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Im project,09.01.12

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  • 1. PrefaceEnvironment of global markets is challenging and has a multiple connotationsfor the marketer. Today the corporate world cannot survive with restrictingthemselves within the domestic boundaries. As the consumers across countriesbecome more universal in nature, it is mandatory to look at the whole world asmarkets are growing continuously. The number of companies operatinginternationally is growing constantly. The world is opening up for foreign firmsand new destinations in the company business are increasing. Because of highcompetition the companies operating abroad are faced with a much larger taskthen before.What surprises do the new decade, century, and millennium hold in store for allof us? Which will prove the better, Chinese gradualism or the Russian big-bangapproach to economic and political reform? Will the information technologyboom of the previous decade be followed by a demographics bust? Or willNAFTA and the young folks in Mexico provide a much needed demographicbalance? Will the economic tsunami of 2008–2009 or global terrorism asrepresented by the September 11, 2001, attacks evolve into something evenworse? What unforeseen advances or disasters will the biological sciences bringus? Will we conquer AIDS⁄HIV in Africa? Will weapons and warfare becomeobsolete?International marketing will play a key role in providing positive answers to allthese questions. Markets are mushrooming in emerging economies in EasternEurope, the Commonwealth of Independent States, China, Indonesia, Korea,India, Mexico, Chile, Brazil, and Argentina—in short, globally. These emergingeconomies hold the promise of huge markets in the future.In the international challenges, culture and political issues are the mainobstacles that are becoming crucial in the everyday work and can affect theentire co-operation. Culture can influence the business in different ways such asLanguage problems, pricing difficulties; culture collisions, political stability,trading disputes, terrorist problem, licensing problem etc. The company mustbe able to handle these difficulties in a way that is satisfying also for the otherpart.It is also important, even before entering the foreign country, to inform thepersonal about the manners and customs in that new culture. If the firstimpression becomes negative, this can be hard to shake. Culture can be both apositive and negative influence and many companies are struggling in the newand foreign environment.The important thing to always have in mind is that the foreign culture is not aswe are used to at home and to be prepared before starting the new foreign Page | 1 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 2. operation. Respecting and understanding the new culture without forcing ourown beliefs on people, are things that can be extremely helpful to consider. Bylearning the host country’s language, can respect and trust more easily be won,and competitive advantages can arise.The aim of this project is to introduce the International Marketing, whichexplains how Markets operate globally in a global Environment in terms ofsocio-cultural, business customs and political changes. What types ofdifficulties/problems are interacting by the Global Companies in a Global marketdue to these changes and how to minimize or resolve these problems? Thesechanges are dramatically altered the landscape of global business during lastten decades. These changes affect the practice of business worldwide, and theymean that companies will have to constantly examine the way they do businessand remain flexible enough to react rapidly to changing global trends to becompetitive.The structure of this project report has been divided in to three topics, i.e.cultural dynamics, Business customs & Political environment, followed byconclusion. Effect of each of these changes is broadly discussed in this reportwith example. This project report is prepared based on the secondary datacollected from various sources from internet and books as mentioned in thebibliography. Page | 2 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 3. Table of Contents1. Introduction 4-52. Cultural Dynamics in assessing global market 2.1 What is Culture 5-5 2.2 Culture’s pervasive impact 5-7 2.3 Origin of Culture 7-8 2.3.1 Geography 2.3.2 History 2.3.3 The political economy 2.3.4 Technology 2.3.5 Social Institutions 2.4 Elements of Culture 8-12 2.4.1 Cultural Values 2.4.2 Rituals 2.4.3 Symbols 2.4.5 Language 2.4.6 Belief 2.4.7 Thought process 2.4.8 Cultural Sensitivity & Tolerance 2.5 Cultural Change 12-13 2.5.1 Cultural Borrowing 2.5.2 Similarities: an illusion 2.5.3 Resistance to change 2.5.4 Planned & Unplanned change 2.5.5 Consequence of change3. Business Customs in Global Marketing 13-17 3.1 Required Adaptation 3.2 Imperatives, Adiaphora & Exclusive 3.3 Methods of doing business 3.4 Sources & level of opportunity 3.5 Management Objectives & Aspirations. 3.6 Personal Goals 3.7 Security & Mobility 3.8 Personal life Page | 3 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 4. 3.9 Social acceptance 3.10 Power 3.11 Communications emphasis 3.12 Formality & Tempo 3.13 P-time Vs M-time 3.14 Negotiation emphasis 3.15 Gender bias in international business4. Critical Concerns of Political Environment 18-24 4.1 The Political environment 4.2 National-states & Sovereignty 4.3 Stability of Govt. Policies 4.4 Forms of Govt. & Political Parties 4.5 Nationalism 4.6 Targeted Fear and/or Animosity 4.7 Trade Dispute 4.8 Political risk of Global Business 4.9 Confiscation, Expropriation & Domestication 4.10 Economic Risk 4.11 Exchange Controls 4.12 Local – current Laws 4.13 Import Restrictions 4.14 Tax Controls 4.15 Price Controls 4.16 Labour Problems 4.17 Violence, Terrorism & War 4.18 Assessing Political Vulnerability 4.19 Political Sensitive Products & Issues 4.20 Forecasting Political Risk 4.21 Lessening Political Vulnerability 4.22 Joint Venture 4.23 Expending the Investment Base 4.24 Licensing 4.25 Planned Domestication 4.26 Political Bargaining 4.27 Political Payoffs 4.28 Govt. Encouragement5. Conclusion 24-246. Bibliography 25-25 Page | 4 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 5. 1. Introduction At the beginning of the last millennium, the Chinese were the outstanding international traders. Chinese silk had been available in Europe since Roman times. At the beginning of the last century the British military, merchants, and manufacturers dominated the seas and international commerce. Literally, the sun did not set on the British Empire. The American domination of information technology has since been followed by the political upheaval of 9/11 and the economic shocks of 2001 and 2008. China started that decade as the largest military threat to the United States, and it has become a leading, often difficult trading partner. The economic, political, socio-cultural and Business customs changes that have occurred over the last decade have dramatically altered the landscape of global business. Consider the present and future impact of the following: • Threat of global terrorism as represented by the September 11, 2001, attacks • Major armed conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East • The potential global recession emanating from the United States • The emerging markets in Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America, where more than 75 percent of the growth in world trade over the next 20 years is expected to occur • The European Monetary Union and the successful switch from local-country currencies to one monetary unit for Europe, the euro • The rapid move away from traditional distribution structures in Japan, Europe, and many emerging markets • The growth of middle-income households the world over • The continued strengthening and creation of regional market groups such as the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA), the Central American Free Trade Area (CAFTA), ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), Page | 5 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 6. the Southern Cone Free Trade Area (Mercosur), and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) • The successful completion of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the creation of the World Trade Organization • (WTO), the latter now including China and Taiwan • The restructuring, reorganizing, and refocusing of companies in telecommunications, entertainment, and biotechnology, as well as in traditional smokestack industries around the world • The continuing integration of the Internet and cell phones into all aspects of companies’ operations and consumers’ lives These changes affect the practice of business worldwide. Companies must examine continuously the way they do business and remain flexible enough to react rapidly to change global trends to be competitive. Marketing has always been recognized as economic activity involving the exchange of goods and services. However, in recent years socio-cultural influences have been identified as determinants of marketing behavior, revealing marketing as a cultural as well as economic phenomenon. But our understanding of marketing culture bound. We must acquire knowledge of diverse cultural environment in order to achieve successful international marketing. Business customs are as much a cultural element of a society as is the language. Culture establishes the criteria for day to day business behavior, patterns of attitude and motivation. Executives are to some extent captives of their cultural heritages and cannot totally escape language, heritage, political and family ties, or religious backgrounds. A lack of empathy for and knowledge of foreign business practices can create insurmountable barriers to successful business relations. Knowledge of the business culture, management attitudes, and business methods and a willingness to accommodate the differences are important to success in an international market. Each of the world’s national governments regulates trade and commerce with other countries and attempts to control the access of outside enterprises to national resources. Every country has its own Government which controls the country’s legal and regulatory system that impacts the operations and activities of the global enterprise. Unfortunately Governments of any country are not always stable and friendly. Any change in the government policy that adversely impacts the company’s ability to operate effectively and profitability. Therefore, international marker must understand the political climate of every country.2. Cultural Dynamics in Assessing Global Markets Page | 6 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 7. 2.1 What is culture? There are many ways to think about culture. Culture refers to “the human-made part of human environment—the sum total of knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society”. Culture is the integrated sum total of learned behavioral traits that are shared by member of society. Culture – Ways of living, built up by a group of human beings that are transmitted from one generation to another.2.2 Culture’s Pervasive impact Culture influences every part of our lives. Cultures also impact on birth rates. Almost everywhere smaller families are becoming favored. Birthrates have implications for sellers of diapers, toys, schools, and colleges. Consumption of different types of food influence is culture: Chocolate by United Kingdom, seafood by Japanese preference, Dried Pasta by Italy, wines by France and Italy. Even diseases are influenced by culture: Heart disease by Germany & US, stomach cancer in Japan, and lung cancer in Netherlands. Birth rate of United States, Singapore and Japan has been shown below (Table-1) Page | 7 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 8. Table-1 (Sources World Bank, World Development indicators, 2010The products compared are those that might impact on health as well asinfluencing the causes of death. Table-3 shows the death rate. Japan has thelowest birthrate and highest life expectancy. US have the lowest birthrates andhighest life expectancy (among the selected country shown in Table-3). Table-2: Consumer expenditure for selected countries. Page | 8 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 9. Table-3: Consequences of consumption The point is that culture matters and it is imperative for international marketers to learn to appreciate the intricacies of cultures different from their own if they are to be effective in international markets.2.3 Origin of Culture Most traditional definitions of culture is the sum of the values, rituals, symbols, beliefs and thought process that are learned, shared by a group of people and transmitted from generation to generation. So culture resides in the individual’s mind. Culture has been conceptualized as: 1. “Software of the mind” culture is a guide for humans on how to think and behave; it is a problem-solving tool (Hofstede) 2. An invisible barrier… a completely different way of organizing life, of thinking, and of conceiving the underlying assumptions about the family and the state, the economic system, and even Man himself” (Hall) 3. A “thicket” (U.S. Ambassador Hodgson) Page | 9 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 10. 2.3.1 Geography Geography directly effect on consumer choice. Geography (include climate, topography, flora, fauna and microbiology) has influenced history, technology, economies, our social institutions and our ways of thinking. Geographical influences manifest themselves in our deepest cultural values developed through the millennia and geography changes humans can adopt immediately.2.3.2 History The impact of specific events in history can be seen reflected in technology, social institutions, cultural values and even consumer behaviour. For instance, much of American trade policy has depended on the development of tobacco being the original source of the Virginia colony’s economic survival in the 1600s. Also the military conflicts in the Middle East in 2003 bred new cola brands – Mecca-Cola, Muslim Up, Arab-Cola and Cola Turka.2.3.3 The Political Economy For most of the 20th Century three approaches to governance competed for world dominance: fascism, communism, and democracy/free enterprise. It is necessary to appreciate the influence of the political economy on social institutions and cultural values and ways of thinking.2.3.4 Technology Various technological innovations also impact institutions and cultural values. Certainly Jet Aircraft, air-conditioning, televisions, computers and the internet all influenced culture. Arguably the greatest impact is the pill that has allowed women to have careers and freed men to spend more time with kids.2.3.5 Social Institutions Social Institutions including family, religion, school, the media, government and corporations all affects the culture. The family, social classes, group behavior, age groups and how societies define decency and civility are interpreted differently within every culture. Family behavior varies across the world, e.g., extended families living together to Dad washing dishes. Japans mother carrying for her to children pretty much by herself, the Australian family in Melbourne – both parents work hard to support their family. Religious value systems differ across the world, e.g., Muslims not allowed eating pork to Hindus not allowed to consume beef. School and education most important social institutions, affects all aspects of the culture, from economic development to consumer behavior. Page | 10 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 11. Media (magazines, TV, the Internet) influences culture and behavior. Government policies influence the thinking and behaviors citizens of adult citizens, e.g., the French government offers new “birth bonuses” of $800 given to women as an incentive to increase family size Corporations influence culture via the products they market, e.g., MTV2.4 Elements of Culture Five elements of culture are values, rituals, symbols, beliefs and thought processes. International marketers must design products, distribution systems and promotional programs with due consideration of each of the five.2.4.1 Cultural Values A difference in cultural values, which is found to exist among countries, affects consumer behavior. The most useful information on how cultural values influence various types of business and market behavior comes from seminal work by Geert Hofstede. Studying over 90000 people in 66 countries, he found that the cultures of the nation differed along 4 primary dimensions are as follows: 1. Individualism/ collectivism index (IDV), which focuses on self-orientation. 2. Power distance Index (PDI), which focuses on authority orientation. 3. Uncertainly avoidance index (UAI), which focuses on risk orientation. 4. Masculinity/Femininity Index (MAS), which focuses on assertiveness and achievement. The IDV is the most useful dimensions and MAS is the least useful dimensions. IDV Score, PDI score, UAI score, Primary language and distance from English of various countries are shown in Table-3 above. Individualism/Collective Index (IDV) The Individualism / Collective Index refer to the preference of behavior that promotes one’s self-interest. High IDV cultures reflect an “I” mentality and tend to reward and accept individual initiative, while low IDV cultures reflect a “we” mentality and generally subjugate the individual to the group. Power Distance Index (PDI) The power distance index measures power inequality between superiors and subordinates within a social system. Cultures with high PDI scores tend to be hierarchical, with members citing force, manipulation and inheritance as Page | 11 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 12. sources of power. Those with low score tend to value equality and reflectegalitarian views. Table-3 Hofstede’s Indexes, language and linguistic distance Country IDV PDI UAI Primary Distance Score Score Score Language from English Arab Countries 38 80 68 Arabic 5 Australia 90 36 51 English 0 Brazil 38 69 76 Portuguese 3 Canada 80 39 48 English(French) 0.3 Colombia 13 67 80 Spanish 3 Finland 63 33 59 Finnish 4 France 71 68 86 French 3 Germany 67 35 65 German 1 Great Britain 89 35 35 English 0 Greece 35 60 112 Greek 3 Guatemala 6 95 101 Spanish 3 India 48 77 40 Dravidian 3 Indonesia 14 78 48 Bahasa 7 Iran 41 58 59 Farsi 3 Japan 46 54 92 Japanese 4 Mexico 30 81 82 Spanish 3 Netherlands 80 38 53 Dutch 1 New Zealand 79 22 49 English 0 Pakistan 14 55 70 Urdu 3 South Korea 18 60 85 Korean 4 Taiwan 17 58 69 Taiwanese 6 Turkey 37 66 85 Turkish 4 United States 91 40 46 English 0 Uruguay 36 61 100 Spanish 3 Venezuela 12 81 76 Spanish 3 Source: From Geert Hofstede, Culture’s Cosequences, 2001Uncertainty Avoidance Index(UAI)The uncertainty avoidance index measures the intolerance of ambiguity anduncertainty among members of a society. High UAI cultures are highlyintolerant of ambiguity, experience anxiety and stress; accord a high level ofauthority to rules as a means of avoiding risk. Low UAI cultures are associatedwith a low level of anxiety and stress, a tolerance of deviance and dissent, anda willingness to take risks.Masculinity/Femininity (MAS)Masculinity: Men are assertive, competitive and concerned with materialsuccess and Women nurturing and welfare. Page | 12 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 13. Femininity: Social role of men and women overlap with neither gender exhibit overly ambitious or competitive behavior i.e. Japan and Austria.2.4.2 Rituals Rituals are patterns of behavior and interaction that are learned and repeatedly vary from country to country, e.g., extended lunch hours in Spain and Greece.2.4.3 Symbols Language as Symbols: the “languages” of time, space, things, friendships, and agreements. French attempting for preserve the purity of their language. In Canada, language has been the focus of political disputes including secession. Also, difference in language vocabulary varies widely. Aesthetics as Symbols: the arts, folklore, music, drama, and dance of a culture influences marketing.2.4.4 Language Language is a social institution. Expert communication requires a thorough understanding of the language as well as the ability to speak it. A new concept, linguistic distance provide market segmentation and strategic entry decisions English spreads around the world via school systems and the internet, cultural values of individualism and egalitarianism will spread with it. Distance from English of various countries has been shown in Table-3. Page | 13 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 14. 2.4.5 Beliefs Beliefs, which stem from religious training, vary from culture to culture. Eg : The western aversion to the number 13 or refusing to walk under a ladder. Japanese concern about Year of the Fire Horse. The Chinese practice of Feng Shui in designing buildings. Also, belief is an organized pattern of knowledge that an individual holds to be true about the world.2.4.6 Thought Processes Thought process is the degree to which ways of thinking vary across cultures. Thought processes also vary across cultures: e.g. “Asian and Western” thinking. Finally, marketers must consider larger cultural consequences of marketing actions.2.4.7 Cultural Sensitivity and Tolerance Successful international marketing begins with cultural sensitivity- being attuned to the nuances of culture so that a new culture can be viewed objectively, evaluated and appreciated. Cultural sensitivity, or cultural empathy, must be carefully cultivated. Just because a culture is different does not make it wrong. Marketers must understand how their won cultures influence their assumption about another culture. Being culturally sensitive will reduced conflict and improve communication and thereby increase success in collaborative relationships.2.5 Cultural Change Culture is dynamic in nature; it is a living process. International marketers should appreciate how cultures change and accept or reject new ideas. How culture change, e.g., war (changes in Japan after World War II) or by natural disaster.2.5.1 Cultural Borrowing Hofstede has shown that consumers’ acceptance of innovations varies across cultures innovation was associated with higher individualism (IDV), and lower power distance (PDI) and uncertainty avoidance (UAI). International marketers should be aware the extent to which cultures borrow ideas and learn from other cultures. It helps in the marketing of products from one culture to a different culture.2.5.2 Similarities: an illusion For the inexperienced marketer, the similar but different aspect of culture creates illusions of similarity that usually do not exist. Several nationalities can Page | 14 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 15. speak the same language or have similar race and heritage, but it does not follow that similarities exist in other respect. Marketers must assess each country thoroughly in terms of the proposed goods or services and never rely on an often used axiom that if it sells in one country, it will surely sell in another.2.5.3 Resistance to Change A characteristic of human culture is that change occurs. Cultures change gradually with resistance to changes. The resistance varies inversely with the interest a society has in the change. Culture doesn’t resist change if the product is a status-valued imported item, a fashion item, or is given the advantage of inferior feelings about local products. Marketers can expect resistance to their products, with greater resistance to those products with the greatest deviation from the cultural norm or status quo. Examples of cultures that resist change: 1. Working women in Masculine societies like Saudi Arabia. 2. Acceptance of genetically modified foods (or “Franken food”) in Europe.2.5.4 Planned and Unplanned Cultural Change Cultures that are resistant to change represent a major hurdle in marketing products. Cultural change can be accomplished by: • First, determine which cultural factors conflict with an innovation, thus creating resistance to its acceptance. • Second, change those factors from obstacles to acceptance into stimulants for change. • Third, marketers can cause change by introducing an idea or product and deliberately setting about to overcome resistance and to cause change that accelerates the rate of acceptance. • Firms can use a strategy of planned change by deliberately changing those aspects of the culture offering resistance to predetermined marketing goals, e.g., introducing western foods and baseball into Japan.2.5.5 Consequences of innovation Changes happen within a social system due to acceptance of an innovation. Product diffusion and adoption may bring change that affects social systems. Consequences of diffusion of an innovation may be functional or dysfunctional, depending on whether the effects on the social system are desirable or undesirable. For example, a change from breast feeding to bottle feeding at an Page | 15 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 16. early age without the user’s complete understanding had caused dysfunctional consequences. 3. Business Customs in Global Marketing Marketers must remain flexible in their own attitudes by accepting differences in basic patterns of thinking, local business tempo, religious practices, political structure, and family loyalty, otherwise, they will hampered, if not prevented, from reaching satisfactory conclusions to business transactions. This topic focuses on specially related to the Business environment. Besides an analysis of the need for adaptation, it will review the structural elements, attitudes and behavior of international business processes.3.1 Required Adaptation Adaptation is a key concept in international marketing and willingness to adapt is a crucial attitude. There are ten basic criteria that all who wish to deal with individuals, firms, or authorities in foreign countries should be able to meet. They are: (1) open tolerance, (2) flexibility, (3) humility, (4) justice/fairness, (5) ability to adjust to varying tempos, (6) curiosity/interest, (7) knowledge of the country, (8) liking for others, (9) ability to command respect, and (10) ability to integrate oneself into the environment.3.2 Degree of Adaptation Essential to effective adaptation is awareness of one’s own culture and the recognition. The self-reference criterion (SRC) is especially operative in business customs. In China it is important to make points without winning arguments; criticism, even if asked for, can cause a host to “lose face.” In Germany, it is considered discourteous to use first names unless specifically invited to do so. In Brazil, do not be offended by the Brazilian inclination to touch during conversation. Once a marketer is aware of the possibility of cultural differences and the probable consequences of failure to adapt, the seemingly endless variety of customs must be assessed.3.3 Imperatives, Adiaphora and Exclusives Page | 16 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 17. Business customs can be grouped into imperatives, customs that must be recognized and accommodated; adiaphora, customs to which adaptation is optional; and exclusives, customs in which an outsider must not participate. An international marketer must appreciate the nuances of cultural imperatives, cultural adiaphora, and cultural exclusives. Cultural Imperatives Cultural imperatives refer to the business customs and expectations that must be met and conformed to or avoided if relationships are to be successful. In China, Japan, and other Asian cultures it is imperative to avoid causing your counterpart to “lose face.” In China to rise your voice, to shout at a Chinese person in public, or to correct them in front of their peers will cause them to lose face. Cultural Adiaphora Cultural adiaphora relates to areas of behavior or to customs that cultural aliens may wish to conform to or participate in but that are not required. The majority of customs fit into this category. One need not greet another man with a kiss (a custom in some countries). On the other hand, a symbolic attempt to participate in adiaphora is not only acceptable but also may help to establish rapport.3.4 Cultural Exclusives Cultural exclusives are those customs or behavior patterns reserved exclusively for the locals and from which the foreigner is excluded. For example, a Christian attempting to act like a Muslim would be repugnant to a follower of Mohammed. Equally offensive is a foreigner criticizing a country’s politics, mores, and peculiarities (that is, peculiar to the foreigner) even though locals may, among themselves, criticize such issues.3.5 Methods of Doing Business Page | 17 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 18. Because of the diverse structures, management attitudes, and behaviors encountered in international business, there is considerable latitude in ways business is conducted. Among the four dimensions of Hofstede’s cultural values discussed in previous section i.e. Individualism/Collectivism (IDV) and Power Distance (PDI) are especially relevant in examining methods of doing business among countries.3.6 Sources and Level of Authority Business size, ownership, public accountability, and cultural values that determine the prominence of status and position (PDI) combine to influence the authority structure of business. Although the international businessperson is confronted with a variety of authority patterns i.e. top-level management decisions; decentralized decisions; and committee or group decisions. Top-level management decision making is generally found in family business that are small enough to make such centralized decision making possible. Decentralized decision making is generally found large-scale business with highly developed management systems such as those found in the United States. Committee decision making is by group or consensus. Committees may operate on a centralized or decentralized basis, but the concept is quite different.3.7 Management Objectives and Aspirations The training and background (i.e., cultural environment) of managers affect their personal and business outlooks. Society establishes the status of management, and cultural background dictates patterns of aspirations and objectives among businesspeople. These cultural influences affect the attitude of managers toward innovation, new products, and conducting business with foreigners. In dealing with foreign business, a marketer must be particularly aware of the varying objectives and aspirations of management.3.8 Personal Goals Individual goals are highly personal in any country, so it is hard to generalize to the extent of saying that managers in anyone country always have a specific orientation. For example, studies have shown that Kuwaiti managers are more likely than American managers to make business decisions consistent with their own personal goals. Swedish managers were found to express little reluctance in bypassing the hierarchical line, while Italian managers believed that bypassing the hierarchical line was a serious offense.3.9 Security and Mobility Page | 18 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 19. Personal security and job mobility relate directly to basic human motivation and therefore have economic and social implications. For example, in France and Italy, there is a strong paternalistic orientation, and it is assumed that individuals will work for one company for the majority of their lives. There is much less mobility among French managers than British.3.10 Personal Life For many individuals, a good personal life takes priority over profit, security, or any other goal. To the Japanese, personal life is company life. Many Japanese workers regard their work as the most important part of their overall lives. The Japanese work ethic maintenance of a sense of purpose-derives from company loyalty and frequently results in the Japanese employee maintaining identity with the corporation.3.11 Social Acceptance In some countries, acceptance by neighbors and fellow workers appears to be a predominant goal within business. The Asian outlook is reflected in the group decision-making so important in Japan, and the Japanese place high importance on fitting in with their group.3.12 Power Although there is some power-seeking by business managers throughout the world, power-seems to be a more important motivating force in South American countries. In these countries, many business leaders are not only profit- oriented but also use their business positions to become social and political leaders.3.13 Communications Emphasis Languages & thoughts are the basic communication tool for marketers in foreign lands. Similar business terms in English and Japanese often have different meanings. The best policy when dealing in other languages is to stick to formal language patterns. Foreign language skills are critical in all negotiations. In a low-context culture one-gets down to business quickly. In a high-context culture it takes considerably longer. The international marketer must have a mastery over the language, customs and culture of business. Page | 19 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 20. 3.14 Formality and Tempo France ranks high on PDI scale while the United States ranks much lower and such differences can lead to cultural misunderstandings. Hurriedness and impatience are common mistakes of North Americans attempting to trade in the Middle East. Most Arabs do not like to embark on serious business discussions. So, international marketers have to deal with foreign executives in ways that are acceptable to the foreigner.3.15 P-Time versus M-Time Edward Hall defines two time systems in the world: monochromic (M-time) and polyphonic time (P-time). M-time, typifies most North Americans, Swiss, Germans, and Scandinavians. They tend to concentrate on one thing at a time. Most low-context cultures operate on M-time. P-time is more dominant in high- context cultures. P-time is characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of many things and by “a great involvement with people.” P-time allows for relationships to build and context to be absorbed as parts of high-context cultures. Most cultures offer a mix of P-time and M-time behavior. In Japan where appointments are adhered to with the greatest M-time precision but P-time is followed once a meeting begins.3.16 Negotiations Emphasis The basic elements of business negotiations are the same in any country; they relate to the product, its price and terms, services associated with the product, and finally, friendship between vendors and customers. But the negotiating process is complicated and the risk of misunderstanding increases when Page | 20 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 21. negotiating with someone from another culture. One standard rule in negotiating is “know thyself’ first, and second, “know your opponent.”3.17 Gender Bias in International Business It is a fact that men and women are treated very differently in some cultures. In Saudi Arabia, for example, women are segregated, expected to wear veils, and forbidden even to drive. In Japan, where Japanese women rarely achieve even lower-level management positions, representatives of U.S. firms are seen first as Americans, second as representatives of firms, and then as males or females. Similarly, women in China are seen as foreigners first and women second. Being foreign is such a major difference that being a woman is relatively minor. So, International marketer must be aware of the gender bias in different culture.4. Critical Concerns of Political Environment4.1 The Political Environment Global marketing activities take place within the political environmental of governmental institutions, political parties, and organizations through which a country’s people and rulers exercise power. Any company doing business outside its home country should carefully study the government structure in the target country and analyze salient issues arising from the political environment. These include the governing party’s attitude toward sovereignty, political risk, the threat of equity dilution, and expropriation.4.2 The Sovereignty of Nations In the context of international law, a sovereign state is independent and free from all external control; enjoys full legal equality with other states; governs its own territory; selects its own political, economic, and social systems; and has the power to enter into agreements with other nations. Sovereignty refers to both the powers exercised by a state in relation to other countries and the supreme powers exercised over its own members. A state sets requirements for citizenship, defines geographical boundaries, and controls trade and the movement of people and goods across its borders. Page | 21 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 22. The European Union, NAFTA, NATO, and WTO represent examples of nations voluntarily agreeing to give up some of their sovereign rights to participate with member nations for a common, mutually beneficial goal.4.3 Stability of Government Policies The ideal political climate for a multinational firm is a stable friendly government. Unfortunately, governments are not always stable and friendly, causes poor economic conditions, bias against foreign investment. There are five main political causes of instability in international markets: 1) Forms of Government and Political Parties Today there are 3 forms of Govt. like monarchy (or dictatorship), aristocracy (or oligarchy), and democracy. Table-5 lists a sampling of the countries having different types of Govt. The International marketer must know the philosophies of all major political parties within a country. 2) Nationalism Economic and cultural nationalism is another important factor in assessing business climate. Nationalism can best be described as an intense feeling of national pride and unity which can take an anti–foreign business bias. National interest and security are more important than international relations. Table-5: Sample of Govt. type Page | 22 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 23. Country Government TypeAfghanistan Islamic republicBelarus Republic in name, though in fact a dictatorshipBosnia and Herzegovina Emerging federal democratic republicBurma (Myanmar) Military juntaCanada Confederation with parliamentary democracyChina Communist stateCongo, Democratic Dictatorship, presumably undergoing a transition to representative governmentCuba Communist stateIran Theocratic republicLibya Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in fact a military dictatorshipNorth Korea Communist state, one-man dictatorshipSaudi Arabia MonarchySomalia No permanent national government; transitional, parliamentary federal governmentSudan Authoritarian regime—ruling military juntaUnited Kingdom Constitutional monarchyUnited States Constitutional federal republicUzbekistan Republic ; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branchVietnam Communist state 3) Targeted Fear and/or Animosity The marketers should not to confuse nationalism, whose animosity is directed generally toward all foreign countries, with a widespread fear directed at a particular country. This confusion was a mistake made by Toyota in the United States in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Declining sales of Japanese cars in the States also made confusion. No nation-state will tolerate penetration by a foreign company into its market and economy if it perceives a social, cultural, economic, or political threat to its well-being. 4) Trade Disputes Finally, narrow trade disputes themselves can mix broader international markets. Among several hot issues circa 2010 were undervalued Chinese currency, the ban on beef imports into Japan, Chinese subsidies in apparent violation of WTO rules, farm subsidies in developed countries, and the long- simmering AIRBUS–Boeing battle over subsidies. Any of these disputes might boil over and affect other aspects of international trade. 5) Political Risks of Global Business Page | 23 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 24. Issues of sovereignty, differing political philosophies, and nationalism are enhancing the risks of global business. Risks can range from confiscation, the harshest, to many lesser but still significant government rules and regulations, such as exchange controls, import restrictions, and price controls that directly affect the performance of business activities.4.4 Confiscation, Expropriation and Domestication The most severe political risk is exclusion, that is, the seizing of a company’s assets without payment. Expropriation is less drastic, but still severe, where the government seizes an investment but makes some reimbursement for the assets. A third type of risk is domestication, which occurs when host countries gradually cause the transfer of foreign investments to national control and ownership through a series of government decrees. The ultimate goal is to force foreign investors to share more of the ownership, management and profits with nationals.4.5 Economic Risks International companies are confronted with a variety of economic risks that can occur with little warning. Restraints on business activity may be imposed under the banner of national security to protect an infant industry, to conserve scarce foreign exchange, to raise revenue, or to retaliate against unfair trade practices, among a score of other real or imagined reasons. These economic risks are an important and recurring part of the political environment that few international companies can avoid.4.6 Exchange Controls. Exchange controls curtail from shortages of foreign exchange held by a country. When a nation faces shortages of foreign exchange and/or a substantial amount of capital is leaving the country, controls may be levied over all movements of capital or selectively against the most politically vulnerable companies to conserve the supply of foreign exchange for the most essential uses. A recurrent problem for the foreign investor is getting profits in and out of the host country without loss of value, which can occur when a currency is devalued.4.7 Local-Content Laws. In addition to restricting imports of essential supplies to force local purchase, countries often require a portion of any product sold within the country to have local content, that is, to contain locally made parts. Thailand, for example, requires that all milk products contain at least 50 percent milk from local dairy farmers. NAFTA requires percent local content for all cars coming from member countries. Page | 24 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 25. 4.8 Import Restrictions. Selective restrictions on the import of raw materials, machines, and spare parts are fairly common strategies to force foreign industry to purchase more supplies within the host country and thereby create markets for local industry. But, for that adequately developed sources of supply within the country should be made available.4.9 Tax Controls. Controlling foreign investments, taxes must be classified as a political risk In such cases, they are raised without warning and in violation of formal agreements. India, for example, taxes PepsiCo and the Coca-Cola Company 40 percent on all soda bottled in India. The under developing countries are generally uses such type of tax controls to makeup Govt.’s shortage of funds.4.10 Price Controls Essential public products such as pharmaceuticals, food, gasoline, and cars, are often subjected to price controls. Such controls applied during inflationary periods. They also may be used to force foreign companies to sell equity to local interests.4.11 Labor Problems. In many countries, labor unions have strong government support that they use effectively in obtaining special concessions from business. Layoffs may be forbidden, profits may have to be shared, and an extraordinary number of services may have to be provided. Some multinational companies are more powerful than local labor unions. Wal-Mart closed a store in Quebec rather than let it be unionized.4.12 Political Sanctions In addition to economic risks, one or a group of nations may boycott another nation, thereby stopping all trade between the countries, or may issue sanctions against the trade of specific products. The United States has long- term boycotts of trade with Cuba and Iran and has come under some criticism for its demand for continued sanctions against Cuba and its threats of future sanctions against countries that violate human rights issues.4.13 Violence, Terrorism and War Violence is another risk for multinational companies. The world continues to be victimized by thousands of terrorist attacks each year. Multinationals are Page | 25 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 26. targeted to embarrass a government and its relationship with firms, to generatefunds by kidnapping executives to finance terrorist goals and to inflict terrorwithin a country to create political and social disputes, as did the events ofSeptember 11, 2001, which raised the cost of doing business domestically andinternationally Mumbai Terror Attacks, 2008 “9/11” Terrorist AttacksTable-6: U.S. State Department Travel warnings Source: http://travel.state.gov/travel/,2010 Table-7: Armed conflicts around the world. Page | 26 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 27. 4.14 Assessing Political Vulnerability There are many reasons for a company’s political vulnerability as there are political philosophies, economic variations, and cultural differences. Countries seeking investments in high-priority industries may well excuse companies from taxes, customs duties, quotas, exchange controls, and other impediments to investment. India announced a new trade policy that eases restraints and offers tax breaks for companies developing and maintaining infrastructure.4.15 Politically Sensitive Products and Issues Products that have an effect on the environment, exchange rates, national and economic security, and the welfare of people or that are publicly visible, subject to public debate, or associated with their country of origin are more likely to be politically sensitive. Fast-food restaurants, which are intended to be visible, have often been lightning rods for groups opposed to foreign companies. Health is often the subject of public debate, and products that affect health issues can be sensitive to political concerns. The European Union has banned hormone-treated beef for more than a decade.4.16 Forecasting Political Risk A number of firms are employing systematic methods of measuring political risk. Political risk assessments are an attempt to forecast political instability to help management identify and evaluate political events and their potential influence on current and future international business decisions. List of top 20 state is given below (Table-8) Page | 27 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 28. Table-8: Top 20 States in Danger (Ranked in order to closest to failure) Source: From Foreign Policy, “Failed States Index,” May/June 2009, online4.17 Lessening Political Vulnerability Although a company cannot directly control or alter the political environment of the country within which it operates, a specific business venture can take measures to lessen its degree of susceptibility to politically induced risks. Relations between governments and MNCs are generally positive if the investment (1) improves the balance of payments by increasing exports or reducing imports through import substitution; (2) uses locally produced resources; (3) transfers capital, technology, and/or skills; (4) creates jobs; and/or (5) makes tax contributions.4.18 Joint Ventures Typically less susceptible to political harassment, joint ventures can be with locals or other third-country multinational companies; in both cases, a company’s financial exposure is limited. A joint venture with locals helps minimize anti-MNC feelings, and a joint venture with another MNC adds the additional bargaining power of a third country4.19 Expanding the Investment Base Including several investors and banks in financing an investment in the host country is another strategy. This approach has the advantage of engaging the power of the banks whenever any kind of government takeover or harassment is threatened. This strategy becomes especially powerful if the banks have made loans to the host country; if the government threatens expropriation or other types of takeover, the financing bank has substantial power with the government.4.20 Licensing A strategy that some firms find eliminates almost all risks is to license technology for a fee. Licensing can be effective in situations in which the technology is unique and the risk is high. Of course, there is some risk assumed, because the licensee can refuse to pay the required fees while continuing to use the technology Page | 28 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 29. 4.21 Planned Domestication When a host country is demanding local participation, the most effective long- range solution is planned phasing out, that is, planned domestication. As a reasonable response to the potential of domestication, planned domestication can be profitable and operationally expedient for the foreign investor. Planned domestication is a gradual process of participating with nationals in all phases of company operations.4.22 Political Bargaining Multinational companies clearly engage in lobbying and other sorts of political bargaining to avoid potential political risks. Toyota once considered raising prices of its cars in the American market to “help” its ailing American competitors. The Japanese government has set quotas on auto exports in the past as American car companies have struggled. China has agreed to put quotas on its exports of textiles and to fl oat its currency as the American & European criticism were growing. Finally, a cynical way to look at the motivation behind corporate social responsibility in general is its use as a bargaining chip with foreign publics and governments.4.23 Political Payoffs Political payoff is an attempt to lessen political risks by paying those in power to intervene on behalf of the multinational company. It is used to lessen the negative effects of a variety of problems. Bribery poses problems for the marketer at home and abroad, because it is illegal for U.S. citizens. Political payoffs may offer short-term benefits, but in the long run, the risks are high, and bribery is an untenable option.4.24 Government Encouragement The most important reason to encourage foreign investment is to accelerate the development of an economy. Multinational corporations may be expected to create local employment, transfer technology, generate export sales, stimulate growth and development of local industry, conserve foreign exchange, or meet a combination of these expectations as a requirement for market concessions. Recent investments in China, India, and the former republics of the Soviet Union include provisions stipulating specific contributions to economic goals of the country that must be made by foreign investors. Page | 29 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)
  • 30. 5. Conclusion While entering global markets, global companies must take into account various factors such as social, economic, political, culture and customs. They must understand the local marketing environment, especially the local infrastructure and the cultural issues. The risks involved with different entry options must be carefully evaluated. There is a well known saying, “Well begun is half done.” Similarly, the right entry strategy in an international market can generate tremendous competitive leverage for global companies.6. Bibliography  www.wikipedia.org  www.unesco.org/en/world-reports/cultural-diversity  highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070144478/.../Cateora_03.p...  www.slideboom.com/.../International-Marketing%3A-Chapter-Four  highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073380989/student.../chapter4/  http://www.docstoc.com/docs/68366973/Chapter-4-Cultural-Dynamics-in- Assessing-Global-Markets  www.slideshare.net/.../a-project-report-on-export-proces... - United States  International Marketing Management : Philip Kotler  International Marketing: Warren Keegan  International Business : AswaThapa Page | 30 Siddhartha S Majumder (S-93)

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