Dr Phil Reeves - Managing Director, Econolyst Ltd, UK         3D Printing & Additive            Manufacturing“Extending yo...
Agenda (1-hour with questions)•   Introduction•   Background to 3D Printing•   The state-of-the-art in 3D Printing•   Supp...
About Econolyst• Econolyst is a UK based  consultancy dedicated to the  Additive Manufacturing & 3DP  sector• Established ...
What we do at Econolyst• Assessment & implementation of 3DP & AM    technology•   Vendor business & technology strategies•...
So what is 3D Printing?                    Talk Sponsored by
What is 3D Printing – what ARE 3D Printers?3D Printers are automated systems that take 2-dimensional layers of computer da...
Agreeing terms – history of manufactureThere are Four fundamental manufacturing principles:• Subtractive - Material is suc...
Agreeing terms – what’s in a name• 3D Printing is also refereed to as:  –   Direct Digital Manufacture (DDM) – USA  –   Fr...
How does the 3D Printing process chain work?•   Start with a 3D geometry•   Generate STL file•   Orient parts to optimum b...
Why 3DP at the Solid Edge University?• This technology is a natural extension of the  digital 3D design environment• This ...
So what is the current state  of the art in 3DP/AM in           2012?                       Talk Sponsored by
Today we have a ‘pallet’ of around 200 materials           Organic              Ceramic                 Polymeric         ...
We have an ever increasing range of technologies                    High end                                  Mid range–  ...
What do these technologies do?                    High end                                  Mid range–    Stereolithograph...
Objet Desktop – why? Visualisation, appraisal & discussion    (communication tools, just likecomputer screens and paper pr...
So why are desktop machines need?• Reducing prototyping lead time (replacing  bureau services & manual model making)• Redu...
So who is using desktop 3D printing                                                             Enabling       3D   Protot...
What do these technologies do?                   High end                                   Mid range–    Stereolithograph...
Objet – Connex technology  3D Printing of multiple materials           simultaneously                                 Talk...
How Connex different to other high end systems• All other high end processes produce a limited  number of single material ...
Why is material property so important?• With Form & Visualisation prototypes the user  only care about the look and the sh...
So how do we create Multi-materials• There are two kinds of Multi-material part   1. A part with two or more ‘different’ m...
What does Multimaterial allow us to do today?• Use the digital material approach we can  already match or exceed the capab...
So where are theapplications for 3DP?                   Talk Sponsored by
So what can we use parts for?           Prototypes (Rapid Prototyping)          Casting Patterns (Rapid Casting)          ...
Rapid Prototyping applications are growing – Presentation & marketing models – Architectural models – Concept models for d...
Rapid Casting & Tooling – Direct printing of sacrificial investment casting   patterns (waxes & polymers) – Direct printin...
BUT…….Why not just print the parts?                       Talk Sponsored by
Lots of companies are doing •   Automotive         •   Defence              •   Comm’s      – Passenger            – Land ...
So why are companies adoption AM for production  1.   Economic low volume production  2.   Increased geometric freedom  3....
1. Enabling low volume production• Enabled the economic manufacture  of low volume complex geometries  and assemblies  – R...
Example – unit volumes of 1• Bentley is a subsidiary of Volkswagen• Vehicles from $250K - $1M• In-house polymeric and meta...
Example – Low volume production• Problem – customer with limited mobility  needed a reversed dashboard• Production substra...
Example – Low volume production                Images courtesy of Bentley                                             Talk...
2. Maximising design complexity & capability• AM enables the production of highly  complex geometries with little if no  c...
Example – Delphi Diesel Pump• Conventional product manufactured by  cross drilling an aluminium die casting• Multiple mach...
With AM - Design the product around the holes                                        Talk Sponsored by
Example – conceptual Diesel Pump• Produce the part as one piece using  Selective Laser melting on Aluminium               ...
3. Increasing part functionality• AM enabled multiple functionality to  be manufactured using a single  process  – Replaci...
Example – surface design for bone ingress              Material:   Ti6Al4V              Build time: 16 cups in         Imp...
Example – Heat dissipation surfaces                                      Talk Sponsored by
Example – Energy absorption                              Talk Sponsored by
The next generation of systems - multifunctional                                          Talk Sponsored by
4. Product Personalisation• Individual consumer centric  products, with customer input  –   Medical devices  –   Consumer ...
www.makielab.com• Internet based design tools                                Talk Sponsored by
5. Life cycle sustainability• Product lifecycle improvements in  economic and environmental  sustainability  –   Reduced r...
Case study – aerospace cabin component                                   Talk Sponsored by
Design optimisation for AM production                                   Topologically                                    o...
Example – How does the weight compare                             Scenario 1 – Machined from                              ...
Environmental benefit over product lifecycle  Process       Raw         Manufacture   Distribution   Usage       Life cycl...
So how do our lifecycle CO2 compare                             Scenario 1 – Machined from                                ...
Talk Sponsored bySunday Times 13th Feb 2011
Example – life cycle economic benefits• 0.49Kg saving per monitor arm• $1,500 per annum in fuel savings (todays  prices)• ...
This needs a step change in design thinking!                                      Talk Sponsored by
BUT - We can go much further                               Talk Sponsored by
6. Supply chain realignment• New lean yet agile business models  and supply chain  – Distributed manufacture  – Manufactur...
Rapid retailing - linking the internet to 3DP $50.00 each 60,000 month                                       Talk Sponsore...
Figure Prints – 4,000 per month                                  Talk Sponsored by
Printing in the home - MakerBot•   Less than 3-years old•   Business based on open source•   6700 machines sold in 2011•  ...
MakerBot are not alone            Makergear Start-up                Growing   Talk Sponsored by
Is there a market?1985 – 2010 = 45,000 machines   2011 = 15,000 machine   2012 = 45,000 machine        Moores law?        ...
The money will be in the data & content                                    Talk Sponsored by
A great time to be a CAD Designer                                    Talk Sponsored by
So what do we know now?                   Talk Sponsored by
Conclusions• 3D printing is a must have technology in the  product development environment• Technology is suited to many d...
Dr Phil Reeves - Managing Director, Econolyst Ltd, UK                          Thanks to                 Questions        ...
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#SEU12 - 306 3 d printing and additive manufacturing extending your printing capability in true 3d - dr phil reeves

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Dr. Phil Reeves will provide an in-depth and up-to-date overview of 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing by reviewing state-of-the-art Rapid Prototyping, including a review of desktop and production technologies capable of processing polymeric, metallic, and ceramic materials. This session will consider the important and rapidly developing opportunities afforded by digital materials and multimaterial 3D printing. Phil will address trends to use these technologies beyond prototyping in the manufacture of casting patterns and tooling inserts, and in the production of end-use part, and will outline the primary business drivers for companies adopting this ‘new’ manufacturing approach, including low volume production economics, product personalization, product life cycle sustainability, and supply chain compression. This session will address design opportunities afforded by using 3D printing, including the realization of complex and topologically-optimized geometries, mass product customizations and through-lifecycle ‘green ‘design considerations. Phil will conclude by looking at how 3D Printing is democratizing manufacturing by engaging consumers in the design and manufacturing processes through online design tools and home-based 3D printing systems.

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#SEU12 - 306 3 d printing and additive manufacturing extending your printing capability in true 3d - dr phil reeves

  1. 1. Dr Phil Reeves - Managing Director, Econolyst Ltd, UK 3D Printing & Additive Manufacturing“Extending your printing capability in true 3D” Talk Sponsored bywww.econolyst.co.ukTuesday 12th June 2012
  2. 2. Agenda (1-hour with questions)• Introduction• Background to 3D Printing• The state-of-the-art in 3D Printing• Supporting prototyping, casting & tooling• The move to part production & AM• The importance of design in an additive world• Democratising manufacture• Future trends and conclusions Talk Sponsored by
  3. 3. About Econolyst• Econolyst is a UK based consultancy dedicated to the Additive Manufacturing & 3DP sector• Established 2003• Built on almost 20-years of AM experience• Clients in the UK, Western Europe, Scandinavia, Benelux, USA, Israel, India, Middle East & Far East, Africa Talk Sponsored by
  4. 4. What we do at Econolyst• Assessment & implementation of 3DP & AM technology• Vendor business & technology strategies• AM focused training & conferences• R&D project management & delivery• AM software development — Establishing supply chain Carbon footprints — Developing AM part cost and value models Talk Sponsored by
  5. 5. So what is 3D Printing? Talk Sponsored by
  6. 6. What is 3D Printing – what ARE 3D Printers?3D Printers are automated systems that take 2-dimensional layers of computer data and rebuild them into 3D solid objects Talk Sponsored by
  7. 7. Agreeing terms – history of manufactureThere are Four fundamental manufacturing principles:• Subtractive - Material is successively removed from a solid block until the desired shape is reached (2.6M BC – Paleolithic man)• Fabricative - Elements or physical material are combined and joined (6,000 BC – Western Asia, basket making)• Formative - Mechanical forces and, or heat are applied to material to form it into the desired shape such as bending, casting and molding (3,000 BC – Egyptians, investment casting)• Additive - Material is manipulated so that successive pieces of it combine to make the desired object (1984 – Californians) Talk Sponsored by
  8. 8. Agreeing terms – what’s in a name• 3D Printing is also refereed to as: – Direct Digital Manufacture (DDM) – USA – Freeform Fabrication (FFF)– USA – Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) – USA – Fabbing – USA – Layer Manufacturing (LM) – Scandinavia – Constructive Manufacturing – Germany – Generative Manufacturing – Germany – eManufacturing - Germany – Rapid Manufacturing - Global – Additive Manufacturing - Global Talk Sponsored by
  9. 9. How does the 3D Printing process chain work?• Start with a 3D geometry• Generate STL file• Orient parts to optimum build direction• Generate support structures• Slice part & supports horizontally• Consolidate, deposit or cut out layer• Index machine down (or up) by one layer thickness Talk Sponsored by
  10. 10. Why 3DP at the Solid Edge University?• This technology is a natural extension of the digital 3D design environment• This technology bridges the virtual and the physical design space• This technology is maturing at an almost exponential rate (something new to take away!)• This technology is moving well beyond just Rapid Prototyping and is changing supply chains• Design data is core to this new business model Talk Sponsored by
  11. 11. So what is the current state of the art in 3DP/AM in 2012? Talk Sponsored by
  12. 12. Today we have a ‘pallet’ of around 200 materials Organic Ceramic Polymeric Metallic materials materials materials materials Waxes Alumina ABS Aluminium Tissue / cells Mullite Polyamide (nylon) Tool Steel Zirconia Filled PA Titanium Silicon Carbide PEEK Inconel Beta-Tri calcium Phosphate Thermosetting epoxies Cobalt Chrome Ceramic (nano) loaded epoxies Copper Silica (sand) PMMA Stainless steel Plaster Polycarbonate Gold / platinum Graphite Polyphenylsulfone Hastelloy ULTEM Aluminium loaded polyamide Talk Sponsored by
  13. 13. We have an ever increasing range of technologies High end Mid range– Stereolithography IPro (3D) – 3D Printing (Voxeljet)– Selective Laser Sintering (3D & EOS) – Stereolithography Viper SLA (3D)– FDM Fortus (Stratasys) – Polyjet Eden (Objet)– Connex (Objet) – 3D Projet (3D systems)– Perfactory XE (Envisiontec) – Perfactory (Envisiontec) Lower end (desk-top) Very low end (home users) – 3D Printing (Z-Corp)– Ultimaker – Ultra Z-Printer (Envisiontec / Z-Corp)– Bits-from-Bytes (3D) – 24/30 (Objet)– MakerBot – FDM Dimension (Stratasys)– UP personal printer – UPrint (HP / Stratasys)– Fab@Home – Laminated Objet Manufacture (Mcor) – V-Flash (3D Systems) Talk Sponsored by
  14. 14. What do these technologies do? High end Mid range– Stereolithography IPro (3D) – 3D Printing (Voxeljet)– Selective Laser Sintering (3D & EOS) – Stereolithography Viper SLA (3D)– FDM Fortus (Stratasys) – Polyjet Eden (Objet)– Connex (Objet) – 3D Projet (3D systems)– Perfactory XE (Envisiontec) – Perfactory (Envisiontec) Lower end (desk-top) Very low end (home users) – 3D Printing (Z-Corp)– Solido – Ultra Z-Printer (Envisiontec / Z-Corp)– Bits-from-Bytes (3D) – 24/30pro (Objet)– MakerBot – FDM Dimension (Stratasys)– UP personal printer – UPrint (HP / Stratasys)– Fab@Home – Laminated Objet Manufacture (Mcor) – V-Flash (3D Systems) Talk Sponsored by
  15. 15. Objet Desktop – why? Visualisation, appraisal & discussion (communication tools, just likecomputer screens and paper print-outs) Talk Sponsored by
  16. 16. So why are desktop machines need?• Reducing prototyping lead time (replacing bureau services & manual model making)• Reducing the cost of sub-contract bureau services or manual model making• Increasing the number of prototyping iterations during the early design stage “prototype early & prototype often” Talk Sponsored by
  17. 17. So who is using desktop 3D printing Enabling 3D PrototypeDesign discipline Products software demandInteriors Lighting, door furniture MCAD / DCAD Medium – highExterior (architecture) Buildings, town planning ACAD Low – mediumVehicles Cars, planes, boats, trains MCAD High*Consumer goods Toys, jewellery, sporting goods DCAD / MCAD HighHousehold goods Furniture, cookware, tableware DCAD Medium - highConsumer electronics TV, Laptop, desktop, IPod MCAD HighFMCG Razors, packaging, cosmetics MCAD Medium - highElectrical goods Power tools, small appliances MCAD HighWhite goods Fridge, freezer, oven MCAD High- mediumApparel Clothing, shoes, sports ware DCAD Medium – LowComputer games War, fantasy & role-play games Mixed Low – mediumCGI animation TV and film character generation Mixed / DCAD Low - mediumMedicine Medical models CT/MRI Medium / low Talk Sponsored by
  18. 18. What do these technologies do? High end Mid range– Stereolithography IPro (3D) – 3D Printing (Voxeljet)– Selective Laser Sintering (3D & EOS) – Stereolithography Viper SLA (3D)– FDM Fortus (Stratasys) – Polyjet Eden (Objet)– Connex (Objet) – 3D Projet (3D systems)– Perfactory XE (Envisiontec) – Perfactory (Envisiontec) Lower end (desk-top) Very low end (home users) – 3D Printing (Z-Corp)– Solido – Ultra Z-Printer (Envisiontec / Z-Corp)– Bits-from-Bytes (3D) – 24/30pro (Objet)– MakerBot – FDM Dimension (Stratasys)– UP personal printer – UPrint (HP / Stratasys)– Fab@Home – Laminated Objet Manufacture (Mcor) – V-Flash (3D Systems) Talk Sponsored by
  19. 19. Objet – Connex technology 3D Printing of multiple materials simultaneously Talk Sponsored by
  20. 20. How Connex different to other high end systems• All other high end processes produce a limited number of single material components • SLS – Nylon, Polycarbonate • FDM – ABS, PEI, PPSF • Z-Corp – Gypsum • SLA – Epoxy (photocurable) • Voxeljet – PMMA, Polystyrene • Envisiontec – Epoxy (photocurable) • Connex - Multimaterials Talk Sponsored by
  21. 21. Why is material property so important?• With Form & Visualisation prototypes the user only care about the look and the shape• With Fit and assembly prototypes the user also cares about accuracy & resolution• With Functional prototypes the user also cares about the material properties of the part Talk Sponsored by
  22. 22. So how do we create Multi-materials• There are two kinds of Multi-material part 1. A part with two or more ‘different’ mechanical properties (currently Durometer & colour) 2. A part where two different materials are combined to create a new ‘third material’ 1. 2. Talk Sponsored by
  23. 23. What does Multimaterial allow us to do today?• Use the digital material approach we can already match or exceed the capabilities of single material RP processes • Simulate ABS • Simulate higher temperature Polypropylene • Simulate transparent polymers with shades & patterns • Simulate rigid polymers with Opaque shades • Simulate 6 levels of shore hardness rubber • Print in full grey scale at 600 dpi • Limited colour – just around the corner Talk Sponsored by
  24. 24. So where are theapplications for 3DP? Talk Sponsored by
  25. 25. So what can we use parts for? Prototypes (Rapid Prototyping) Casting Patterns (Rapid Casting) Tool cavities (Rapid Tooling) Direct Parts (Additive Manufacturing) Talk Sponsored by
  26. 26. Rapid Prototyping applications are growing – Presentation & marketing models – Architectural models – Concept models for discussion – Visualisation aids for engineers – Quotation request models – Visual aids for tool makers – Fit & function models – Assembly Models – Ergonomic Studies Talk Sponsored by
  27. 27. Rapid Casting & Tooling – Direct printing of sacrificial investment casting patterns (waxes & polymers) – Direct printing of sand casting cores and cavities – Direct printing of injection mould tools (in metals and plastics) – Direct printing of forming tools (for carbon composite layups and aluminium pressings) Talk Sponsored by
  28. 28. BUT…….Why not just print the parts? Talk Sponsored by
  29. 29. Lots of companies are doing • Automotive • Defence • Comm’s – Passenger – Land – MiniSARS – Commercial – Air – Sonar body – Motor sport – Marine – Housings • Aeronautical • Medical • Consumer – Civil aero – Implants – Fashion – Space – Bone scaffolds – Jewellery – Hearing aids – lighting • Production – Dental aligners – Furniture – Machine parts – Surgical guides – Toys – Assembly aids – Giftware Talk Sponsored by
  30. 30. So why are companies adoption AM for production 1. Economic low volume production 2. Increased geometric freedom 3. Increased part functionality 4. Product personalisation 5. Improvised environmental sustainability 6. New supply chains and retail models Talk Sponsored by
  31. 31. 1. Enabling low volume production• Enabled the economic manufacture of low volume complex geometries and assemblies – Reduces the need for tooling (moulds / cutters) – Reduced capital investment & inventory – Simplifies supply chains & reduced lead times Talk Sponsored by
  32. 32. Example – unit volumes of 1• Bentley is a subsidiary of Volkswagen• Vehicles from $250K - $1M• In-house polymeric and metallic AM capacity Talk Sponsored by
  33. 33. Example – Low volume production• Problem – customer with limited mobility needed a reversed dashboard• Production substrate produced by RIM• Manual modification time consuming• Solution – Laser Sintered AM part with leathers and veneers veneers Images courtesy of Bentley Talk Sponsored by
  34. 34. Example – Low volume production Images courtesy of Bentley Talk Sponsored by
  35. 35. 2. Maximising design complexity & capability• AM enables the production of highly complex geometries with little if no cost penalty – Re-entrant features – Variable wall thicknesses – Complex honey combs – Non-linear holes – Filigree structures – Organic / genetic structures Talk Sponsored by
  36. 36. Example – Delphi Diesel Pump• Conventional product manufactured by cross drilling an aluminium die casting• Multiple machining operations• Multiple post processing ops (chemical deburring, hole blanking, pressure testing)• Final product prone to leakage Talk Sponsored by
  37. 37. With AM - Design the product around the holes Talk Sponsored by
  38. 38. Example – conceptual Diesel Pump• Produce the part as one piece using Selective Laser melting on Aluminium Talk Sponsored by
  39. 39. 3. Increasing part functionality• AM enabled multiple functionality to be manufactured using a single process – Replacing surface coatings & textures – Modifying physical behaviour by designing ‘mechanical properties’ – Embedding secondary materials (optical / electrical) – Grading multiple materials in a single part Talk Sponsored by
  40. 40. Example – surface design for bone ingress Material: Ti6Al4V Build time: 16 cups in Implants (production) 18 hours • Accetabular cups Images Courtesy of ARCAM – www.arcam.com Talk Sponsored by
  41. 41. Example – Heat dissipation surfaces Talk Sponsored by
  42. 42. Example – Energy absorption Talk Sponsored by
  43. 43. The next generation of systems - multifunctional Talk Sponsored by
  44. 44. 4. Product Personalisation• Individual consumer centric products, with customer input – Medical devices – Consumer goods – Cultural & emotional artefacts – Online design tools – Co-creation Talk Sponsored by
  45. 45. www.makielab.com• Internet based design tools Talk Sponsored by
  46. 46. 5. Life cycle sustainability• Product lifecycle improvements in economic and environmental sustainability – Reduced raw material consumption – Efficient supply chains – Optimised product efficiency – Lighter weights components – Reduced lifecycle burden Talk Sponsored by
  47. 47. Case study – aerospace cabin component Talk Sponsored by
  48. 48. Design optimisation for AM production Topologically optimisedMachine from solid billet Complex Talk Sponsored by lattice
  49. 49. Example – How does the weight compare Scenario 1 – Machined from solid (0.8Kg) Scenario 2 – Selective Laser melted lattice (0.31 kg) Scenario 3 – Selective Laser melted Talk Sponsored by optimised design (0.37 Kg)
  50. 50. Environmental benefit over product lifecycle Process Raw Manufacture Distribution Usage Life cycle Materials CO2 CO2 CO2 Kg CO2 CO2 Machining 100Kg 2 Kg 5 Kg 43,779 Kg 43,886 SLM lattice 16 Kg 5 Kg 1 Kg 16,238 Kg 16,260 SLM optimal 18 Kg 7 kg 2 Kg 20,339 Kg 20,366• Example based on 90M km (Long haul) application Talk Sponsored by
  51. 51. So how do our lifecycle CO2 compare Scenario 1 – Machined from solid (100%) Scenario 2 – Selective Laser melted lattice (0.37%) Scenario 3 – Selective Laser melted Talk Sponsored by optimised design (46%)
  52. 52. Talk Sponsored bySunday Times 13th Feb 2011
  53. 53. Example – life cycle economic benefits• 0.49Kg saving per monitor arm• $1,500 per annum in fuel savings (todays prices)• $45,000 over 30-year aircraft life• Product life span 5-7 years (estimate)• Life-cycle economic saving $6.5K - $9K• Machined part - $500• SLM Part - $2,500• Capital investment repaid in 2-years…. Talk Sponsored by
  54. 54. This needs a step change in design thinking! Talk Sponsored by
  55. 55. BUT - We can go much further Talk Sponsored by
  56. 56. 6. Supply chain realignment• New lean yet agile business models and supply chain – Distributed manufacture – Manufacture and the point of consumption – Demand pull business models – Stockless supply chains – Chainless supply chains (home manufacture) Talk Sponsored by
  57. 57. Rapid retailing - linking the internet to 3DP $50.00 each 60,000 month Talk Sponsored by
  58. 58. Figure Prints – 4,000 per month Talk Sponsored by
  59. 59. Printing in the home - MakerBot• Less than 3-years old• Business based on open source• 6700 machines sold in 2011• $1,749 per machine• Up to 20,000 projected this year Talk Sponsored by
  60. 60. MakerBot are not alone Makergear Start-up Growing Talk Sponsored by
  61. 61. Is there a market?1985 – 2010 = 45,000 machines 2011 = 15,000 machine 2012 = 45,000 machine Moores law? Talk Sponsored by
  62. 62. The money will be in the data & content Talk Sponsored by
  63. 63. A great time to be a CAD Designer Talk Sponsored by
  64. 64. So what do we know now? Talk Sponsored by
  65. 65. Conclusions• 3D printing is a must have technology in the product development environment• Technology is suited to many different user environments (from desktop to production)• Technology is available for form, fit & functional prototyping, & beyond into production• Think beyond design validation into the manufacturing supply chain• Casting patterns, tool cavities & even parts Talk Sponsored by
  66. 66. Dr Phil Reeves - Managing Director, Econolyst Ltd, UK Thanks to Questions Econolyst Ltd The Silversmiths Crown Yard Wirksworth Derbyshire, UK DE4 4ET +44 (0) 1629 824447 phil.reeves@econolyst.co.ukwww.econolyst.co.uk12th June 2012

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