“…the systematic process of collecting
and analyzing information (data) in order to
increase our understanding of the
phenomenon about which we are concerned
Randomly selecting books from the
library is not research, nor is surfing the
Internet. On the contrary, research requires
organization, resourcefulness, reflection, sy
nthesis, and above all, time
Research Proposal is the part of the
paper that provides readers with the
background information for the
research reported in the paper. Its
purpose is to establish a framework
for the research so that reader can
understand how it is related to the
other research (Wilkinson, 1991).
The issues involved and are able to provide
more than a broad description of the topic
which they are planning to research.
Writing a proposal on a topic forces you to
do intensive research and critical thinking
about your proposed research topic.
The proposal is not a fixed blueprint. the
research will inevitably alter or even unseat
one's initial expectations
◦ select a research area and the title of research
◦ Often, titles are stated in terms of a functional
relationship, because such titles clearly indicate
the independent and dependent variables.
A good title should:
◦ Indicate the type of study you will conduct.
◦ Address the main problem you are planning to
◦ Be concise, short, and descriptive.
◦ Convey to the reader the main focus of
◦ Use the correct terms in the title; it is very
important to use the correct term so that
your title becomes more meaningful.
◦ Try to limit your title to a single sentence
and exclude any words that are not
essential to the overall understanding of
Note: Write the title beginning each word
with capital letter and center-align it.
The main purpose of the introduction is to
provide the necessary background or context
for your research problem.
In an introduction, you should:
Create the reader interest in the topic.
Lay the broad foundation for the problem
that leads to the study.
Add necessary data to build on your
Add a reliable footnote(s) that supports the
The lead sentence: pay special attention to
your first sentence
To avoid from:
Long historical backgrounds, broadness
and subjective judgments/ researcher bias
(it must be objective and neutral)
Purpose of research in the quantitative
research problem stated at the beginning to
guide the research process. But in the
qualitative research statement of purpose
may be preceded by field work to learn
context of the research, propose guide
Although their use in quantitative
inquiry is becoming more prominent.
When a researcher states hypothesis.
The reader is entitled to have an ex
position of the theory that lead to them.
A research question poses a relationship
between two or more variables but phrase
the relationship as a question. A hypothesis
represent declarative statement of the
relations between two or more variables
(Kerlinger, 1979; Krathwohl, 1988).
The review of literature provides the
background and context for the research
problem. It should establish the need for
research and indicate that writer is
knowledge able about the area
It shares with the reader the results of other
studies that are closely related to the study
being reported (Fraenkel & Wallen, 1990).
In quantitative research review conducted
early in the study to identify related
research , potential hypothesis and
In qualitative research, review may lead to
guide hypothesis. It links study to underline
assumptions and theories; if not needed for
a research plan, may be conducted after
The methods/procedures section is really the
heart of the research proposal. The activity
should be described with as much details as
possible., the continuity between them
should be apparent” (Wersama, 1995).
All methodological steps would be indicated.
Research design may include both
quantitative and qualitative methods; that two
approaches are not totally independent of
Maintaining description of procedures being
used is critical if other researchers are to
judge process and results latter.
Outline the general plan for collecting the
data. This may include survey
administration procedures, interview or
observation procedures. Include an explicit
statement covering the field controls to be
employed. If appropriate, discuss how you
obtained your finding.
Provide a general outline of the time
schedule you expect to follow.
In quantitative research data consists of
results from tests, questionnaire and other
paper, pencil instruments.
In the qualitative, data consists of notes
from observations, interview, examination
Collection require substantial interaction
between researcher and participant.
Specify the procedures you will use and label
E.g., ANOVA, CHI, ethnography, case
study, grounded theory.
Communicate your precise intentions and
reasons for these intentions to the reader.
This helps you and reader evaluate the
choices you made and procedures you
Indicate briefly any analytic tools available
and expected to use (e.g. SPSS)
A limitation identifies potential weaknesses
of the study. Think about the
analysis, nature of self report, instruments
and sample. Threats to internal validity that
may have been impossible to
A delimitation addresses how a study will
be narrowed in scope, that is how it is
bounded. This is the place to explain the
things that you are not doing and why you
have chosen not to do population you are
It indicates how the present research
will refine, revise, or extend existing
knowledge in the area under
The need for the proposed activity is clearly
established, preferably with data.
The most important ideas are highlighted and
repeated in several places.
The objectives of the project are given in
There is a detailed schedule of activities for
the project, or at least sample portions of
such a complete project schedule.
The budget and the proposal narrative are
The uses of money are clearly indicated in the
proposal narrative as well as in the budget.
All of the major matters indicated in the
proposal guidelines are clearly addressed in
The agreement of all project staff and
consultants to participate in the project was
acquired and is so indicated in the proposal.
Appendices have been used appropriately for
detailed and lengthy materials which the
reviewers may not want to read but are useful
as evidence of careful planning, previous
Collaboration with all interested groups in
planning of the proposed project is evident in
The writing style is clear and concise. It
speaks to the reader, helping the reader
understand the problems and proposal.
Summarizing statements and headings are
used to lead the reader.
The research report is the written product
that results from researching a topic
A research report is a typed report of 6 to
12 pages in length dealing with a topic
covered as part of the course content. Your
research report consists of research that
you do on the topic as well as your
interpretation of this information.
Step 1: Choose a topic
Step 2: Formulate a thesis statement
Step 3: Research for your paper
Step 4: Record your sources
Step 5: Create an outline
Step 6: Write the introduction
Step 7: Write your body paragraphs
Step 8: Write the conclusion
Step 9: Finalize your documentation
Step 10: Title
Don't forget to proofread
Step 11: Revision
Step 12: Final draft
2. Journal article or paper
Preparation of Manuscript
Main body of the report
RESEARCH PROPOSAL RESEARCH REPORT
Research Proposal is
intended to convince
others that you have
A Research proposal is
the out line of
which is going to be
Research Report is
about already conducted
The general purpose of a
report is to identify a
specific problem, explain
it and recommend action
that will lead to a
RESEARCH PROPOSAL RESEARCH REPORT
Research proposal is
prepared before the
actual research begins.
The general purpose of
a proposal is the
identify a particular
need, explain it and
recommend how this
need can best be met.
research report can be
significance in this
Research proposal indicates how research will
refine, revise, or extend existing knowledge in
the area under investigation. It reflects a clear
statement of commitment to continue the project
after external findings ends.
A research report is the culmination of all the
effort, sweat and toiling that a research student
undergoes during actual research process. Once
the research has been completed, a formal
submission is required which takes place in the
form of a research report.
This is a document that reflects the potential
of the researcher and should contain all the
information and facts in a standardized
format that enables any casual onlooker to
It contains the
title, abstract, introduction, experimental
details, results, discussion, conclusions, and
finally references used by the researcher.
everything easily out of the report.