THE AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD Seminar on Language Teaching Group Presentation 1. Desi Yanita K2208017 2. Zara Firsty Meutia K2208023 3. Jarmianik K2208037 4. Siti Fathonah W. K2208047
Content of PresentationBackgroundApproach, Design, & ProcedureThe Weakness & StrengthThe Decline of ALMThe Application in Language Classroom
Background• The entry of the United States into World War II• ASTP (the Army Specialized Training Program)• Student exchange
Approach• A language is a set of habits … teach the language not about the language … a language is what its native speakers say, not what someone thinks they ought to say… language are different (quoted in Rivers 1964: 5)
Theory of language• Language is seen a system of related elements. The mastery of the system is the mastery of the language• Each language is seen to have its own unique system
Theory of language learning• Learning as behavioral psychology• The occurrence of these behavior is dependent upon three crucial element in learning: a. Stimulus b. Response c. Reinforcement
• Foreign language learning is basically a process of mechanical habit formation• Language skills are learned more effectively if the items to be learned in the target language are presented in spoken form• Analogy provides a better foundation for language learning than analysis• The meaning that the words of language have for the native speaker can be learned only in linguistic and cultural context and not in isolation
Design ObjectivesLearner Roles;Teacher Roles; Types of & Role of learning & DESIGN teaching instructional materials activities Syllabus
Short- Long-termTerm Control of structure: Natives-alikesound, form, order Focus: oral / speaking skill; depending on:Acquaintance with •Major phonological vocabulary Accuracy features of the target language •Use of key Fluency grammatical patterns Meaning Sufficient Vocabulary
Objective Cont’d• accurate pronunciation and grammar• ability to respond quickly and accurately in speech situation• knowledge of sufficient vocabulary to use with grammar patterns.
•Contextualizing key structures; illustrateDIALOGUES situations •Repetition; memorization •Repetition, inflection, replacement, restate DRILLS ment, completion, transposition, expansion, etc. (see p. 60-62)
Learner Teacher Central & Active Reactive Teacher-dominated responding to stimuli method Modeling; Controlling Little control over direction & pace of content, pace, & style learning; monitoring & of learning correcting learners’ performance
• Teacher-oriented• Central roles: Language lab, tape- recorders, & audio-visual equipments
Procedure Presentation (new structure /Pronunciation vocabulary) Reading Revision Drilling
Application of ALM in Teaching• Student’s correct imitation• No explicit grammar instruction• Correct output and pronunciation• The use of target language only• Drilling is emphasized
Using Audio-ligual Method... (Teacher’s consideration)• The produced sentences are similar to practiced patterns.• Rapid drilling• Ignoring pronunciation error in grammar practice section• Using hand motion• Using normal English stress and intonation• Meaningful drilling• drillling+alternative activity• Do not stand in one place.
The decline of Audio-lingual Method1. The theoretical foundations of Audiolingualism were attacked as being unsound in terms of both language theory and learning theory.2. Practitioners found that the practical results fell short of expectations3. Several alternative method proposals appeared in the 1970s
AUDIOLINGUALISM (50’S) NEW PARADIGM (60’s): CHOMSKY, INNATISMBehaviourism is attacked Chomsky’s innatist positionSkinner’s ideas are criticised. Learning= making & testingMechanic learning is rejected. hypotheses. Cognitive theory (mental processes)Structuralism begins to lose Chomsky’s transformationalimportance during the 60’s. generativeLanguage is a habit structure. grammar Language is not a habit structure. It involves the use of complex rules. Chomsky focuses on competence over performance.The ALM does not provide good For over a decade no theoreticallyresults. Classes are boring and grounded method took the place ofineffective (learners cannot ALM.communicate in real situations) Minor methods Cognitive code, or humanistic methods appear during the 60’s & 70’s:TPR, Suggestopedia & Silent way
The Advantages of Audiolingual Method• Accessible for large group of learners.• Drilling can be positively beneficial in helping a student to develop his oral ability.• Method leads to the development of simple techniques of varied, graded, and intensive practice of specific features of the language, and more scientifically selected and systematically arranged materials and structural patterns to go with.
• It achieves noticeable success in developing aural comprehension and oral fluency.• The audiolingual theory is probably the first language teaching theory that openly claims to be derived from linguistics and psychology.• It develops the separation of the language skills into a pedagogical device that is listening, speaking, reading and writing.
The Disadvantages of Audiolingual Method• The theoretical basis of the Audiolingual Method was found to be weak.• Basic method of teaching is repetition.• Teachers complain about the lack of effectiveness of the techniques in the long run, and students complain about the boredom caused by endless pattern drills.
• Learners have little control over the content, pace or style of learning.• The teacher’s role is central and active in the Audiolingual Method.• Materials in the Audiolingual Method are primarily teacher-oriented.