • In the late 1960s, Henry Mintzberg conducted a study of chief executives and discovered that managers were engaged in a number of varied, un-patterned, and short-duration activities.
    • He defined management by categorizing ten roles that managers play, organized into the following three general categories:
      • Interpersonal relationships involving subordinates and people outside the organization in the roles of figurehead, leader, and liaison;
      • Information transfer that involves collecting, receiving, and disseminating information in the roles of monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson; and
      • Decision-making that entails making choices in the roles of entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator.
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Minzberg Manager’s Role: Update
    • Mintzberg’s most current research concludes that managing is about influencing action that helps organizations and units get things done.
    • Based on his observations, Mintzberg suggests that managers influence action in three ways:
      • Managing actions directly through negotiating contracts, managing projects, and the like
      • Managing people who take action through such activities as motivating them, building teams, and enhancing the organization’s culture, and
      • Managing information that propels people to take action using budgets, goals, task delegation, and so on.
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Minzberg Manager’s Role: Update
    • Based on these actions, Mintzberg asserts that a manager has two important roles : framing and scheduling.
      • Framing defines how a manager approaches his or her job; and
      • Scheduling “brings the frame to life” through the distinct tasks the manager does while managing actions directly, managing people who take action, or managing information.
    • Mintzberg’s newest study provides additional insights to our understanding of what managers do.
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • What Skills Do Managers Need?
    • Another way to describe what managers do is by looking at the skills they need for managing. Management researcher Robert L. Katz and others describe four critical skills :
    • Conceptual Skills
      • Used to analyze and diagnose complex situations
    • Interpersonal Skills
      • Used to work with, understand, and motivate individuals and groups
    • Technical Skills
      • Involve job-specific knowledge and techniques required to perform tasks
    • Political Skills
      • Used to build a power base and establish connections
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
        • More recent research has identified a set of nine competencies important for organizational success.
          • Traditional Functions: encompassing tasks such as decision making, short-term planning, goal setting, monitoring, team building, etc.
          • Task Orientation: including elements such as urgency, decisiveness, initiative, etc.
          • Personal Orientation: including things such as compassion, assertiveness, politeness, customer focus, etc.
          • Dependability : involving aspects such as personal responsibility, trustworthiness, loyalty, professionalism, etc.
          • Open-Mindedness : encompassing elements such as tolerance, adaptability, creative thinking, etc.
          • Emotional Control: which includes both resilience and stress management
          • Communication : including aspects such as listening, oral communication, public presentation, etc.
          • Developing Self and Others: including tasks such as performance assessment, self-development, providing developmental feedback, etc.
          • Occupational Acumen and Concerns: involving aspects such as technical proficiency, being concerned with quality and quantity, financial concern, etc.
    • Another recent study of some 8,600 managers found that what managers do could be grouped into three simple competencies: conceptual, interpersonal and technical/administrative.
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Is the Manager’s Job Universal?
    • Level in the Organization
    • Profit vs. Nonprofit
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Is the Manager’s Job Universal? (cont.)
    • Size of the organization
      • Dictates the manager’s main roles and time spent in each role
    • Transferability of managerial concepts
      • Requires modification with countries other than free-market democracies
    Small business managers spend much of their time in entrepreneurial activities. Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • 1- Anjum Nisar Qureshi
  • Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Why Study Management?
    • Reasons
    • We all have a vested interest in improving the way organizations are managed.
      • We interact with them every day of our lives.
        • Examples of problems that can largely be attributed to poor management.
      • Those that are poorly managed often find themselves with a declining customer base and reduced revenues.
        • The reality that once you graduate from college and begin your career, you will either manage or be managed.
          • An understanding of the management process is foundational for building management skills.
          • You will almost certainly work in an organization, be a manager, or work for a manager.
          • You needn’t aspire to be a manager in order to gain something valuable from a course in management
        • Management embodies the work and practices from individuals from a wide variety of disciplines.
    • Organizations that are well managed develop a loyal following and are prosperous.
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • What Factors Are Reshaping and Redefining Management?
    • Today, managers must deal with:
      • Changing workplaces
      • Ethical and trust issues
      • Global economic uncertainties
      • Changing technologies
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1- Trader Joe’s success results from outstanding customer service.
  • Why Are Customers Important?
    • Without customers, most organizations would cease to exist.
    • Employee attitudes and behaviors play a big part in customer satisfaction.
    • Managers must create a customer-responsive environment where employees are friendly, knowledgeable, and sensitive to customer needs.
    1- Anjum Nisar Qureshi
  • Why Is Innovation Important?
    • “ Nothing is more risky than not innovating.”
    • Innovation isn’t only important for high technology companies; it is essential in all types of organizations.
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • History Module A Brief History of Management’s Roots Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Early Management
    • Management has been practiced for thousands of years.
    • Organized projects were directed by people responsible for planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
    • The terms management or manager come from a number of sources. One source says that the word manager originated in 1588 to describe one who manages. The specific use of the word as “one who conducts a house of business or public institution” is said to have originated in 1705.
    • Another source says that the origin (1555–1565) is from the word maneggiare, which meant “to handle or train horses,” and was a derivative of the word mano, which is from the Latin word for hand, manus. That origin arose from the way that horses were guided, controlled, or directed where to go—that is, through using one’s hand.
    • The words management and manager are more appropriate to the early twentieth century. Peter Drucker, the late management writer, studied and wrote about management for more than 50 years.
    • The word ‘management’ was first popularized by Frederick Winslow Taylor.” In 1911, Taylor’s book Principles of Scientific Management was published. Its contents were widely embraced by managers around the world. The book described the theory of scientific management: the use of scientific methods to define the “one best way” for a job to be done.
    • He spent more than two decades passionately pursuing the “one best way” for such jobs to be done. Based on his groundbreaking studies of manual workers using scientific principles, Taylor became known as the “father” of scientific management. Some of these techniques like the analysis of basic work that must be performed, and time-and-motion studies are still used today.
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Classical Approaches (1911–1947)
    • Scientific Management
      • Frederick W. Taylor described scientific management as a method of scientifically finding the “one best way to do a job.”
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Other Classical Approaches
    • General Administrative Theory
      • Focused on what constituted good management.
      • Henri Fayol identified five management functions and 14 management principles.
      • Max Weber described the bureaucracy as an ideal rational form of organization.
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Behavioral Approaches
    • Early management writers included:
      • Robert Owen, who was concerned about deplorable working conditions
      • Hugo Munsterberg, a pioneer in the field of industrial psychology
      • Mary Parker Follett, who recognized that organizations could be viewed from both individual and group behavior perspectives
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • The Hawthorne Studies
    • Studies conducted at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company:
      • Provided new insights into individual and group behavior at work.
      • Concluded that group pressures can significantly impact individual productivity.
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Quantitative Approaches
    • Quantitative Approach
      • Used quantitative techniques to improve decision- making.
      • Evolved from mathematical and statistical solutions developed for military problems during World War II.
      • W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Duran’s ideas became the basis for total quality management (TQM) .
    1-32 Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-
  • Contemporary Approaches
    • Focused on managers’ concerns outside the organization
      • Organizations are open systems that are influenced by and interact with their environments.
      • Fred Feildler’s contingency approach states that organizations, employees, and situations require different managerial approaches.
      • Dramatic changes in information technology connect nearly everyone in an organization, and managers now supervise employees remotely.
    Anjum Nisar Qureshi 1-