We would like to thank our Public RelationsTeacher, Dr. Nomita Sharma for giving us suchan interesting topic to work on. It was only withthe help of her guidance that we couldcomplete this project.
• Issue Management: What is it?• What is an Issue?• Benchmark for Evaluation• Types of Issues• Who makes issues?• Life Cycle of a Public Issue• Dimensions of an Issue• Steps of Issue Management• California’s Children Obesity Crisis: A Case Study o SUMMARY o SITUATION ANALSYIS o RESEARCH o PLANNING Goal Target Audiences Objectives Strategies oEXECUTION oEVALUATION
Issues management is a process that ensures themonitoring and information processing ability of anorganization and thus to deal with uncertainty and riskcontributing. With the early identification of critical issuesand demands of stakeholders, could prejudice the action ofan enterprise, which creates issues management, therequirement for an active engagement with these issues. "The basic aim here is to avoid the one hand unpleasant surprises or conflicts that would otherwise be associated with these issues, and on the other hand it can also bring rewards Issues with them to use is." Issue management refers to the systematic examination of an organization (usually companies, public authorities, political parties, associations, etc.), with their environmental concerns. The aim is, in the public spot emerging, organization-related issues early on and respond accordingly. This may be through participation in the public opinion formation process happen or by adapting the organization policy. In addition, an organization also includes measures to bring issues to himself in the public debate, the issue management.
An issue is a trend or condition, either internal orexternal, which will, if continued, significantly affect acompany’s operations over the period of its businessplan.Any issues may present either a threat to the corporationor an opportunity to shape the issue to an advantage.Evaluation of whether the issue promises to bee threat oropportunity determines the nature and timing of theresponse. Today’s impossibilitiesare tomorrow’s miracles. — Dr. Robert H SchullerIn the context of corporate issues management, issues arecontroversial inconsistencies caused by gaps between theexpectations of corporations and those of their publics.These gaps lead to a contestable point of difference, theresolution of which can have important consequences foran organization.-Heath, 1997; Wartick & Mahon, 1994
Benchmark for Evaluation Opportunity Threat Benchmark Benchmark As mentioned earlier, issues may present to be an opportunity or a threat. Opportunity Benchmark: Threat Benchmark:The point before which a The level of loss beyond whichcorporation must take action the survival of the firm, ato control the issue. Beyond division, or a product will bethat point, the cost of acting endangered(beyond which thelate can no longer be firm will not be able to controlrecovered through profit. the issue).
Types of Issues Current Emerging SocietalThree broad categories of issues/trends must be identifiedand considered in issue management:Current:Public questions currently being acted on, or deformulatedby, government bodies. Such issues, having already beenformulated, generally are subject only to reactive publicaffairs responses.Emerging:Issues of public policy that are likely to be the subject oflegislation in the two-to five-year period ahead, but thathave not yet been fully formulated, nor the positionsdefined. It is in this evolving stage that issues can best beinfluenced or controlled.Societal:These involve changing attitudes and human behaviour andare the most difficult to influence or reverse. They includedemographic, social, resource-related, and technology-related trends, all of which may have political or economiceffects. Early evaluation of the nature and direction of thesetrends, as they may affect the company, is critical in any issuemanagement problem.
Who makes Issues? General Elected Public officials Pressure Government Groups Bureaucracies News MediaGeneral Public:generally plays a very insignificant role in creating an issue. Evenwhen there is a strong public concern the concerned authoritiesmay decide not take any action, particularly when it is convincedthat such action is impractical or that necessary tradeoffs, whichthe public doesn’t understand, are unacceptable. The greatestpower that the public has is the PASSIVE VETO - the nonacceptance of laws and regulations.Pressure Groups: are the most important element in creation of issues. The size ofthe group does not matter, what matters more is its ability tocapture media attention, the effectiveness of politicaloperations, and the alliances it can make beyond its membership.Groups which focus on a single issue are more effective thangroups focusing on various issues because their impact isdiffused.News Media:do not create or formulate any issues, they basically gatherattention to the issue, informing people about it. The media canbuild pressure on one side or another or drop the issue if theyfeel the interest is minimal.
From the issue management point of view , careful evaluation ofmedia activity is essential. Corporations tend to enter panicmode when they see media taking a hostile position towardsthem on a given issue. Sometimes, special issue groups will gettogether with media to promote specific issues. The mediaholds a strong position in shaping public opinion.Government Bureaucracies:are conventionally supposed to regulate the laws passed by thegovernment. In real life, as most businessmen can testify , theregulatory agencies own the issues, which they control by rulesand regulations, after legislative bodies have laid down thegeneral framework. The agencies, as specialists, also help draftthe legislations. Issue often originate with, or are stirred up by, atriangle of bureaucrats, activists and congressional staffemployees. The influence of each of these elements on theother tends to create an impression that public is concerned orexcited about an issue, when it may actually be uninterested orbored with it.Elected Officials:While an issue is developing and positions beingtaken, legislative bodies will generally lie low to see which waythings will go. The response of an individual legislature willdepend ona. The relevance of the issue to his constituencyb. The relevance to his committeesc. The pressure groups supporting himd. The horse trading that may be involvede. His deep routed personal convictions Often a congressman or local legislator will pick up an issue just to get attention. If it is not really relevant to his district, he can generally be fought on that ground.
An unidentified problem is hereFormerly non The issue is –existent or identified and unnoticed given a name problems Life Cycle of a Public IssueAdjustmentsare made, via Ideas begin judicial to crystallize review Legislation is Solutions introduced emerge and enacted
The path that a developing issue takes is important in issuemanagement. Because the extent of control can be exerciseddepends on the stage of its evolution. Different issues will followdifferent courses, but a prototype life cycle will be similar tothis:1. An Undefined Problem :There is a general sense of unease and frustration, and recognition that a problem exists, but the issue cannot be defined.2. The Issue Is Identified And Given A Name: A company that can first identify and name an emerging issue that affects it has a major opportunity at this stage.3. Issues Begin To Crystallize: on the nature and causes of the problem, and public attitudes begin to form with attention from the media. Again, leadership in evaluating the issue can help a company shape the solution.4. Solutions Emerge: On an issue of some importance, hundreds of solutions may be proposed, eventually reduced to a few. If the issue is relevant to the company, the issue management plan must provide for action to influence the ultimate solution.5. Legislation Is Introduced And Enacted: At this age the company can only react. Some influence on the legislation may be effected but control is no longer possible.6. Adjustments Are Made, Via Regulations Or Judicial Review: Here also the company’s position is one to simply of reacting, although it may affect the interpretation of regulations. Court action is often an effective issue management technique.7. Formerly Non-Existant Or Unnoticed Problems: often arise after an issue has completed its life cycle, perpetuating the cycle in a new context.
Technical Broad Impact Issues Issues Dimensions of the Issue Broad Impact, but Narrow RelativelyImpact Issues Abstract Issues
Issues vary by two dimensions:(1) How broad is the impact ( how many people are being affected)(2) How central it is to the lives of those being affectedThese dimensions are significant in determining the plan ofaction.• Broad Impact Issues: directly affecting a large segment of people like inflation, rise in prices of kerosene. Generally such issues are highlighted by media and activists. The political leadership may lag because it recognized the issue as a part of a wider range of problems. But when public support level reaches 40% or more for a particular solution, political pressures can be convinced that the tradeoffs involved are unacceptable.• Broad Impact, But Relatively Abstract Issues: are felt by a few people directly, although many may be aware that they may be potentially affected. Identification and crystallization of this type of issue depend generally on the leadership group, because solutions are usually very complex. The public does not exert much pressure and is likely to accept whatever solution the leaders decide.• Narrow Impact Issues: generally impact an identifiable minority or a geographical area. The majority of the public have no experience with the issue and no vulnerability. These issues are generally identified by pressure groups, who operate by influencing the political leadership.• Technical Issues: are identified and crystallized by the leadership. They are complex, distant from life of individuals and usually involve a distribution of political and economic power.
A formal process for managing issues will ensure that the problems are identified and resolved as quickly and effectively as possible. Consider the following process as a way to formally manage these project issues. Solicit potential issues from any project stakeholder, including the project team, clients, sponsors, etc. The issue can be surfaced through verbal or written means, but it must be formally documented using an Issues Form. (This may seem a burden, but an issue must be formally defined before it can be communicated and resolved effectively. If an issue cannot be documented, there is no way it can be resolved.) The manager determines whether the problem can be resolved without outside help or whether it should be classified as a formal issue. Enter the issue into the Issues Log. The Issues Log contains one entry per issue and is used for tracking purposes.
Assign the issue to a team member for investigation. (Themanager could assign it to himself/herself.) The project managershould also determine who needs to be involved in the decisionmaking process.The team member will investigate options that are available toresolve the issue. For each option, she should also estimate theimpact to the project in terms of budget, schedule and scope. The various alternatives and impacts on schedule and budgetare documented on the Issues Form. The project manager shouldtake the issue, alternatives and project impact to the people thatneed to be involved in the issue resolution (from step 4). If resolving the issue will involve changing the scope of theproject, close the issue now and use the scope changemanagement procedures instead to manage the resolution.
Document the resolution or course of action on the IssuesForm. Document the issue resolution briefly on the Issues Log. Add the appropriate corrective activities to the work plan toensure the issue is resolved. If the resolution of an issue causes the budget or duration ofthe project to change, the current Project Definition should beupdated. Communicate issue status and resolutions to project teammembers and other appropriate stakeholders through theproject Status Report, status meetings and other appropriatecommunication means.Having this type of issues resolution process defined ahead oftime will allow you to calmly and effectively work through aproblem resolution process whenever issues arise.
• Public Relations: Moore & Kalupa• Public Relations Cases: Jerry Hendrix. Darrell Hayes• http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/ne wPPM_69.htm• http://issuemanagement.org/• http://www.method123.com/issue- management.php• http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/Papers/SE- 22.pdf• http://www.management-issues.com/• http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/as ehelp/v8r0m0/index.jsp• http://books.google.co.in/books?id=1TkC8r1I 3asC&pg=PA199&lpg=PA199&dq=californias +childhood+obesity+crisis+legislators