History Lecture 2

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History Lecture 2

  1. 1. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I LECTURE-2 Man's early attempts to colonize and personalize space…. 1st Semester B .Arch, August - December 2013
  2. 2. PART ONE RECAPITULATION OF LECTURE 1 HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I
  3. 3. RECAPITULATION- HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I METHODOLOGY OF STUDY / ANALYSIS WHO + WHERE+WHEN -- This refer to the people who built the building / site / town being studied. This aspect refers also to the socio-cultural conditions -- which age, how the people lived, their beliefs, how far was technology developed, etc. WHY -- The reason for building or the function for which the structure / town was built WHAT -- The physical form of the structure / town HOW -- The method (technology) used -- which material, which construction method, which structural system
  4. 4. RECAPITULATION- HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I WHAT IS HISTORY? The study of past events These include not just written documents, but also through objects such as buildings, artifacts and paintings. WHAT IS ARCHITECTURE ? The art or practice of designing and constructing buildings The style in which a building is designed and constructed, especially with regard to a specific period, place, Or Culture: WHAT IS ENVIRONMENT ? The setting or condition in which a particular activity is carried on.
  5. 5. RECAPITULATION- HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE Traces the changes in Design of various building types & functions , Structure, Construction methods and other architectural elements Through Various Traditions, Regions, Stylistic trends…from The Primitive Phases till the present day. Traces the changes in Design of various building types & functions Traces the changes in Structures
  6. 6. RECAPITULATION- HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE Traces the changes in Design of various building types & functions , Structure, Construction methods and other architectural elements Through Various Traditions, Regions, Stylistic trends…from The Primitive Phases till the present day. Traces the changes in Construction Methods Traces the changes in other architectural elements
  7. 7. RECAPITULATION- HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & BUILT ENVIRONMENTS Group of BUILDINGS Includes a Therefore we must understand that history of architecture doesn’t end with the single building or element but includes the surroundings as well…
  8. 8. RECAPITULATION- BEGINNING OF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT They sheltered in caves PROTECTION WATER They learnt to make containers that can store water FOOD They learnt to farm the land They learnt to shape stones into tools or weapons They learnt to take care of animals In Neolithic people became SEDENTARY
  9. 9. RECAPITULATION- BEGINNING OF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT • World population grew • People began to grow more food than they would need – allowed people to do things other than farming • Trade increased • Establishment of Towns/Cities • Cities become centers of trade, politics and culture • Men became superior • Formalized religion Ceremonies, rituals, and worship Built large temples Changes in society.. • Based on occupations, wealth, and influence – rulers, priests, and nobles – merchants and artisans – farmers and unskilled workers – majority – slaves Social classes .. Organized Government • Projects need planning-decision making • created laws • established systems of justice • supervised food production and building projects • gathered taxes • organized defense
  10. 10. NEED TO STUDY HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & BUILT ENVIRONMENTS To locate our self , that we are not individual, we are connected to the entire world. Experience from the past , largely influence today's decision. We get to know that each era since the beginning of time formed its own unique style .. Every action is sequel to another , so without studying past we cant move further.. Thus we need to study about our past and to know how change has happens through time
  11. 11. Unit-I • Definition and scope of Architecture. Interdependence of various components of the built environment. Need for a holistic approach. • Man’s early/prehistoric attempts to colonise and personalize space. Examples of early shelters, Stonehenge, tumuli, etc. as expression of man’s physical and spiritual needs • Determinants of Built Form - geo-physical, societal, political and technological, etc. Global examples of vernacular architecture. • Introduction to the River Valley Civilizations. Comparative study of different manifestations with reference to location, materials and techniques, socio-cultural influences and other contextual factors Unit-II • Egyptian Civilization: Concept of the Royal Necropolis, locational context and architectural characteristics of public buildings, e.g. mastabas, pyramids and temples(rock-cut & structural) -one example of each type to be chosen. Worker’s settlement- city of Kahun. • Mesopotamian Civilization; the urban context and architecture of public buildings (ziggurats and palaces). Examples of the city and Ziggurat of Ur, city and palace and of Khorsabad. Unit-III • Indus Valley Civilization: Form of the Harappan City, location and role of public buildings. • Architecture of the typical Harappan dwelling, Granary and Bath. • The Vedic Village, Building typology and construction HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -I
  12. 12. PART -2 Man's early attempts to colonize and personalize space….
  13. 13. WHAT IS THE MEANING OF ‘COLONIZE’ ? According to man’s need -- how he moulds and how he starts to inhabit space "to inhabit”
  14. 14. WHAT IS THE MEANING OF ‘PERSONALIZE’ ? Personal needs , Someone's individual requirements Modify spaces as per personal requirements
  15. 15. How Man starts inhabitation and modifies space as per his needs… Examples : Caves of Lascaux, France Lascaux Caves is the world's most famous prehistoric cave located in France. Discovered in 1940 , there is a series of spaces which displays vast amounts of imagery paintings by Paleolithic (Stone Age) humans. Dated around 10,000 BC, the beautiful paintings on cave walls represent the earliest surviving examples of the artistic expression of early people. MAN'S EARLY ATTEMPTS TO COLONIZE AND PERSONALIZE SPACE….
  16. 16. Using the natural rock contours, these 'primitive' people of the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) painted accurate representations of the animals that were such an important part of their lives. MAN'S EARLY ATTEMPTS TO COLONIZE AND PERSONALIZE SPACE….
  17. 17. Cows, bulls, horses, bison, and deer are among the animals seen on the walls of these caves. 'HALL OF BULLS,' Cave Painting from Lascaux, France MAN'S EARLY ATTEMPTS TO COLONIZE AND PERSONALIZE SPACE….
  18. 18. MAN'S EARLY ATTEMPTS TO COLONIZE AND PERSONALIZE SPACE…. Through sympathetic magic, perhaps these early humans believed that by drawing these images, they would increase hunting luck. Another theory is that it was believed that man had to paint these images to 'replace' the animals that he would hunt and kill. he
  19. 19. MAN'S EARLY ATTEMPTS TO COLONIZE AND PERSONALIZE SPACE…. Examples : Bhimbetka Caves , M.P., India Bhimbetka owes its name to the characters of the longest epic in the world, the Mahabharata. It is believed that when the five brothers, called Pandavas, were banished from their kingdom, they came here and stayed in these caves. These caves were discovered and revealed in 1957 ,are 15,000 year old.
  20. 20. MAN'S EARLY ATTEMPTS TO COLONIZE AND PERSONALIZE SPACE…. Since these caves actually formed dwellings for primitive people belonging to various ages, the paintings here demonstrate their lifestyle and everyday activities. These are linear representations, in green and dark red, of huge figures of animals, such as bison's and boar beside stick like human figures. In addition to animals, there are human figures and hunting scenes giving a clear picture of the weapons used in those times Fantastic animal seeming to chasing a manWhite dancers in a row
  21. 21. MAN'S EARLY ATTEMPTS TO COLONIZE AND PERSONALIZE SPACE…. Other examples : Chauvet caves France (12,000 years old ) Altamira caves Spain 10,000 years old World heritage sites
  22. 22. Prehistoric people believed that all natural objects, including living creatures, had a soul or spirit, which existed separately and independently of its physical being. BELIEF IN SUPER NATURAL POWERS…. It was this force, controlled the activities of the natural world.
  23. 23. The natural events such as wind, storms, the transition from day to night, could be attributed to the actions of the spirits. Prehistoric communities firstly revered and then later worshipped these spirits, because the natural phenomena which these spirits produced were often so impressive and completely beyond normal human capacities. Prehistoric people began to worship these spirits as these natural phenomena's affected their day-to-day life. BELIEF IN SUPER NATURAL POWERS….
  24. 24. Religion did not begin simply as a result of prehistoric people observing the awe-inspiring might of the natural world. BELIEF IN SUPER NATURAL POWERS….
  25. 25. When primitive people dreamt about people or animals that had already died they may have formed the idea that these dead people had spirits, otherwise these dead people or animals would not have come to them in dreams. This belief in the spirits of the departed led to an awareness of the presence of spirits in all aspects of the natural world. After observing the power of the natural forces, an additional element was required : that is Awareness by prehistoric people of the existence of "animae" which came about as a result of witnessing events such as death and dreams. BELIEF IN SUPER NATURAL POWERS…. Worship spirits - So they need to give a physical expression to all beliefs Expressions of beliefs - Translate into architectural form
  26. 26. RELIGIOUS STRUCTURES…. MENHIRS: Stones set vertically into the ground (one third below the surface and two thirds above) ranging in height from a few centimeters to several meters Menhirs , are an even stranger constructs since they are designed not only to bury the dead, but also to help us remember where they were buried long after they are gone.
  27. 27. RELIGIOUS STRUCTURES…. DOLMENS : Also known as stone tables, these typically consist of two vertical stones set in the ground supporting a horizontal stone balanced across them. These were burial places. Some have been found buried under ground and full of human remains (up to 70 people in one dolmen), others are standing in the landscape and are empty.
  28. 28. RELIGIOUS STRUCTURES…. TUMULUS : Is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
  29. 29. RELIGIOUS STRUCTURES…. Religious structures to respect the dead
  30. 30. Stonehenge is a monumental circular setting of large standing stones surrounded by a circular earthwork, built in prehistoric times beginning about 3100 BC . RESPECT THE SUPER NATURAL POWERS - STONEHENGE …. STONEHENGE HENGE The word henge refers to a particular type of earthwork of the Neolithic period, roughly circular or oval-shaped flat area over 20m in diameter which is enclosed and surrounded by a boundary earthwork that usually comprises a ditch with an external bank.
  31. 31. RESPECT THE SUPER NATURAL POWERS - ‘STONEHENGE’ …. There are several such example, henge being the most complex, best known, best preserved. The three aligned henges of the Thornborough Henges complex, yorkshire
  32. 32. RESPECT THE SUPER NATURAL POWERS - ‘STONEHENGE’ …. Avebury stone henge - is a Neolithic henge monument containing three stone circles
  33. 33. RESPECT THE SUPER NATURAL POWERS - STONEHENGE …. STONEHENGE, SALISBURY Located about 13 km (8 miles) north of Salisbury, Wiltshire, Eng.
  34. 34. Stonehenge has been subjected to many theories about its origin: A place of worship of some kind. RESPECT THE SUPER NATURAL POWERS - STONEHENGE …. Religious and ritual ceremonies ..
  35. 35. The northeast axis aligned with the sunrise at the summer solstice, leading other scholars to speculate that the builders were sun worshipers. RESPECT THE SUPER NATURAL POWERS - STONEHENGE ….
  36. 36. One of its functions was the determination of the summer solstice date using the summer solstice sunrise. At the 21st of June the rising sun in the North East shines its light in between the Heel Stone onto the Alter Stone at the center of the Trilithons or horseshoe of Stonehenge. It is an established fact that Stonehenge was an astronomical observatory. RESPECT THE SUPER NATURAL POWERS - STONEHENGE ….
  37. 37. Archaeologists have found numerous cremation burials dating to this time and the centuries that followed. Ritualized funerary procession for treating the dead, RESPECT THE SUPER NATURAL POWERS - STONEHENGE ….
  38. 38. STAGE I: EARTHWORK The first stage, The earthwork monument, had no stones involved. The native Neolithic people, excavated a roughly circular ditch about 98 m (320 feet) in diameter; the ditch was about 6 m (20 feet) wide and 1.4 to 2 m (4.5 to 7 feet) deep, and the excavated rubble was used to build the high bank within the circular ditch. Archaeological excavations since 1950 suggest three main periods of building--Stonehenge I, II, and III, the last divided into phases. STONEHENGE … EVOLUTION OF DESIGN Circular ditch Bank around ditch
  39. 39. STAGE I: EARTHWORK The first stage, The earthwork monument, had no stones involved. They also erected two parallel entry stones on the northeast of the circle (one of which, the Slaughter Stone, still survives). Archaeological excavations since 1950 suggest three main periods of building--Stonehenge I, II, and III, the last divided into phases. STONEHENGE … EVOLUTION OF DESIGN N S EW Slaughter stone
  40. 40. STAGE I: EARTHWORK The first stage, The earthwork monument, had no stones involved. Archaeological excavations since 1950 suggest three main periods of building--Stonehenge I, II, and III, the last divided into phases. Inside the bank, fifty-six varying Aubrey holes were dug . Dark deposits suggest the holes once held timber posts, which were either deliberately burnt or taken away STONEHENGE … EVOLUTION OF DESIGN
  41. 41. STAGE II: During Stonehenge II, about 2100 BC, the complex was radically remodeled. About 80 bluestone pillars, weighing up to 4 tons each, were erected in the center of the site. STONEHENGE … EVOLUTION OF DESIGN Bluestone pillars The entrance way of this earliest setting of bluestones was aligned approximately upon the sunrise at the summer solstice, the alignment being continued by a newly built and widened approach, called the Avenue, together with a pair of Heel stones.
  42. 42. The initial phase of Stonehenge III, starting about 2000 BC, saw the erection of the linteled circle of Sarsen stones STAGE III: Linteled circle Of Sarsen stones Horseshoe five great trilithons and horseshoe shape five great trilithons , each of which Consisted of a pair of large stone uprights supporting a stone lintel. In the focus of the trilithon horseshoe is a large flat stone known as the Altar Stone Altar Stone STONEHENGE … EVOLUTION OF DESIGN
  43. 43. The remaining unshaped 60-odd bluestones were set as a circle of pillars within the sarsen circle (but outside the sarsen horseshoe). STONEHENGE … EVOLUTION OF DESIGN Bluestones 6 in no.
  44. 44. Two small stones, the Station Stones, and two low mounds, the North and South Barrows, are located near the inner edge of the bank from the first stage. It is believed that there used to be two more Station Stones within the North and South Barrows (Souden). STONEHENGE … EVOLUTION OF DESIGN
  45. 45. STONEHENGE … EVOLUTION OF DESIGN( construction method )
  46. 46. STONEHENGE … EVOLUTION OF DESIGN This Awe-inspiring creation getting lost in the mists of time. Was Stonehenge a temple for sun worship, a healing centre, a burial site or perhaps a huge calendar.. How did our ancestors manage to carry the mighty stones , using only the most primitive of tools, build this amazing structure.. Surrounded by mystery, Stonehenge never fails to impress.

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