France in World War II

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A quick summary of France in World War II.

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France in World War II

  1. 1. FRANCEin World War 2Adrian Pusic & Siir Tecirlioglu
  2. 2. Key Battles Home Front in the War FranceKey Leaders Resources
  3. 3. Key Battles
  4. 4. Battle of France Background• France had 1 battle in World War II• defeated at this battle – Historiansreason of the failure is low morale & divided pre-war society.• known as the Defeat of France• Winston Churchill thought: – French are strong enough against Hitler and his army.• “French collapse was as sudden as it was unexpected.”
  5. 5. Battle of France• 10 May 1940• German air & ground forcesHolland & Belgium• British and French get to the River Dyle in Belgium • Push back the Germans on theway.• But... the more into the weaker countries, the easier Hitler takes over.
  6. 6. ...continued• 20 MayGermans reachthe English Channel• Allies pull their armies out of Belgium – Germans entering France• But... too late to make strong counterattacks – Germans encircling France from Belgium • south and west• 28 MayBelgians surrender
  7. 7. ...continued• Operation Dynamo; – evacuated 338,000 BEF soldiers from Dunkirk – Britian could rebuild the army• Germans move southwards from River Somme – Cause French armies to surrender 1 by 1• 9 JuneGermans attack Paris &the gov’t leave Paris• 22 JuneFrench gave in
  8. 8. Military Strength (tactics & resistance...)• Similar tactics as the ones in WWI• 1914many casualties in the front attacks – So now stay as defense in western Europe – ”policy of offence as opposed to defense”• Mobilize and get ready for war• Wanted to begin attacking as offensive 2-3 years after the beginning of the war.• Military in small lines at heavily defended areas • More effective counter-attack
  9. 9. ...continued• Maginot Line; – instead of the trenches – a lot of defense – didn’t cover the French-Belgian frontier – But... German tactic (blitzkrieg) ruined the purpose
  10. 10. Key Leaders
  11. 11. Gamelin•unsuccessful general of France in WW2•Easy to predict his actions•Disasterous plans in WW2•Insisted of creating the Maginot Line•1939—some French troops pass German border •Gamelin decided to pull back even though they had the chance to defeat the few German troops there. •Want to wait until 1941 •Passed border to send help to Poland•French air force didnt attack Germans’instead theyfocused on advancing.•Maurice Gustave Gamelin
  12. 12. Albert Lebrun• 29 August 1871—6 March 1950• Last president of the French Third Republic• Irresponsible and a lazy personnot a good model for presidency.• 1940—him & the cabinet make an armistice with Germany• Vichy France government replacement of the Third Republic• 1943-1944Germans put him in prison• 1944accepted Charles de Gaullehead of the provisional government
  13. 13. Home Front in the War
  14. 14. The French Resistance• against Nazis in France• Maquissmall groups of armed men and women• moral support to Francenational pride• 6 June 1944—helped when Allies began entering France from Normandy• operation units called French Forces of the Interior (FFI)• FFI grew more  VE Day, they had 1.2 million soldiers• The French Resistance
  15. 15. The Partisans• 1941Growth in the number of Francs- Tireurs et Partisans (FRT)• Means french communists were gaining power again against fascists• Open to non-communists also but the rule was communist• acts of sabotage and rebellions• 1944 100,000 men
  16. 16. Problems in France• Problems related to the armistice which was to pay the costs – The artificial exchange rate of the German Reichsmark currency against the French franc established as one mark to twenty francs.• resulted in endemic food shortages and malnutrition• Transportationextreme shortage of diesel and fuel• Work shortages
  17. 17. …continued• Lack of food – affected French stores• the government decided to help out by creating food charts and tickets –> for bread• Hunger prevailed• Some people benefited from the black market• Lack of raw materials• forbidden to go out during the night• An estimated 90,000 (26%) of Frances Jewish population of 350,000 were killed during WWII• 49 concentration camps
  18. 18. Situation of France• nearly 75,000 local inhabitants killed and 550,000 tons of bombs dropped, France is after Germany the second most severely bomb-devastated country on the Western Front of World War II.• During the German occupation, the Obligatory Work Service transfer of hundreds of thousands of French workers to Germany against their will, for the German war effort
  19. 19. Resources•"The Maginot Line." historylearningsite.co.uk. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/maginot_line.htm>.•Sheffield, Gary. "The Fall of France." bbc.co.uk. N.p., 11 May 2009. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/fall_france_01.shtml>•"Maurice Gamelin." en.wikipedia.org. N.p., 27 Apr. 2010. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Gamelin>.•"The French Resistance." historylearningsite.co.uk. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/french_resistance.htm>.•"Blitzkrieg." en.wikipedia.org. N.p., 4 May 2010. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blitzkrieg#France>.•"Battle of France." en.wikipedia.org. N.p., 1 May 2010. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_France>.•"Allied Leaders of World War II." en.wikipedia.org. N.p., 3 May 2010. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allied_leaders_of_World_War_II#French_Third_Republic_.28until_1940.29>.•"Albert Lebrun ." answers.com. N.p., 2010. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://www.answers.com/topic/albert-lebrun>.•"French Resistance." en.wikipedia.org. N.p., 4 May 2010. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Resistance>.• "German occupation of France during World War II." en.wikipedia.org. N.p., 4 May 2010. Web. 6 May 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_occupation_of_France_during_World_War_II>.• "France History - France during World War II." bonjourlafrance.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 May 2010. <http://www.bonjourlafrance.com/france-history/france-during-world-war-2.htm>.• http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_happened_in_France_during_World_War_2• http://www.naval-history.net/Photo10ddIvanhoeNP.jpg• http://www.property-in normandy.co.uk/Finished%20Graphics/property_in_normandy_map1.jpg• http://uncleted.jinak.cz/image/honor_alone.jpg• http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Maginot_Line_ln-en.jpg• http://media.photobucket.com/image/albert%20lebrun/aneagle_2008/16AlbertLebrun.jpg

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