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  • 1. THE POLITICS OFAMERICAN EDUCATION
    Megin Holt
    Jon Rashid,
    Dan Young,
    Pat Murphy
  • 2. What Forces Influence School Governance and Finance?
    Governance: The process of making financial and other decisions
    What do you think public schools should
    use more funds on, and why?
    Sex education?
    Violence in schools?
    Teen drug use?
    Making schools more energy efficient
  • 3. What Forces Influence School Governance and Finance?
    Stakeholders in Education: Stakeholders are people and agencies with a particular interest in schools
    • Political Interest Groups
    • 4. Business and Industry
    • 5. Professional Organizations and Teachers
    • 6. Parents, Students, and Community Groups
  • The three branches of government influence the governance and finance of education
    Executive
    Legislative
    Judicial
    Roles of the Federal Government in Education
    The U.S. Constitution
    Federal Legislation
    Influence of the Executive branch
    How is Education Governed?
    Legislative
    Judicial
    Executive
  • 7. Board of Education
    Strengthens state leadership and policy making
    Promote excellence in education to all students
    Advocates equality of access to educational opportunity
    Ensures continued citizen support for public education
    State Standards Boards
    Responsible for the governance and regulation of professional practice
    Department of Education
    Implements policies that effect education in each state
    State Government
  • 8. Intermediate Educational Units
    Designed to provide services that individual districts that might not be able to afford it on their own
    Promotes inter-district collaboration
    Council of Chief State School Officers
    Comprised of state commissioners and superintendents
    Provides a forum for interstate discussion and information exchange on educational advances and issues
    Intermediate Education Agencies
  • 9. Local Educational Agencies
    School districts
    Local Boards of Education
    Group of people elected by people to make decisions for the school district
    Must stay within State DOE standards
    Superintendent
    Works closely with BOE
    Serves as the face of the school district
    Local Government
  • 10. School Accountability
    Everyone from the boards of education, superintendents, principals, teachers to students is held accountable.
    No Child Left Behind
    • Schools and districts must meet state standards by 2014
    • 11. Schools and districts issue school accountability report cards available to parents
    and the community
    Teacher Accountability
    • Teachers are accountable for student learning
    • 12. Performance pay – bonuses or raises based
    on student achievement
  • 13. Governance and Administrationof Schools
    Administration
    Management of school affairs, puts into place the policies set by state legislation and state and local boards of education
    Principals
    Responsible for management at the school level
    Set school direction, build staff morale, leadership
    School-Based Management (SBM)
    Governance process where the people affected
    by decisions are involved in making them
    School Advisory Council (SAC)
    Membership of school and community stakeholders who make decisions and recommendations regarding school operations
  • 14. Funding Education
    Total expenditure for public elementary and secondary education is $489.4 billion annually, which comes to $9,969 for one student per year.
    Federal Support and Mandates
    • Categorical grants – federal government support through specific legislation designed to help particular groups of students (e.g. Head Start)
    • 15. Recipients of federal funding must comply with all federal regulations
    State Funding
    • Sales tax, income tax, inheritance tax, various license and occupation fees, and state lotteries
    • 16. Flat grants – equal funding based on the districts average daily attendance
    • 17. Foundation grants – funding based on property values, inversely related to community wealth
  • Funding Education
    Local Funding
    Property tax, based on assessed value of real estate
    - Reliable, steady source of revenue
    - Inequity between districts
    Private Funding
    Foundations provide support through grants and other private funds
    Targeted to reforming education with an emphasis on urban, minority, and special education
    - Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
    - Annenberg Foundation